31091 root affixes ←

chunk 20: 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh

→ 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time

32084 The following mean it's over. bhUte
32102 The niSThA . niSThA
32106 The veda optionally replaces bent liT with kAnac liTaHkAnajvA
32107 or kvasu. kvasuzca
32108 in the laukika after sad vas' zru. bhASAyAMsadavasazruvaH
32110 luG luG
32111 laG before today. anadyatanelaG
32115 liT . parokSeliT
32117 In a question about recent time, . praznecAsannakAle
32123 laT means what is happening. vartamAnelaT
32124 zatR and zAnac mean "that does". laTazzatRzAnacAvaprathamAsamAnAdhikaraNe
32126 to mean circumstance, characteristic, cause or motive of an action. lakSaNahetvoHkriyAyAH
32127 sat means . tausat
32131 after dviS to mean enemy. dviSomitre
32132 after suJ when connection with a sacrifice is meant. suJoyajJasaMyoge

(bhUte) (!bhUte)

bhUte ONPANINI 32084
The following mean it's over.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 297

headline. The next rules teach that the words made with certain affixes added after a root mean that the action of the root has finished, that is, that the action happened in the past.

Those affixes are --

kta ktavatu by 32102 niSThA

kAnac kvasu by 32106 liTaHkAnajvA ff

luG by 32110 luG

laG by 32111 anadyatanelaG

liT by 32115 parokSeliT

247 letters. -- 32.bse 412 -- popularity 4

(niSThA) (!niS)

The niSThA (mean what's over).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 298

That is, the nounbases made with kta or ktavatu mean past time. For instance --

han + kta anudAttopadeza hata- "(something was) killed"

han + ktavatu anudAttopadeza hatavat- "(someone) killed"

Here kta means time before now --

hato mayA tatasH sarpaH "then I killed the snake"

Here ktavatu means time before now --

bhujagaM hatavAn aham "I killed the snake"

Here kta means time before another action --

apazyam bhujagaM hatam "I saw a killed snake; I saw that the snake had been killed."

And here ktavatu means time before another action --

tathoktavantamM puruSamM pratyudAharad rAvaNaH "ravaNa replied to the man that had thusly spoken"

The ktavatu enders always mean past time. The kta mostly mean past, with some exceptions allowed by exception sutras, such as JItaH ktaH.

579 letters. -- 32.bse 448 -- popularity 5

297 The following mean it's over.

350 /kRtya /kta !khalartha only ([@mean the object] or [@mean nothing]).

(liTaHkAna) (/kAn)

liTaH kAnaj vA ONPANINI 32106
The veda optionally replaces bent liT with kAnacmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 299 vedic

This is a vedic rule.

This (k)Ana(c), like zAnac, is a kRt. Unlike the zAnac, the kAnac are verblike.

Example with the root ci --

cikAyaci + ez → * ci + kAnac supodhA cici + Ana vibhASAceH ciki + Ana ikoyaNaci cikyAna-

Of course, as this cikyAna- is a nounbase, it will agree with whatever ta pointed to. In this example it agrees with the doer, "he" --

agniJM cikyAnaH "he consecrated the fire"

Back to bhUte.

This rule is optional. What if we don't apply it?

Business as usual. The ez stays and we say --

agniJM cikye "he consecrated the fire"

376 letters. -- 32.bse 492 -- popularity 4

300 (The /veda optionally replaces /liT with /kAnac) or /kvasu.

772 ({a}-enders) get /muk before /zAnac /kAnac.

(kvasuzca) (/kva)

kvasuz ca ONPANINI 32107
(The veda optionally replaces liT with kAnac) or kvasu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 300

This (k)vas(u) affix sometimes replaces the flat liT, in the same way that zatR may replace a flat laT by laTazza. inria reader flags the forms that have kvasu with " ppf", short for "participe perfait", which means kvasu.

So, zru + kvasu will mean "that has heard" --

gItAm upazuzruvAMsam upAgaccham "I went to see a man that had heard the song"

or, more commonly, "he heard" --

gItAm upazuzruvAn "he heard the song"

In the above examples, upazuzruvAMsam ( zru + kvasu + am) and upazuzruvAn ( zru + kvasu + su) replace zuzrAva ( zru + liT tip).

