33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses

34067 kRt affixes mean the doer. kartarikRt
34069 Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too. laHkarmaNicabhAvecAkarmakebhyaH
34070 kRtya kta khalartha only . tayorevakRtyaktakhalarthAH
34071 When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer. AdikarmaNiktaHkartarica
34072 Also after roots that mean movement, objectless, zliS "hug", zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan "produce", ruh "climb", jR . gatyarthAkarmakazliSazIGsthAsavasajanaruhajIryatibhyazca
34073 dAza- goghna- may mean the aim dAzagoghnausampradAne
34076 After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too. ktodhikaraNecadhrauvyagatipratyavasAnArthebhyaH
34077 tense to tiG. lasya
34078 tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG. tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastAtAJjhathAsAthAndhvamiDvahimahiG
34079 Tail of Tit bent to e. TitaAtmanepadAnANTere
34080 Replace thAs with se''' . thAsasse
34081 liT's ta jha to ez irec. liTastajhayorezirec
34082 Flat to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama. parasmaipadAnANNalatususthalathusaNalvamAH
34083 After vid, optionally laT to . vidolaTovA
34084 brU to Ah optionally before the first five. bruvaHpaJcAnAmAditaAhobruvaH
34085 Replace loT as if it were laG. loTolaGvat
34086 replace i with u in loT replacers eruH
34087 sip to apit hi'''. serhyapicca
34089 mip to ni. merniH
34090 e to Am. AmetaH
34091 thAs to sva''', and dhvam to dhvam''''. savAbhyAMvAmau
34092 first person loT gets AT and becomes pit. ADuttamasyapicca
34093 e to ai. etaai


kartari kRt ONPANINI 34067
kRt affixes mean the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 347

This rule uses the word kartari "means the doer" in two slightly different senses --

First sense. A kRt affix, such as for instance kvin or tRc, will mean the doer of the action it is attached to, unless some rule says otherwise. Therefore yuj + kvin means "a joiner", and so does yuj + tRc. But yuj + tumun does not mean "a joiner", because rule tumunNvulau says otherwise.

Second sense. The affixes that make verblikes, such as ktavatu, will mean the doer. But the kRtya do not mean the doer, because rule tayoreva says otherwise.


laH karmaNi ca bhAve c' .AkarmakebhyaH ONPANINI 34069
Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 348

We are trickling "means the doer". So this rule teaches that --

tense replacers, after an objectful root, may mean the doer or mean the object. Choose freely.

tense replacers, after an objectless root, may mean the doer or mean nothing. Choose freely.

Example after kSip "shoot", an objectful root --

To say "the two brothers shoot arrows", we start with kSip + laT, then we must replace laT with a tiG straight away ( lasya says so). Which tiG we need? kSip is objectful, so our tiG may mean the doer or mean the object.

If we choose doer, we must use tas, dual, because there are two doers --

kSip + laTkSip + kartari taskSip + zap + taskSipatas "both shoot"

bhrAtarau kSipatazH zarAn "the two brothers shoot arrows"

If we choose object, we need jha, plural, because the objects are many --

kSip + laTkSip + karmaNi jha → .. → kSip + yak + ante'''kSipyante "they are being shot"

kSipyante bhrAtRbhyAM zarAH "the two brothers shoot arrows"

Example after As "sit", an objectless root --

To say "the cats sat on the mat" with laG tense after As --

If we choose laG to mean the doer, we replace laG with jha (root As is bendy) --

biDAlA:: Asata kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"

If we choose laG to mean nothing, we replace laG with ta --

biDAlair Asyate kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"


tayor eva kRtya;kta;khal-arthAH ONPANINI 34070
kRtya kta khalartha only ( mean the object or mean nothing).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 349

The kRtya kta khal-artha nounbases never mean the doer of their root. So if the root is objectful, these mean the object, an if it is objectless, they mean nothing.


(1) We add kta after kR, getting kRta-. Because of rule niSThA, this means that an action of making happened in the past. Because of this rule, the nounbase kRta- gets the gender, number and case from its object (whatever was made), and not from the maker --

tvayA kaTaH kRtaz cAruH "you made a pretty mat, a pretty mat was made by you"

(2) Joining the root kR "make" and the kRtya affix, tavya, we get kartavya-. Because of this rule, here the nounbase kartavya- copied the gender, number and case of kaTau, the object of kR --

kartavyau bhavatA kaTau "two mats must be made by you, you must make two mats"

kaTaz ca sukaras tvayA "and you can make a mat easily"

suptavyamM bhavatA "sleeping must be done by you, you must sleep"

suptavyam "sleep time!"


