82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n ←

chunk 48: 83002 n to Ms

→ 83034 visarga sandhi

83002 The next rules nasalize the previous optionally. atrAnunAsikaHpUrvasyatuvA
83004 But when not nasalizing, add M afterwards. anunAsikAtparonusvAraH
83006 pum to puMs or pu~s before khay that is before am'. pumaHkhayyampare
83007 n to Ms before chav. nazchavyaprazAn
83010 nqn before p. nRRnpe
83012 Replace kAn with ru before its repeat. kAnAmreDite
83013 Delete Dh before Dh. DhoDhelopaH
83014 Delete r before r. rori
83015 H before khar and pause. kharavasAnayorvisarjanIyaH
83016 True r stays before sup'. rossupi
83017 ru from As as bhos bhagos aghos to y before az. bhobhagoaghoapUrvasyayozi
83018 Wordfinal v y to lighter-effort v y optionally. vyorlaghuprayatnatarazzAkaTAyanasya
83019 lopa optionally . lopazzAkalyasya
83022 Before hal . halisarveSAm
83023 Wordfinal m to M before consonant. monusvAraH
83024 Non-wordfinal m n to M before serious. nazcApadAntasyajhali
83025 Replace sam with m before rAj plus kvip. morAjisamaHkvau
83028 G N to Gk NT before zar, optionally. GNoHkukTukzari
83029 s gets dhuT after D DassidhuT
83030 after n too nazca
83031 n plus z makes Jz, Jch, or Jcch. zituk
83032 Gam doubles after short before vowel. GamohrasvAdaciGamuNnityam


atrAnunAsikaH pUrvasya tu vA ONPANINI 83002
The next rules nasalize the previous optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 952

Talkaround, valid down to kAnAmreDi. The next rules replace wordfinals with ru. This rule clarifies that, if we so choose, the vowel before the ru becomes nasalized.

See also next rule.

This rule and the next affect --

83006 pumaH khayy am-pare

83007 naz chavy aprazAn

83010 nRRn pe

83012 kAn AmreDite

and some vedic rules too.


anunAsikAt paro 'nusvAraH ONPANINI 83004
But when not nasalizing, add M afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 953

The previous rule says that we may choose to nasalize certain vowels. This adds that, if we choose to not nasalize them, we must add an M sound after them instead.

Example. Rule nazcha below turns tAn + te into tA + ru + te.

The rule above says that we may choose to replace tA + ru + te with tA~ + ru + te.

And this rule says that if we don't make the rule above work, then we must replace tA + ru + te with tAM + ru + te.

Either way, the ru will become s by kharava and visarjanIyasyasaH. So we may say either tA~ste or tAMste.

Translating together this rule and the previous rule, we get the talkaround --

" When the next rules replace with ru, we have to either nasalize the vowel that is before the ru or add M after it. "


pumaH khayy am-pare ONPANINI 83006
pum to puMs or pu~s before khay that is before am'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 954

The pum mentioned here is the pums- nounbase that has lost s by nalopaHprA.

pums- + kAmA nalopaHprA pum + kAmA → puMskAmA "woman that wants a man"

pums- + kAmA nalopaHprA pum + kAmA → pu~skAmA "woman that wants a man"

Here visarjanIyasya saH is compulsory -- kupvoKkaFpauca cannot change the s into H or K.


naz chavy a-prazAn ONPANINI 83007
(Wordfinal) n to Ms before chav.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 955

Examples --

hanumAn + tiSThati → hanumAMs tiSThati "hanumAn waits"

carvan + carati → carvaMs carati stozzcu carvaMz carati "walks while chewing"

gAyan + TIkate → gAyaMs TIkate STunA gAyaMS TIkate "jumps while singing"

The above translation is incomplete. See accurate translation of nazchavya for the boring small details.


nRRn pe ONPANINI 83010
( Optionally) nRRn (to nRRMH) before p.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 956

The word nRRn "men" is nR- + zas. This rule says "nRRn to ru before p", which means --

"when nRRn is in saMhitA before p, replace it with nRR + ru optionally."

