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List of lettergroups.
aN'' are a A i I u U.
The iN letters are ic, h, yaN.
jhar are the serious except h.
am' are ac, h, yaN and Jam.
yaN are ya va raT laN.
jhaS are jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS.
yar are all consonants except h.
hal are all letters but the vowels.
chav are cha Tha tha ca Ta tav.
Jam are Ja ma Ga Na nam.
car are ca Ta tav za Sa sar.
az are vowels and haz.
uk are uN R Lk and their similars U RR.
The ac are the vowels, namely a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc, plus their similars A I U RR.
Letters are the things in the zivasUtra list, and the longs A I U RR
aT' are the vowels and ha ya va raT
ik are i uN R Lk and their similars I U RR.
khar are kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav ka pay za Sa sar.
ak are a A i I u U R q L.
ic are all vowels but A a.
eG are e oG
aic are ai auc
Rk are R q L
ec are e oG ai auc
Stops are the Jay that are not nasals.
Jay are the nasals and the stops
alphabetical order
Serious are all hal except the funny.
funny are ya va raT laN Ja ma Ga Na nam
valAdi is what starts with val.
val letters
ral letters
zar are za Sa sar
zal are za Sa sar hal
jaz are ja ba ga Da daz.
baz are ba ga Da daz.
cay are ca Ta tav ka pay.
bhaS are bhaJ gha Dha dhaS.
jhaz are jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS ja ba ga Da daz.
khay are kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav ka pay .
haz are all consonants except the khar.
taG are tAtAMjha thAsAthAMdhvam iDvahimahiG.
shorts are a i u R L
longs are A I U q e o ai au
Lengthen, shorten mean replace with long, short.




(@lettergroup) (@let)

List of lettergroups.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1526

A lettergroup, or pratyAhAra, is an abbreviation for a group of letters of the zivasUtra, made by joining the first letter with the label that is after the last letter (see Adirantyena).

ac or vowel

aic

ak

al or letter

aN''

chav

eG

ec

hal or consonant

ik

iN

jaz

jhal or serious

jhaz

yam or funny

yaN

zal

zar

khar

246 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 4 -- popularity 36




(/aN'') (/aN'')

aN'' are a A i I u U.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1527

(See aN disambiguation .)

The letter N is used twice as a label in the zivasUtra, at the end of sUtra a i uN and at the end of sUtra laN. Therefore, aN'' can have two meanings --

(1) aN'' usually means the six letters a A i I u U. That's because rule Adirantyena says that aN can mean a i u, and rule aNuditsa says that their long versions A I U also count.

(2) The aN at the start of rule aNuditsa, however, means all vowels, plus h, plus the yaN.

(Do not confuse this aN'' lettergroup with the taddhita affix aN.)

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404 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 49 -- popularity 10




(/iN) (/iN)

The iN letters are ic, h, yaN.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1528

By Adirantyena, the iN letters are all from i uN to laN --

i uN R Lk e o G ai auc ha ya va raT laN,

and of course I U RR are iN letters too, by aNuditsa.

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Technical note. As the letter N appears twice as a label in the zivasUtra, rule Adirantyena also allows iN to mean i u I U. So iN, like aN'', might have two meanings. Yet, pANini never uses iN to mean i I u U, not even in yUstry or aciznu. In the rules iN always means i uN R Lk e o G ai auc ha ya va raT laN.

356 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 125 -- popularity 4

213 /sup to (/luk) inside @root and @nounbase.

1028 But with !S after !i !u.

1045 After /iN, !dh of !SIdhvam, /luG and /liT to (!Dh).




(/jhar) (/jhar)

jhar are the serious except h.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1529

Or, in other words, the jhar are the jhay ( stops) and the zar (sibilants).

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72 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 149 -- popularity 2

1079 (After consonant), optionally delete a /jhar before a @similar /jhar.

1530 /am' are /ac, !h, /yaN and /Jam.




(/am') (/am')

am' are ac, h, yaN and Jam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1530

The am' letters are --

a A i I u U R RR L e o ai auc

ha ya va raT laN

Ja ma Ga Na nam

What is not an am' is a jhar.

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95 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 189 -- popularity 2

1003 !pum (to !puMs or !pu~s) before /khay that is before /am'.

1004 (Wordfinal) !n to !Ms before /chav.




(/yaN) (/yaN)

yaN are ya va raT laN.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1531

Some people call these letters "semivowels". I like yaN better, it's shorter.

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79 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 204 -- popularity 16




(/jhaS) (/jhaS)

jhaS are jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1532

These are mentioned at --

jhaSas ta;thor dho 'dhaH and

ekAco bazo bhaS jhaS-antasya s;dhvoH.