Adi-karmaNi ktaH kartari ca ONPANINI 34071
When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 350

Usually, kta-enders do not mean the doer, by tayoreva above. So we may say ---

prakRtaH kaTo devadattena "John started to make a mat"

But according to this optional exception, we may also say make prakRta- mean the doer --

prakRtaH kaTam devadattaH "John started to make a mat"

Example with an objectless, pra + svap "start to sleep" --

prasuptamM mayA "I fell asleep"

prasupto 'ham "I fell asleep"


gaty-arth%Akarmaka-zliSa;zIG;sthA;''sa;vasa;jana;ruha;jIryatibhyaz ca ONPANINI 34072
Also after roots that mean movement, objectless, zliS "hug", zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan "produce", ruh "climb", jR (to grow old).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 351

After these roots, kta may mean the doer or not.

Example with a movement root, gam. According to the previous rule, anugata- cannot mean the doer and we can only say --

sItayA 'nugato rAmaH "sItA followed rAma"

( Here kartRkaraNa worked because anugata- did not mean the doer )

Yet, this rule says that anugata- can mean the doer too --

sItA 'py anugatA rAmam "sItA too followed rAma"

( Here karmaNidvi worked because anugata- meant the doer )

Example with objectless glai + kta "weary" --

glAno bhavAn

glAnamM bhavatA

Examples with zliS --

upazliSTo gurumM bhavAn "you hugged the teacher"

upazliSTo gurur bhavatA "you hugged the teacher"

This root can be objectless too, so we can use it bhAve --

upazliSTamM bhavatA "you did some hugging"

upAsito gurumM bhavAn

upAsito gurur bhavatA


dAza;goghnau sampradAne ONPANINI 34073
dAza- goghna- may mean the aimmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 352

These two words are exceptions to kartarikRt, that would have made dAza- mean "giver" and goghna- means "cow-killer".

According to this rule, dAza- means dAzanti tasmai "they give to him", that is, "a servant". So it is made from root dAz dAzR 01.1025 "give" with the affix ac''.

This rule also states that the word goghna- means AgatAya tasmai dAtuGM gAM hanti "when he comes they kill a cow for him", that is, an honored guest, such as a Rtvij or a son-in-law.

There is another word goghna- that has the regular meaning "cow-killer" by kartarikRt. It can also mean "a cANDAla".

Some say that in ancient India there was a custom of killing cattle for very honored guests. Same as in the story of the prodigal son, "And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry".

Others say that in ancient India no one ever even THOUGHT of killing cattle. If any of these are among your students, you may skip the explanation of goghna- given by this rule and tell them that goghna- comes from go- + aghna-, "one that does not kill cows" (with eGaHpa). This explanation is grammatically unsound, but will not hurt their feelings.


kto 'dhikaraNe ca dhrauvya-gati-pratyavasAn%ArthebhyaH ONPANINI 34076
After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 353

Example with root of staying --

As + kta may mean the place where someone sits

idam eSAm Asitam "this is where they sit"

moving --

yA + kta may mean the place to which someone goes

idanM tasya yAtam "this is where he goes"

consuming --

pA + kta may mean the place where someone drinks

idaGM gavAmM pItam "this is where the cows drink"

Asita-, coming from an objectless root, can still mean the doer or mean nothing --

Asito devadattaH "John sat"

Asitam devadattena "John sat"

yAta-, coming from an movement root, can still mean the doer or mean the object --

yAto devadatto grAmam "John went to the village"

yAto devadattena grAmaH "John went to the village"

pIta- can still mean the object --

udakamM pItanM devadattena "John drank water"


lasya ONPANINI 34077
tense to tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 354

In more detail --

"after adding a tense to a root, always replace the tense with a tiG".

Example. To mean "you throw", in a sentence like "you throw stones", we may join kSip + laT, because rule vartamAnelaT says so. Because of lasya rule, we must inmediately replace laT with one of the eighteen tiG. Because of other rules, we can use either sip or jha in this case. If we choose sip --

kSip + laT → kSip + sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

and our sentence will be

zilAH kSipasi "you throw stones"

IMPORTANT. For shortness, I will sometimes type --

kSip + laT sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

This "kSip + laT sip" thingie means that first we add laT after the root, then replace laT with sip by rule lasya . This laT sip never means that we first add laT and then add sip after it.







dviS + kartari tipdveSTi "he hates"

dviS + kartari tadviSTe "he hates"

dviS + karmaNi jhadviSyante "they are hated"

please see ac md ps for more examples.


tip;tas;jhi sip;thas;tha mib;vas;mas tAtAJ;jha thAs;AthAn;dhvam iD;vahi;mahiG ONPANINI 34078
tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 355 tiG

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4166

The tiG are eighteen affixes divided in six groups of three.

They always replace a tense.