Afterwards, other rules will turn the ru into Ms or ~s or F.

So if we don't apply this rule, we say --

nRRnn + pAhinRRn pAhi "protect the men!"

and if we apply it --

nRRn + pAhi → nRR + ru anunAsikAtpa nRRMr kharava nRRMH pAhi

nRRMH + pAhi kupvoKkaFpauca nRRMF pAhi

nRRn + pAhi → nRR + ru atrAnunA nRR~r kharava nRR~H pAhi

nRR~H + pAhi kupvoKkaFpauca nRR~F pAhi

all five with the same meaning.


kAn AmreDite ONPANINI 83012
Replace kAn with ru before its repeat.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 957

As earlier, the ru will turn into ~s or Ms.

Only example --

kAn + kAn → .. → kA~skAn "which of them?"

kAn + kAn → .. → kAMskAn "which of them?"


Dho Dhe lopaH ONPANINI 83013
Delete Dh before Dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 958

This rule only works when h is before a t th dh affix. The h turns into Dh by hoDhaH, then the t th into dh by jhaSastatho, then dh into Dh by STunA, then the first Dh disappears by this rule, and, finally, the vowel before it lengthens by Dhralope if possible. Examples --

guh + kta hoDhaH guDh + ta jhaSastatho guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha → gu + Dha Dhralope gUDha- "hidden, concealed, kept secret"

lih + laT tha → .. → lIDha "y'all suck"

lih + laG dhvam → .. → alIDhvam "y'all licked"

lih + luT taslih + tArau hardsoft leh + tArau → .. → leDhArau "both will lick"

gAh + luG thAs → .. → AgADhAs "you went into" ( see jhalojhali for details )


ro ri ONPANINI 83014
Delete r before r.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 959


gaus + ramate sasaju gaur + ramate → gau ramate "the cow's having fun"

kukkuTIs + rakSati → kukkuTI rakSati "protects the hens"

If the r is after a i u, Dhralope kicks in --

punar + ramate → puna ramate Dhralope punA ramate "has fun again"

kapir + ramate → kapi ramate Dhralope kapI ramate "monkey has fun"


khar;avasAnayor visarjanIyaH ONPANINI 83015
( Wordfinal r to) H before khar and pause.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 960 sandhi

This rule replaces all r with H. It replaces both the true r (of words like punar gIr pitar), and the r(u) made by sasaju.

Examples before kh --

punar + khadati → punaH + khadatipunaH khadati "eats again"

hayas + khadati sasaju haya + ru + khadati → hayaH khadati "horse eats"

hayas + khadati sasaju haya + ru + khadati → hayaH khadati kupvoKkaFpauca hayaK khadati "horse eats"

Example before pause --

khadati + hayas + @pause sasaju khadati + haya + ru → khadati hayaH "horse eats"

Example before chav --

hayas + tarati sasaju haya + ru + tarati → hayaH tarati visarjanIyasyasaH hayastarati "horse crosses"

Example before zar --

rAmas + sIdati sasaju rAma + ru + sIdati → rAmaH sIdati vAzari rAmasH sIdati "rAma is sitting"

In the last example, even though the H sound has been replaced with an s sound, rAmasHsIdati is still written rAmaHsIdati. See spelling of zz SS ss .


roH supi ONPANINI 83016
True r stays before sup'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 961

Exception to kharava. kharava ordinarily changes all wordfinal r, both ru and true r. Yet, before sup', kharava will change ru, but true r will stay.