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90 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 213 -- popularity 3

1565 /jhaz are {jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS ja ba ga Da daz}.




(/yar) (/yar)

yar are all consonants except h.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1533

The ya-r start at ya and end at sar --

ya va raT | laN | Ja ma Ga Na nam | jha bhaJ | gha Dha dhaS | ja ba ga Da daz | kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav | ka pay | za Sa sar |

These are mentioned at yaro 'nunAsike 'nunAsiko vA ff.

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172 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 226 -- popularity 2

1066 (Optionally double /yar after @vowel) before non-@vowel.




(/hal) (/hal)

hal are all letters but the vowels.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1534

The hal, a.k.a. consonants, are --

ha ya va raT | laN | Ja ma Ga Na nam | jha bhaJ | gha Dha dhaS | ja ba ga Da daz | kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav | ka pay | za Sa sar | hal ||

The sounds H and M are not in this list, but they are hal anyway by sthAnivad, because they always replace one of n m r s.

The word halanta means "what ends in a hal".

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254 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 245 -- popularity 40




(/chav) (/chav)

chav are cha Tha tha ca Ta tav.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1535

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 274 -- popularity 5

1004 (Wordfinal) !n to !Ms before /chav.

1009 (@Wordfinal !r to) /H before /khar and @pause.

1023 /H to !s before /chav.

1422 Accurate translation of !!nazchavya.




(/Jam) (/Jam)

Jam are Ja ma Ga Na nam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1536

The five letters Ja ma Ga Na nam are called Jam letters or nasals. They are similar to ja ba ga Da daz, the jaz. The only difference is that the Jam are nasalized and the jaz aren't.

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159 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 307 -- popularity 14




(/car) (/car)

car are ca Ta tav za Sa sar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1537

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 326 -- popularity 3

399 /tas /thas /tha /mip to /tAm''' /tam''' /ta''' /am''' (in [@Git tense]s).

1160 /tiptasjhi are the [@third person] @flat /tiG affixes /tip /tas /jhi.

1293 /seT /aniT /veT




(/az) (/az)

az are vowels and haz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1538

In other words, all letters are az except the thirteen khar.

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66 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 332 -- popularity 1

1011 /ru from !As !as !bhos !bhagos !aghos to !y before /az.




(/uk) (/uk)

uk are uN R Lk and their similars U RR.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1539

The compound ugit is a longhorn, and means "what has an uk as a label". It is used at ugidacA.

Rule zryukaH affects affixes that follow an uk letter.

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133 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 343 -- popularity 5

335 /ksnu after !glA !ji /sthA /bhU

786 /san (doesn't get /iT after) /grah, !guh, (!zri and [/uk]-enders).

794 /san gets /iT optionally (after {q}-enders and !vR).




(/ac) (/ac)

The ac are the vowels, namely a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc, plus their similars A I U RR.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1540

The zivasUtra, together with Adirantyena, say that these are ac --

a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc

and rule aNuditsa says that the a i u R in the zivasUtra include A I U RR too.

See also ac disambiguation .

This video isquite good --

Devanagari (Sanskrit) Pronunciation and Transliteration

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187 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 350 -- popularity 61




(/al) (/al)

Letters are the things in the zivasUtra list, and the longs A I U RRmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1541

The word al (" letter", "sound") is a technical term of grammar. There are exactly forty-six al sounds, of which thirteen are ac ( vowels) and thirty-three are hal ( consonants).

The thirteen ac are --

a A i I u U | R RR L | e o ai au

and the thirty-tree hal are --

h y v r l |

J m G N n |

jh bh | gh Dh dh |

j b g D d |

kh ph ch Th th

c T t | k p |

z S s |

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Indian readers should be aware that the word "al" does not mean "akShara". According to the old grammarians, a word such as "kham" is made of three al, namely the sound kh, the sound a, and the sound m. They never say that the word is made by joining an akshara ka, an akshara ma and a virAma.

469 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 390 -- popularity 7

21 @nasalized means "some air leaks off the nose".

59 @Letter before last is @nexttolast.

1324 /yac means !y or /ac

1530 /am' are /ac, !h, /yaN and /Jam.

1542 /aT' are the [@vowel]s and {ha ya va raT}




(/aT') (/aT')

aT' are the vowels and ha ya va raTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1542

The aT' letters are --

a i uN |

R Lk |

e oG |

ai auc |

ha ya va raT |

and also A I U RR.

The aT' letters are mentioned at aT;ku;pv;AG;num;vyavAye. That rule mentions the aT' ku pu letters, which are all letters except l cu Tu tu zar.