Joining zru + vasu we get the nounbase zuzruvas(u)- --

zru + liT → * zru + (k)vas(u) liTidhA zuzruvas- "that heard; heard"

(For the change of this vas into vAMsam and vAn, see vasu.)

The sup behave after kvasu the same way as after vasu.

KAZIKA chandasi liTaH kvasur AdezaH bhavati. jakSivAn. papivAn. na ca bhavati. ahaM sUryam ubhayato dadarza. yogavibhAga uttar%ArthaH.

565 letters. -- 32.bse 526 -- popularity 6

297 The following mean it's over.

301 (/kvasu optionally replaces /liT) in the /laukika after /sad /vas' /zru.

655 @Stretch (@wimpy) /vasu /kvasu.

1377 /vasu with /sup.

1555 @inria abbreviations

(bhASAyAMsa) (!bhAS)

bhASAyAM sada-vasa-zruvaH ONPANINI 32108
( kvasu optionally replaces liT) in the laukika after sad vas' zru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 301

The previous rule says that kvasu replacement is only allowed in the veda. This exception says that it can be used in the laukika, but only after sad vas' zru.

In practice you can ignore this rule. The kvasu is extremely rare anywhere outside of the veda. But when it is appears after all, for instance in the epics, it can appear after any root, not just these three.

Fortunately, the kvasu enders are easy to spot, because (1) they have reduplication (2) they have vas or uS at the end and (3) inria flags most of them with ppf.

These are some kosher examples after sad vas' zru --

upasedivAn "(he) sat nearby; that had sat nearby" (masculine, has su)

upaseduSas "that had sat nearby" (has Gas OR zas)

anUSivAn "(that had) dwelled near to"

upazuzruvAn "(that had) listened to"

As the replacement of liT with kvasu is optional, you may still say upasasAda, anvavAsat, upazuzrAva for "he sat nearby", "he dwelled near to", "he listened to".

And some non- kosher examples from other roots, all from the epics --

abhijaghnuSas "(that had) hit"

jaghnivAn "(he) killed"

UcivAMsam "(that had) said"

upeyivAn "(that had) approached"

upeyuSi "(that had) approached"

KAZIKA sada vasa zru ity etebhyaH parasya liTo bhASAyAM viSaye vA kvasur-Adezo bhavati. Adeza-vidhAnAd eva liD api tad-viSayo 'numIyate. upasedivAn kautsaH pANinim. tena mukte yathAprAptaM pratyayA bhavanti. upAsadat. upAsIdat. upasasAda. anUSIvAn kautsaH pANinim. anvavAtsIt. anvavasat. anUvAsa. upazuzruvAn kautsaH pANinim. upAzrauSIt. upAzRNot. upazuzrAva. luG-laG-viSaye parastAd anuvRtteH kvasur bhavati.

880 letters. -- 32.bse 602 -- popularity none

(luG) (/luG)

luG ONPANINI 32110
luG (means what's over)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 302 tense

The luG tense, a.k.a. aorist, means past time. Just like the laG.

kR + luG tip → .. → akArSIt "he made"

zru + luG mip → .. → azrauSam "I heard"

bhU + luG tip → .. → abhUt "it was"

vad + luG tip → .. → avAdIt "he said"

So these luG verbs have the same meaning as the laG forms akarot, azRNavam, abhavat. Small difference: when they refer to events that happened today, the luG is kosher and the laG contradicts rule anadyatanelaG.

In most styles of Sanskrit, the luG is seldom used. Yet some works use it, like the dazakumAracarita of daNDin, or the kathAsaritsAgaram --

upakozA tato 'vAdIt santi me deva sAkSiNaH "Then upakozA said: I have, your majesty, witnesses."

Students should avoid using the luG themselves, as the grammar rules are complicated and there are easier ways of expressing past events.

The inria reader and inria conjugation too are somewhat confused about the grammar rules of the aorist. So when you really need to identify what looks like an aorist, or you want to assemble some aorist, use the hyderabad toolkit. It is much safer.

Back to bhUte.

813 letters. -- 32B.bse 1 -- popularity 86

(anadyata) (/laG)

anadyatane laG ONPANINI 32111
laG (means past) before today.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 303 tense

See also laG replacements .