Example. kharava will not work on gir + sup', because the r of gir is a true r, not a ru --

gir- + sup' svAdiSva gir ( word ) + su rvoru gIr + su → gIrsu kric gIrSu "in speeches"

After the ru from manas- barhis- etc, kharava will work as usual.


bho;bhago;agho;apUrvasya yo 'zi ONPANINI 83017
ru from As as bhos bhagos aghos to y before az.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 962

This rule has several effects --

(1) wordfinal as almost always loses s before all vowels except a --

arjunas + uvAca sasaju arjuna + ru + uvAca → arjunay uvAca lopazzA arjuna:: uvAca "arjuna said"

(2) bhos bhagos aghos and wordfinal As almost always lose s before all vowels including a --

azvAs + IkSante sasaju azvA + ru + IkSate → azvAy IkSante lopazzA azvA:: IkSante "the horses see"

(3) bhos bhagos aghos and wordfinal As lose s before haz --

azvAs + dravanti sasaju azvA + ru + dravanti → azvAy dravanti halisarveSAm azvA dravanti "horses run"

This rule is very annoying for beginners, because whenever we hear a wordfinal A in saMhitA before a haz (a very common situation), there is no way of telling if the word truly ended in A, or it ended in As and lost s by this rule. For instance, this bhavatI- + Gas = bhavatyAs is a word that ends in As and loses s by this rule --

bhavatyAs + nAma kim → bhavatyA nAma kim "what's your name?"

and this bhavatI- + TA = bhavatyA is a word that truly ends in A --

bhavatyA + dRSTaGM kimbhavatyA dRSTaGM kim "what did you see?"


v;yor laghu-prayatna-taraH zAkaTAyanasya ONPANINI 83018
Wordfinal v y to lighter-effort v y optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 963

When saying a normal y, the tongue raises, when saying v the lips approach each other. This movement takes some effort.

In a lighter-effort y v, the tongue raises, the lips approach too, but not so much.

This rule says that when wordfinal y v is before a vowel, we may pronounce it either as a normal y or as a lighter-effort y.

Together with the option "replace y with nothing" allowed by lopazzA, we can say te + Ucus "they said" in three ways --

(A) tayUcuH, with normal y, just by ecoya.

(B) ta(y)UcuH, with lighter-effort y, by ecoya and vyorlaghu .

(C) ta::UcuH, with hiatus, by ecoya and lopazzA.

In writing you will find (C) only, but both (A) and (C) are heard often.

Some people say that the word zAkaTAyanasya is used pUjArtham here, and that therefore pronouncing like (A) sux. To get in the safe side of those people, please use only (C) in writing. But pronounce as you like, anyway; no one will complain.

The rule also works on the y made from ru by bhobhago. So --

arjunayuvAca with bhobhago only

arjuna(y)uvAca with bhobhago and this rule

arjuna::uvAca with bhobhago and lopazzA

Only the third option is found in print, but the others are heard sometimes.


lopaH zAkalyasya ONPANINI 83019
( wordfinal y v to) lopa optionally (before vowel).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 964

In other words, the wordfinal y v that is in saMhitA and between two vowels disappears, so that the two vowels turn into a hiatus, with no pause in between. Example --

arjunas + uvAca sasaju arjuna + ru + uvAca bhobhago arjunay uvAca → arjuna:: uvAca "arjuna said"

arjunas + uvAca sasaju arjuna + ru + uvAca bhobhago arjunayuvAca

(we may also use the lighter-effort y, so there are three ways of saying this)

arjunas + pause + uvAca sasaju arjuna + ru + @pause + uvAca kharava arjunaH + @pause + uvAca


hali sarveSAm ONPANINI 83022
Before hal ( wordfinal y to lopa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 965

About ninety-nine percent of the time, the effect of this rule is deleting the s of an As-ender before a haz letter. Example --

siMhAs + nRtyanti sasaju siMhA + ru + nRtyanti bhobhago siMhAy + nRtyanti → siMhA nRtyanti "lions dance"

This rule also deletes the s of the bhos bhagos aghos etc mentioned in rule bhobhago --

bhos + bhos + tapasvinaH → bho bhos tapasvinaH "hey hey ascetics"