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182 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 507 -- popularity 1




(/ik) (/ik)

ik are i uN R Lk and their similars I U RR.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1543

The ik vowels are

i I u U R RR L.

We know that i u R L are ik because of the zivasUtras a i uN R Lk (see Adirantyena),

and we know that I U, RR (their similars) are ik too because ugidacA says so.

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158 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 521 -- popularity 27




(/khar) (/khar)

khar are kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav ka pay za Sa sar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1544

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 560 -- popularity 9

65 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as @label after it.

1009 (@Wordfinal !r to) /H before /khar and @pause.

1023 /H to !s before /chav.

1024 (/H) to /H before !kS !ts.

1070 (@Stop to {c p k T t}) before /khar.

1365 @Voiced and @unvoiced sounds.

1538 /az are [@vowel]s and /haz.

1567 /haz are all consonants except the /khar.




(/ak) (/ak)

ak are a A i I u U R RR L.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1545

The ak vowels are all vowels except the ec.

There are nine of them. They are

The five short vowels, namely

a i u R L,

and the four long vowels

A I U RR.

The zivasUtra says that the ak letters are a i uN R Lk, namely, a i u R L (see Adirantyena). But because of rule ugidacA, when the zivasUtra say a i u R L, they mean a A i I u U R RR L.

A curiosity. No words of the real language have the sound of lengthened L, so I didn't bother to add it to the alphabet I use in these pages. But you will find a letter for that sound in the devanAgarI alphabet. It even in has two UNICODE code positions, namely U+0961 and U+0963. They are used (A) by cabbalists, and (B) by grammarians that write sentences such as "there is no such thing as an LL sound" (C) with a three figure written after it, to write the extralong version of L, which, according to grammarians, is allowed by some extralong rules, or so I'm told.

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757 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 560 -- popularity 6

575 @Merge /ak with @similar into @long.

576 @Merge /ak with /au /jas /zas into the lengthened /ak.

580 /am to !m (after /ak).

592 /ak (optionally stays and shortens) before !R.

944 (@stammer) works [/san]-wise before @light that is before /caG, unless /ak dropped.




(/ic) (/ic)

ic are all vowels but A a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1546

The ic letters are i uN R Lk e oG ai auc and their long versions I U RR (see aNuditsa).

They make kric work.

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98 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 594 -- popularity 8

246 Roots that start with a @heavy /ic get /Am'' (before /liT), except /Rcch and /UrNu.

1032 Replace non-@wordfinal with @curledback.

1036 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

1113 @Bent @soft /liG rules.

1441 @stopper labels

1528 The /iN letters are /ic, !h, /yaN.

1670 /Satvam means replacing !s with !S




(/eG) (/eG)

eG are e oGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1547

See also ec.

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27 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 601 -- popularity 9

16 !a and /eG are /guNa.

550 After /eG and @short, (erase) @calling.

570 (Delete) "!a !A" of a @preverb before /eG.

582 After @wordfinal /eG, "!a" (disappears).

583 /Gasi /Gas lose !a (after /eG)

1420 rules that delete the @calling

1454 /avagraha




(/aic) (/Y)

aic are ai aucmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1548

See also ec.

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27 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 610 -- popularity 4

15 !A and /aic are /vRddhi.

1441 @stopper labels




(/Rk) (/Rk)

Rk are R RR Lmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1549

The Rk vowels are R, RR and L.

See also --

pronunciation of R

pronunciation of RR

pronunciation of L .

The L vowel is often misspelled as lR, even when using Indian letters. You will often see kLptam misspelled as klRptam and mispronounced as klriptam. Writings about pANini never use that misspelling, so rules like luG;laG;lRGkSv aD udAttaH get the correct spelling lRG and rules like Rd-upadhAc c' .A-kLpi-cRteH get the correct spelling kLp.

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Back to pronunciation of vowels .

398 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 626 -- popularity 1




(/ec) (/ec)

ec are e oG ai aucmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1550

e o ai au are long vowels. Meaning, they have the same duration as A I U RR, two mAtrA, which is twice that of a i u R L.

Some people call these four "diphthongs". That's a real bad idea, because e and o are not diphthongs (gliding vowels). Do not call these four "diphthongs", call them " ec".

eG means e o. These are not diphthongs.

aic means ai au. These are diphthongs.

ec means e o ai au

Pronouncing Sanskrit e o as short vowels is an extremely common mistake, because many modern Indian languages have short e o sounds and no long e o sounds. If you mistakenly pronounce them short in Sanskrit, people will still understand you, but your verses will not sound like verses.

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540 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 644 -- popularity 15




(@stop) (@stop)

Stops are the Jay that are not nasals.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1551

There are twenty stops. In alphabetical order they are --

k kh g gh

c ch j jh

T Th D Dh

t th d dh

p ph b bh

They are called stops because they stop the flow of air completely.

They are also called jhay because they appear in the zivasUtra as --

jha bhaJ

gha Dha dhaS

ja ba ga Da daz

kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav

ka pay.

239 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 671 -- popularity 11




(/Jay) (/Jay)

Jay are the nasals and the stopsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1552

Or expressed in another way, the Jay are the ku, cu, Tu, tu and pu.

In the zivasUtra, the twentyfive Jay start at Ja and end at pay --

Ja ma Ga Na nam |

jha bhaJ |

gha Dha dhaS |

ja ba ga Da daz |

kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav |

ka pay |

In alphabetical order they are arranged from the back of the mouth to the lips --

ka kha ga gha Ga -- ku

ca cha ja jha Ja -- cu

Ta Tha Da Dha Na -- Tu

ta tha da dha na -- tu

pa pha ba bha ma -- pu

298 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 715 -- popularity 9

1015 @Wordfinal !m to /M before consonant.

1073 Before a /Jay, replace /M with the @nasalized @similar of the /Jay.

1074 But optionally if @wordfinal.

1465 manuscript spelling

1469 About the @topdot letter.

1472 [@Cluster]s of @nasal plus @similar.

1515 /anusvAra sound




(alphabeticalorder) (al)

alphabetical ordermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1553

The alphabetical order used in dictionaries starts with the vowels --

a A i I u U

R RR L

e ai

o au

which is same as the zivasUtra except that ai and o are swapped.

After that we have

M H

then the twentyfive Jay in order from back of the mouth to the front --

ka kha ga gha Ga -- ku

ca cha ja jha Ja -- cu

Ta Tha Da Dha Na -- Tu

ta tha da dha na -- tu

pa pha ba bha ma -- pu

And then the remaining eight consonants --

ya va raT laN

za Sa sar hal

When sorting alphabetically, and the letter M is before a Jay, paper dictionaries place saMdhi where it would belong if the correct spelling were sandhi. This is convenient because everybody applies rule anusvA and says sandhi, but not everybody can remember if the correct spelling is sandhi or saMdhi. Similarly duHSanta is pronounced always with vAzari change, and placed in dictionaries where duSSanta belongs.

You don't need to learn this alphabetical order until you need to use a dictionary arranged according to it. So as long as you keep to online dictionaries , yer cool, but the moment you want to use MMW's book on nala, u better learn it ASAP.

854 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 731 -- popularity 1




(@serious) (@ser)

serious are all hal except the funny.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1554 lettergroup

The twenty-four serious are the twenty stops, from jha to pay, --

jha bhaJ | gha Dha dhaS |

ja ba ga Da daz |

kha pha cha Tha tha

ca Ta tav | ka pay |

and the four zal, from za to hal --

za Sa sar | hal

The serious letters are also called jhal, because they go from jha to hal.

I call them serious because they are not funny.

235 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 784 -- popularity 31




(/yam) (/yam)

funny are ya va raT laN Ja ma Ga Na nammmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1555 lettergroup

These nine consonants are properly called yam (by Adirantyena), but I like to call them funny, because they are sort of fluffy and vowellike (ya is not too far away from i + a, and m can be hummed "mmmmmmmmmmmm" as if it were a vowel).

The consonants that are not funny are serious.

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235 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 808 -- popularity 5

753 @nonfunny gets /num before /zi.

1410 No /Natvam before @serious.

1567 /haz are all consonants except the /khar.




(/valAdi) (/valA)

valAdi is what starts with val.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1556

In other words, a valAdi starts with a consonant that is not y.

What is not a valAdi starts with y or ac.

80 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 822 -- popularity 15




(/val) (/val)

val lettersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1557 lettergroup

The val are all the hal except y.

What is not a val is either y or a vowel.

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73 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 832 -- popularity 7

60 @Seventh in a rule may mean "before".

547 !v !y to /lopa before /val.

791 /valAdi @soft gets /iT

805 (/val) @hard (gets /iT) after !rud /svap !zvas !prAN !jakS.

1113 @Bent @soft /liG rules.

1324 /yac means !y or /ac

1556 /valAdi is what starts with /val.




(/ral) (/ral)

ral lettersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1558 lettergroup

The ral letters are all the hal except y v.

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51 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 841 -- popularity 1

79 (/itvA) and /iSan (are optionally /kit after) a root [/hal]-{y;u}-/ral root.




(/zar) (/zar)

zar are za Sa sarmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1559 lettergroup

The zar are the three sounds z S s.

These three are also called sibilants. Which is HiFaLatin for "whistlies" or "hissies".

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113 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 850 -- popularity 12




(/zal) (/zal)

zal are za Sa sar halmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1560 lettergroup

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 860 -- popularity 6

253 (/cli to) {(k)sa} after {ikzal}-ender /aniT.

1015 @Wordfinal !m to /M before consonant.

1016 Non-@wordfinal !m !n to /M before @serious.

1469 About the @topdot letter.

1554 @Serious are all /hal except the @funny.




(/jaz) (/jaz)

jaz are ja ba ga Da daz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1561 lettergroup

You might call these "voiced unaspirated stops". But jaz is shorter. Well, come to think of it, even ja ba ga Da daz is shorter than "voiced unaspirated stops".

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141 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 870 -- popularity 6

65 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as @label after it.

977 (@Wordfinal) @serious to /jaz.

1068 @serious to /jaz before /jhaz.

1536 /Jam are {Ja ma Ga Na nam}.

1565 /jhaz are {jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS ja ba ga Da daz}.




(/baz) (/baz)

baz are ba ga Da daz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1562 lettergroup

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 880 -- popularity 2

253 (/cli to) {(k)sa} after {ikzal}-ender /aniT.

975 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.




(/cay) (/cay)

cay are ca Ta tav ka pay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1563 lettergroup

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 890 -- popularity none




(/bhaS) (/bhaS)

bhaS are bhaJ gha Dha dhaS.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1564 lettergroup

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18 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 900 -- popularity 1

975 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.




(/jhaz) (/jhaz)

jhaz are jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS ja ba ga Da daz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1565 lettergroup

These ten letters are also called " voiced stops".

Of them, the jhaS are mahAprANa --

jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS

and the jaz are alpaprANa --

ja ba ga Da daz.

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131 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 914 -- popularity 3

1068 @serious to /jaz before /jhaz.

1567 /haz are all consonants except the /khar.




(/khay) (/khay)

khay are kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav ka pay .mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1566

These are also called " unvoiced stops".

Of them, kha pha cha Tha tha are mahAprANa, and ca Ta tav ka pay are alpaprANa.

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109 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 930 -- popularity 1

1003 !pum (to !puMs or !pu~s) before /khay that is before /am'.




(/haz) (/haz)

haz are all consonants except the khar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1567 lettergroup

These haz come in three groups --

(A) The ha

(B) The nine funny (aka yam)

ya va raT laN | Ja ma Ga Na nam

(C) The ten jhaz (aka voiced stops")

jha bhaJ | gha Dha dhaS | ja ba ga Da daz |

The haz are also called " voiced consonants".

Back to lettergroups.

177 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 950 -- popularity 6

587 (After !a, /ru to !u) before /haz too.

1011 /ru from !As !as !bhos !bhagos !aghos to !y before /az.

1014 Before /hal (@wordfinal !y to /lopa).

1421 @MCM, sandhi of !as !As !s

1538 /az are [@vowel]s and /haz.




(/taG) (/taG)

taG are tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1568

The taG are the nine affixes of list tiptas from ta to G, namely --

tAtAJjha

thAsAthAndhvam

iDvahimahiG

83 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 977 -- popularity 7

65 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as @label after it.

152 But /taG !Ana are @bent.

400 (@Bent) /liG gets {sIy(uT)}.

1111 @Bent @hard /liG rules.

1363 @Nondoer affixes.

1441 @stopper labels




(@short) (@sh)

shorts are a i u R Lmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1569 lettergroup

There are five short vowels --

a i u R L

and eight long vowels --

A I U RR e o ai au

See UkAlojjhra.

Tradition says that longs take twice as much time to say as the shorts. See mAtrA.

134 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 995 -- popularity 34




(@long) (@long)

longs are A I U RR e o ai aummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1570

There are five short vowels --

a i u R L

and eight long vowels --

A I U RR e o ai au

See UkAlojjhra.

Tradition says that longs take twice as much time to say as the shorts. See mAtrA.

134 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 1000 -- popularity 44




(@lengthen) (@len)

lengthen, shorten mean replace with long, short.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1571

Sometimes I use the words " lengthen" and " shorten" in the translation of a rule, to translate the "replace with long" or "replace with short" of the original rule.

As "shorten" means "replace with short", shortening U makes u, and shortening u makes u too.

These words only affect vowels.

Examples --

shortening pU makes pu ( pvAdInAMhrasvaH)

shortening rai makes ri (by eca::igghra)

shortening the ju of juhoti (as per rule hrasvaH) makes juhoti

345 letters. -- 50000lettergroups.bse 1010 -- popularity 12
















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