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chunk 99: sandhi tutorial

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about castes
laT of dA and dhA
te disambiguation
Natvam means changing n to N
Satvam means changing s to S


metronymicmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1587

A metronymic is a variant of a word that is only used to make a verse fit.

For instance, the ramAyaNa will often lengthen the u of hanumAn, to make verses fit more easily --

tasmin plavagazArdUle plavamAne hanUmati

or replace the name of queen kaikeyI with kaikayI --

zrutvaivaM vacananM tasyA mantharAyAs tu kaikayI

In some cases the metronymics in the epics break the grammar. For instance, in the last word of this line of the rAmAyaNa --

hrasvatAmM paramAmM prApto bandhanAny avazAtayat

rule luGlaG should have worked, but that would have screwed up the metre.


about castesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1588

Old Indian societies were divided in four castes, mostly endogamic. From high to low, they were --

brAhmaNa- intellectuals -- priests, teachers

kSatriya- government -- politicians, military, police

vaizya- capitalists -- landowners, traders

zUdra- servants of the above three

The three first castes are called the upper castes.

See also Wikipedia on Caste system in India.


laT of dA and dhAmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1589

In the laT laG liG, the root dA turns into dadA before non- Git affixes --

dadAti "he gives"

dadAsi "you give"

dadAmi "I give"

and into dad before everything else --

adaddhvam "y'all give"

adadus "they gave"

dadmas "we give"

dattas "both give"

this happens because of rule znA;'bhyastayor AtaH, that erases the A of dadA.

Notice that other zluclass roots that end in A (like hA), and the znAclass roots, are more involved. These keep their A before the aGit, and before the Git, they lose their A before vowels and replace it with i before consonants. See IhalyaghoH for examples.


te disambiguationmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1590

There are three te words --

te' fn "those two", as in te kukkuTyau

te'' "you, to you, your", as in namas te (a hanger)

te'''' "those", as in te kapayaH

and one te affix --

te''' as in plavate "jumps"


Natvam means changing n to Nmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1591

Natvam (literally "N-ness") is the change of n into N that happens after r S because of several rules.

These are some of the rules, and an example of each --

84001 raSA -- n changes into N after a r R RR S that is in the same word

takSnas raSA takSNas

84002 aTkupvAGnu -- even if certain other letters come in between

runaddhi aTkup ruNAddhi

84037 padAntasya -- wordfinal n is unaffected

akurvan keeps n

no Natvam before serious -- n followed by serious is unaffected

rundhmas keeps n


Satvam means changing s to Smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1592

Satvam (literally "S-ness") is the change of s into S that happens after ku r ic because of several rules. Mainly kric rule, a.k.a. iNkoH.


Unlike the Natvam change, the Satvam change only happens right after the letter that triggers it. (With a few exceptions: for instance, in dhanuMSi the u made the s change, skipping the M, by exception numvisarja)

The Natvam change happens absolutely always. But the Satvam change only happens after a suffix has been added, or when a Sa-root is involved (see Adezapra).

The wordfinal s is unaffected. So no S change here even though s is right after an ic --

mAtR- + zas prathamayo mAtRRs "mothers"

The s of sr is unaffected. See narapara for examples.

still working on these ←

chunk 99: sandhi tutorial

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