See also:






Tita:: AtmanepadAnAM Ter e ONPANINI 34079
Tail of Tit bent to e.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 356

Example. When in plu + laT dhvam, the dhvam is a bent tiG replaces laT, a Tit tense. The tail of dhvam is am. Replacing the tail with e makes dhvam become dhve --

plu + laTplu + dhvamplava + dhvam → plava + dhve'''plavadhve "y'all jump"

This rule replaces eight of the nine bent tiG , and the next rule thAsasse replaces the ninth. So, in Tit tenses, the bent turn into --

te''' Ate''' jhe'''

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

Of course, jhe''' will turn into ante''' or ate''', by jhontaH or its exceptions.


thAsaH se ONPANINI 34080
Replace thAs with se''' (in the Tit tenses).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 357

Exception to Tita.

Examples --

plava + laT thAs → plava + se'''plavase "you jump"

plava + loT thAs → plava + se''' savAbhyAMvAmau plava + sva'''plavasva "jump!"

This se''' is one of the laT replacements and of the liT replacements , and appears in the list of luT terminations as tAse.

plava + laG thAsaT + plava + thAsaplavathAs "you jumped"


liTas ta;jhayor ez;irec ONPANINI 34081
liT's ta jha to ez irec.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 358

Replace liT ta with e(z) --

kR + liT ta → kR + ezcakR + e ikoyaNaci cakre "he made; it was made"

Replace liT jha with ire(c) --

kR + liT jha → kR + ireccakR + ire ikoyaNaci cakrire "they made; they were made"

The other seven bent liT just get Tita, same as the laT --

kR + liT AtAm Tita kR + Ate'''cakR + Ate ikoyaNaci cakrAte "both made; both were made"

For the flats, see Nalatusus rule below.


parasmaipadAnAM Nal;atus;us; thal;athus;a; Nal;va;mAH ONPANINI 34082
Flat ( liT) to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 359

When the nine flat tiG --

tip tas jhi,

sip thas tha,

mip vas mas

replace liT, replace them with --

Nal atus us,

thal athus a,

Nal va ma

, respectively.


kR + liT tip → kR + Nal acoJNiti kAr + Nal liTidhA kA + kAr + Nal hrasvaH ka + kAr + Nal kuhozcuH cakAra "he made"

kR + liT tas → kR + atuscakR + atus ikoyaNaci cakratus "both made"

kR + liT jhi → kR + uscakR + us ikoyaNaci cakrus "they made"


vido laTo vA ONPANINI 34083
After vid, optionally laT to ( Nalatusus etc).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 360

After the root vid that means "know, get to know" we may replace flat laT affixes with the Nalatusus etc affixes mentioned in the previous rule --

vid + laT tip → vid + Nal puganta veda "knows"

vid + laT tas → vidatus "both know"

vid + laT jhi → vidus "they know"

vid + laT sip → vid + thal puganta vedtha kharica vettha "you know"

If we don't take this option --

vid + laT tip puganta vedti kharica vetti "knows"

vittas "both know"

vidanti "they know"

vid + liT tip Nalatusus vid + Nal liTidhA viveda "he knew"

vid + liT jhi → .. → vividus "they knew"

vid + liT tipvidAJcakAra "he knew"

vidAJcakrus "they knew"


bruvaH paJcAnAm Adita$ Aho bruvaH ONPANINI 34084
brU to Ah optionally before the first five.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 361

The first five are Nalatusus thal athus, the first five affixes of the nine mentioned in the previous rule.

This rule boils down to saying that we may, if we like, replace bravIti brUtaH bruvanti bravISi brUThas with --

Aha "says"

Ahatus "they two say"

Ahus "they say"

Attha "you say"

Ahathus "you2 say"


This Ah is not a true root; it is just a replacement of brU root that is only used to make these five words.


loTo laGvat ONPANINI 34085
Replace loT as if it were laG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 362

After loT is replaced with one of these five --

tas thas tha vas mas

this rule replaces them with --

tAm''' tam''' ta''' va''' ma'''

just as if they had replaced laG (see tasthastha, nityaGGitaH for the small details). And right after this, rule ADutta turns the last two into Ava''' Ama'''.