In detail --

bhos + bhos sasaju bho + ru + bhos bhobhago bhoybhos → bhobhos


mo 'nusvAraH ONPANINI 83023
Wordfinal m to M before consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 966

Before vowel and pause, this rule does not work, so m stays m --

kapim apazyam "I saw monkey"

Before yaN and zal, this rule replaces m with M, and no other rules work --

ayam + siMham + hanti → ayaM siMhaM hanti "he kills lion"

Before the other consonants (the Jay), first this rule replaces m with M, and then rule anusvA replaces that M with something else --

gItAm + gAyati → gItAM + gAyati anusvA gItAGMgAyati "sings the song"

senAm + nayati → senAM + nayati anusvA senAnMnayati "leads the army"


naz c/A-pad%Antasya jhali ONPANINI 83024
Non- wordfinal m n to M before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 967

Example with m --

zAm + kta → zaMta anusvA zAnta- "calm"

Examples with n --

bhunkte → bhuMkte anusvA bhuGkte "eats"

mahat- + am ugidacA mahantam sAntama mahAntam → mahaMtam anusvA mahAntam "big"

If the serious is a zal, there is no anusvA --

manas + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH manAnsi → manAMsi "minds"

An important side effect of this rule is that there is no Natvam before serious .


mo rAji samaH kvau ONPANINI 83025
Replace sam with m before rAj plus kvip.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 968

Exception to monus. Only example --

sam + rAj + kvip → samrAj- "emperor, king of the whole world"

When the j is wordfinal, it turns into D by vrazca --

samrAj- + su vrazca samrAD beforepause saMrAT "emperor"


G;NoH kuk;Tuk zari ONPANINI 83028
G N to Gk NT before zar, optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 969

Examples --

luG + laG + lRG + sup' → luGlaGlRG + k + su kric luGlaGlRGkSu

dadyaG + sIdati → dadhyaGk sIdati "the sage dadhIci is sitting"

More examples in the kAzikA.


DaH si dhuT ONPANINI 83029
(Optionally) s gets dhuT after Dmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 970

As in --

SaD + santaH → SaD + dhsantaH kharica SaD + tsantaH kharica SaT + tsantaHSaT tsantaH "that are six"

There is no STunA, because of napadAntA.


naz ca ONPANINI 83030
(s gets dhuT optionally) after n toommmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 971

This is the same thing as saying --

"optionally s to ts after wordfinal n"

Example --

bhavAn + sIdati → bhavAn + dhsIdati kharica bhavAn tsIdati "you are sitting"

In the alternative --

bhavAn sIdati "you are sitting"


zi tuk ONPANINI 83031
n plus z makes Jz, Jch, or Jcch.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 972

Example --

tAn + zarAn → .. → tAJcharAn "those arrows"

tAn + zarAn → .. → tAJzarAn "those arrows"

tAn + zarAn → .. → tAJccharAn "those arrows"

Usually, when sandhi rules allow exceptions, only one of them is found in writing. In this case, however, all of Jch Jz Jcch appear in writing. Jcch is seldom found in writing.

I always spell tAJcharAn and say tAJccharAn. But that's because I like going along with the herd. You may spell and pronounce however you like; if a pANini rule says you can choose, then you can choose, that's what the rule is for.

See also rule zazchoTi, that manages t + z.


Gamo hrasvAd aci GamuN@ nityam ONPANINI 83032
( Wordfinal) Gam doubles after short before vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 973

The Gam letters are Ga Na nam -- G, N and n.

Examples with n are common --

prahasan + iva → prahasann iva "smiling"

kurvan + api → kurvann api "even when doing"

Examples with G are rare, because very few words end in G --

dadhyaG + AtharvaNaH → dadhyaGG AtharvaNaH "dadhyaG, son of atharvan"

The G here comes from rule kvinpra, like in prAG.

Examples with N are never found in the wild, as no word ends in N unless it has been invented by grammarians.

82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n ←

chunk 48: 83002 n to Ms

→ 83034 visarga sandhi