Examples --

pac + laG tip luGlaG a + pac + tipapac + zap + tipapaca + t'''apacat "he cooked"

plu + laG ta luGlaG a + plu + taa + plava + taaplavata "he jumped"

kR + laG tip → .. → akarot "he made"

Even though pANini says that this tense cannot be used to mean what happened today, this prohibition has always been larguely ignored.

In inria, this laG tense is called impft. Do not mix that up with imp, which means loT.

Back to bhUte.

325 letters. -- 32B.bse 69 -- popularity 90

(parokSeliT) (/liT)

parokSe liT ONPANINI 32115
liT (means past).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 304 tense

The liT is found mostly in the epics and the veda. The verbs that have liT show pft in inria reader.

Examples --

kR + liT tipkR + Nal → .. → cakAra "he made"

The inria code for the liT is pft " perfect".

Back to bhUte.

( See also liT replacements . )

KAZIKA bhUtAnadyatane iti vartate. tasya vizeSaNaM parokSagrahaNam. ghUtAnadyatanaparokSe 'rthe vartamanAd dhAtH liT pratyayo bhavati. nanu dhAtvarthaH sarvaH parokSa eva? satyam etat. asti tu loke dhAtvarthena api kArakeSu pratyakSAbhimanaH. sa yatra na asti tat parokSam ityucyate. cakAra. jahAra. uttamaviSaye 'pi cittavyAkSepAt parokSatA sambhavatyeva. tad yathA supto 'haM kila vilalApa. atyantApahnave ca liD vaktavyaH. kaliGgeSu sthito 'si? hAnaM kaliGgaJ jagAma. dakSiNApathaM praviSTo 'si? nAhaM dakSiNApathaM praviveza.

Again you cheated in your translation. What's with that parokSe word you ignored?

parokSe ("means hearsay") forbids the use of the liT to mean anything the speaker witnessed. Grammarians say that, but no one listens to them. Most of the writers that use past tenses at all use they interchangeably and ignore that restriction.

440 letters. -- 32B.bse 133 -- popularity 109

(praznecAsa) (!praz)

prazne c' Asanna-kAle ONPANINI 32117
In a question about recent time, ( liT and laG can be used).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 305

Rules parokSeliT and anadyatanelaG forbid you to use liT to mean what you saw, or laG to mean what happened today.

This exception says that those tenses can be used in questions about what just happened, provided that the asker did not see the action happen. As in --

agacchad devadattaH "did devadatta just leave?"

jagAma devadattaH "did devadatta just leave?"

But if you saw devaddata leave, you may not use this tense in a retorical question to mean "didn't devadatta leave?". In such a case using vartamAnasAmIpye is fine.

Other than it this "just now" situation, questions with liT will mean ancient time --

jaghAna kaMsamM purA kRSNaH "Did kRSNA kill kaMsa in days of yore?"

537 letters. -- 32B.bse 203 -- popularity 2

327 /naG after !yaj !yAc !yat !vicch !pracch !rakS (makes [@action noun]s etc).

506 (@stretch) /grah /jyA !vay, !vyadh !vaz !vyac, !vrazc /pracch !bhrasj before /kGit.

(vartamAne) (/laT)

vartamAne laT ONPANINI 32123
laT means what is happening.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 306 tense

Examples --

car + laT lasya car + tipcar + zap + tipcarati "walks, is walking"

See also laT replacements .

So this rule boils down to " laT means present time", yes?

Well, almost but not quite. To mean what happens now, you may always use laT. Yet if you hear a laT, it does not always mean present time. See. In sentences like --

patantaM zakunim apazyam "I saw a flying bird"

patantaM zakunimM pazyeyam "I would see a flying bird"

patantaM zakuninM drakSyAmi "I will see a flying bird"

the word patantam "flying" has laT, and means that the action of flying was / would / will be happening when I was seeing / would see / will see. It does not mean that the bird is flying now when I say the sentence.

522 letters. -- 32B.bse 236 -- popularity 201

(laTazzatR) (/zat)

laTaH zatR;zAnacAv a-prathamA-samAnAdhikaraNe ONPANINI 32124
zatR and zAnac mean "that does".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 307

These affixes, when added to a verb such as pacati (that means "is cooking, cooks"), make nounbases that mean "that is cooking, that cooks". Examples. These three verbs are made from pac + laT, plu + laT, dRz + laT --

rAjA pacati "king is cooking"

kapiH plavate "monkey is jumping"

zakunayo dRzyante "birds are being seen"

and when we join pac + zatR, plu + zAnac, dRz + zAnac, we get the nounbases --

pacat- "that is cooking"

plavamAna- "that is jumping"

dRzyamAna- "that is being seen"

These nounbases must always be attached to some noun, forming expressions like --

rAjAnAmM pacantam "a king that is cooking, a cooking king"

kapinA plavamAnena "with a monkey that is jumping, with a jumping monkey"

zakunInAm dRzyamAnAnAm "of birds that are being seen"

and these expressions can only be used inside some sentence, such as --

pazyAmi rAjAnAmM pacantam "I see a king that is cooking"

Agacchati rAmaH kapinA plavamAnena "rAma's coming with a jumping monkey"

gItAzH zakunInAm dRzyamAnAnAM sundaryaH "the songs of the birds that are being seen are beautiful"

This rule teaches two things. First, all zatR zAnac nounbases come from a laT verb that has the same meaning; as for instance, the plavamAna- of the example comes from the verb plavate. Second, we may always attach such words to nouns that do not carry a first ending, such as the rajAnam of rajAnamM pazyAmi, or the kapinA of Agachati ramaH kapinA.

The affixes zatR and zAnac are created either by this rule, replacing laT, or by lRTaH sad vA, replacing lRT.

See lakSaNa;hetvoHkriyAyAH below.

May I attach plavamAna- to the word kapiH to mean "monkey is jumping"?

Ganz verboten. To mean "monkey is jumping" as a complete sentence, say kapiH plavate. You may use plavamAna- only to mean "that is jumping", always inside long sentences like pazyAmi kapimM plavamAnam "I see a monkey that is jumping".

In the examples above, pac got zatR but plu and dRz got zAnac, why?

The verb pacati ends in tip, a flat. But dRzyate, plavate end in ta, a bent. Use zatR for flats and zAnac for bents.

What does a-prathamA-samAnAdhikaraNe mean?

Quickly explained, you can't use a pacan alone, with first ending, to mean "who cooks" or "he cooks". See exceptions dviSo suJo below.

1719 letters. -- 32B.bse 297 -- popularity 45

(lakSaNahe) (!lak)

lakSaNa;hetvoH kriyAyAH ONPANINI 32126
(Use zatR zAnac) to mean circumstance, characteristic, cause or motive of an action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 308

Rule laTazza allows sat-enders to describe nouns that have non- first ending. Without that restriction, the rule would have allowed rAjA pacan as a full sentence, meaning rAjA pacati.

This rule allows attaching sat-enders to first-ender nouns, but only if those nouns are inside a sentence that means an action, and only when the zatR zAnac word expresses the circumstance, etc, of that action.

Counterexample. We may attach plavate to the haris of the sentence zveto hariH "horse is white". But that plavate may not be replaced with plavamAnas.

plavate zveto hariH "white horse swims"

Example. We may attach plavate to the haris of the sentence tarati nadIM hariH "horse crosses river", and that plavate must be replaced with plavamAnas --

tarati nadIM hariH plavamAnaH "horse crosses river swimming"

This can be done because "horse crosses river" means an action of crossing, and swimming shows circumstance (shows how the horse crosses).

Examples with characteristic, cause, motive --

bhuJjate yavanAzH zayAnAH "the Greeks eat lying down"

tAn pazyann apalAyat "seeing them he fleed, he fleed because he saw them"

adhIyAno vasati "he lives here in order to study"

Must I use rAjA pacan to mean "king is cooking", as opposed to rAjA pacati "king cooks (every sunday)"?

Gants ferboten. "King is cooking" and "king cooks" must both be rAjA pacati. English makes that subtle distinction but Sanskrit doesn't.

Wait. "Greeks eat on a couch"? For how long have you grammarians been using the same example sentences?

Hm, this one, since Alexander the Great dropped by.

Are there other ways of expressing purpose, etc. besides the sat?

Many, and most of those are better than the sat. Here's one --

srajo gandhAn alaGMkArAn vAsAMsi vividhAni ca | kimartham abhisanMtyajya parivrajasi niSkriyaH "how come you left a life of luxury just to wander around doing nothing useful?"

KAZIKA lakSyate cihnyate tal lakSaNam. janako hetuH. dhAtv-artha-vizeSaNaM caitat. lakSaNe hetau ca arthe vartamanAda dhAtoH parasya laTaH zatR;zAnacau Adezau bhavataH, tau cel lakSaNa-hetU kriyA-viSayau bhavataH. lakSaNe zayAnA bhuJjate yavanAH. tiSThanto 'nuzAsati gaNakAH. hetau arjayan vasati. adhIyAno vasati. lakSaNahetvoH iti kim? pacati, paThati. kriyAyAH iti kim? dravyaguNayor mA bhUt. yaH kampate so 'zvatthaH. yad utplavate tal laghu. yan niSIdati tad guru. lakSaNa-hetvoH iti nirdezaH pUrva-nipAta-vyabhicAra-liGgam.

1482 letters. -- 32C.bse 1 -- popularity 2

172 The one with the less vowels (goes first in a /dvandva).

(tausat) (/sat)

tau sat ONPANINI 32127
sat means ( zatR or zAnac).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 309

This sat word is used in lRTassadvA and other rules.

KAZIKA tau zatR-zAnacau sat-saMjJau bhavataH. taugrahaNam upAdyasaMsargArtham. zatR-zAnaj-mAtrasya saMjJA bhavati. brAhmaNasya kurvan. brAhmaNasya kurvANaH. brAhmaNasya kariSyan. brAhmaNasya kariSyamANaH. sat-pradezAH [pUraNaguNasuhitArthasadavyayatavyasamAnAdhikaraNena] 2-2-11 ity evam AdayaH.

42 letters. -- 32C.bse 236 -- popularity 4

308 (Use /zatR /zAnac) to mean circumstance, characteristic, cause or motive of an action.

1274 @Verblike is a noun that works like a verb.

1373 about meaning the doer or not meaning the doer

(dviSomitre) (!dviSo)

dviSo 'mitre ONPANINI 32131
( zatR comes) after dviS to mean enemy.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 310

We may use dviSat- to mean "enemy".

As in --

Agacchati dviSan "an enemy comes"

Agacchanti dviSantaH "enemies come"

dviSan saH "he's an enemy"

This dviSat- cannot replace dveSTi when it has its ordinary meaning of "hates", as in dveSTi bhAryA patim "the wife hates her husband". Saying dviSatI bhAryA patyuH "the wife is the enemy of her husband" is grammatically correct, of course, but that's a different idea, more like murder-level hate.

KAZIKA amitraH zatruH. amitre kartari dviSer dhAtoH zatRpratyayo bhavati. dviSan, dviSantau, dviSantaH. amitre iti kim? dveSTi bhAryA patim.

Frankly, I can't see why this rule is necessary.

Rule laTazza and others allow us to replae dveSTi with dviSat-, but only to mean "that hates", and only in certain sentences. This rule allows it to mean "enemy", and to be used anywhere, like an ordinary noun, in spite of having zatR.

561 letters. -- 32C.bse 241 -- popularity 2

582 !arus-, !dviSat-, and [@vowel]-enders get /mum (when they are @former before a [/khit]-ender).

(suJoyajJa) (!suJ)

suJo yajJa-saMyoge ONPANINI 32132
( zatR comes) after suJ when connection with a sacrifice is meant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 311

In other words, sunvat- may be used as an ordinary noun to mean "someone that benefits from rituals".

sarve sunvantaH "all are sacrificers, all sacrifice"

same meaning as sarve sunvanti "all sacrifice, all are sacrificers".

KAZIKA yajJena saMyogaH yajJasaMyogaH. yajJasaMyukte 'bhiSave vartamAnAt sunoter dhAtoH zatRpratyayo bhavati. sarve sunvantaH. sarve yajamAnAH satriNa ucyante. saMyogagrahaNaM pradhAnakartRpratipattyartham. yAjakesu mA bhUt. yajJasaMyoge iti kim? sunoti surAm.

I have heard yajamAna- used as an ordinary noun too, same meaning as sunvat-. Does this rule allow that?

I'm certain it doesn't. I guess another rule or vArttika allows that. Sorry.

Why is the rule not just suJaH?

Because that would allow sunvat- to mean "a distiller of liquor" or "a squeezer". Those meanings are no good. You say sunoti surAm for "he distills wine".

461 letters. -- 32C.bse 261 -- popularity 1

31091 root affixes ←

chunk 20: 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh

→ 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time