So we say --

gaccha + loT tas → gaccha + tAm'''gacchatAm "let both go"

gaccha + loT thas → gaccha + tam'''gacchatam "go! (the two of you)"

gaccha + loT tha → gaccha + ta'''gacchata "go! (y'all)"

gaccha + loT vas → gaccha + va''' ADutta gaccha + Ava'''gacchAva "let's go (the two of us)"

gaccha + loT mas → gaccha + ma''' ADutta gaccha + Ama'''gacchAma "let's go"

Keep in mind that Ava''' and Ama''' are rarities, so in the sense of "let's go", expect to hear the laT forms instead --

gaccha + laT vas atodIrghoyaJi gacchAvas "the two of us go; let's go (the two of us)"

gaccha + laT mas atodIrghoyaJi gacchAmas "we go; let's go"

These laT forms are allowed by vartamAnasAmIpye, as they describe the inmediate future.


er uH ONPANINI 34086
replace i with u in loT replacersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 363

This rule turns tip jhi into tu''' jhu''' in the loT. The jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''' by jhontaH ff.


bhU + loT tip → bhU + tu'''bhava + tubhavatu "may he be"

as in sukhI bhavatu "may he be happy"

bhU + loT jhi → bhU + jhu'''bhava + jhu jhontaH bhavantu "may they be"

as in sarve bhavantu sukhinaH "may all be happy"

dviS + loT tip → dviS + tu''' puganta dveStu STunA dveSTu "may he hate"

dviS + loT jhi → dviS + jhu jhontaH dviSantu "may they hate"

See also loT replacements .


ser hy apic ca ONPANINI 34087
( loT) sip to apit hi'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 364

Exception to eruH. The sip that replaces loT must be replaced with a hi that has no p label. Example --

brU + loT sip → brU + hi'''brUhi "tell!"

This hi''' will disappear after a --

car + loT sip → car + hi'''car + zap + hi atoheH car + zap + lukcara "move!"

and sometimes after u or znu --

kR + loT sipkR + u + sip → kR + u + hi''' utazca kR + u + luk hardsoft kar + u ata::utsA kuru "make!"

zru + loT sipzRNu + sip → zRNu + hi''' utazca zRNu "listen!"

Also, sometimes hi''' will turn into dhi by hujha.

Back to loT replacements .


mer niH ONPANINI 34089
( loT) mip to ni.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 365

This makes Ani(p), by these steps --

loT mip → ni ADutta Ani'''

Example --

kR + loT mip → kR + Ani'''kR + u + Ani hardsoft kar + u + Ani hardsoft karo + Ani ecoya karavAni Natvam karavANi "i shall do"

As in --

bhagavan svAgatanM te 'stu kim ahaGM karavANi te "welcome, your holiness! what shall i do for you?"

This Ani''' is rarely used, as that sense of "let me" is usually conveyed by the laT --

kiGM karomi te "what do I do for you ( = what can I do for you? )"


Am etaH ONPANINI 34090
e (of the loT) to Am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 366

When loT is replaced with one of

ta AtAm AthAm jha

Tita works on them and makes

te''' Ate''' Athe''' jhe'''

and then this rule replaces them with

tAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm'''' jhAm''''

Of course, jhontaH and its two exceptions will change the jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.

Back to loT replacements .


sa;vAbhyAM v';.Amau ONPANINI 34091
(In the loT,) thAs to sva''', and dhvam to dhvam''''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 367

Examples --

yudh + loT thAsyudh + zyan + thAs → yudhya + sva'''yudhyasva "fight!"

yudh + loT dhvamyudh + zyan + dhvam → yudhya + dhvam''''yudhyadhvam "fight! (y'all)"

Back to loT replacements .


AD uttamasya pic ca ONPANINI 34092
first person loT gets AT and becomes pit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 368

When loT is replaced with the six first person tiG affixes --

mip vas mas iT' vahi mahi

then the rules merni loTolaGvat eta::ai replace them with

ni va''' ma''' ai vahai mahai

and then this rule adds an A in front of them and makes them pit. So we get --

Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

all of which have p label. The p label stops rule hard apit is Git , so that none of these have label G.

The forms made with these affixes mean "let me" or "let us". They are seldom used, because the "let's" sense is usually conveyed by the laT. You will find both laT and loT in the epics in this sense --

te vayanM tatra gacchAmaH praSTuGM kurupitAmaham | praNamya zirasA cainamM mantramM pRcchAma mAdhava || "we go ask Grampa, let's ask him humbly for advice"

Back to loT replacements .


eta:: ai ONPANINI 34093
e (of the first person loT) to ai.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 369

So iT' vahi mahi first turn into e''' vahe''' mahe''' by Tita, then into ai vahai mahai by this rule, and then get AT by the previous rule, making ai''', Avahai''', Amahai''', which are pit --

edh + loT iT'edh + e''' → edh + ai ADutta edh + ai'''edhai "let me increase"

edh + loT vahiedh + vahe''' → edh + vahai ADutta edh + Avahai'''edhAvahai "let the two of us increase"

edh + loT mahiedh + mahe''' → edh + mahai ADutta edh + Amahai'''edhAmahai "let us increase"

Don't worry much about these forms -- if you ever think you need to use one, use the laT or the liG instead, works fine.

33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses