33156 liG and loT ←
→ 34099 Git tenses
34069 Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too.
34071 When meaning initial action,
34072 Also after roots that mean movement, objectless,
34076 After staying, moving and consuming,
34077 tense to
34079 Tail of
34082 Flat to
34092 first person
This rule uses the word kartari "means the doer" in two slightly different senses --
First sense. A kRt affix, such as for instance kvin or tRc, will mean the doer of the action it is attached to, unless some rule says otherwise. Therefore
Second sense. The affixes that make verblikes, such as ktavatu, will mean the doer. But the kRtya do not mean the doer, because rule tayoreva says otherwise.
We are trickling "means the doer". So this rule teaches that --
tense replacers, after an objectful root, may mean the doer or mean the object. Choose freely.
tense replacers, after an objectless root, may mean the doer or mean nothing. Choose freely.
To say "the two brothers shoot arrows", we start with
If we choose doer, we must use tas, dual, because there are two doers --
If we choose object, we need jha, plural, because the objects are many --
To say "the cats sat on the mat" with laG tense after As --
If we choose laG to mean the doer, we replace laG with jha (root As is bendy) --
If we choose laG to mean nothing, we replace laG with ta --
The kRtya kta
(1) We add kta after kR, getting
(2) Joining the root kR "make" and the kRtya affix, tavya, we get
Usually, kta-enders do not mean the doer, by tayoreva above. So we may say ---
But according to this optional exception, we may also say make
Example with an objectless, pra + svap "start to sleep" --
After these roots, kta may mean the doer or not.
Example with a movement root,
( Here kartRkaraNa worked because
Yet, this rule says that
( Here karmaNidvi worked because
Example with objectless
This root can be objectless too, so we can use it bhAve --
These two words are exceptions to kartarikRt, that would have made
According to this rule,
This rule also states that the word
There is another word
Some say that in ancient India there was a custom of killing cattle for very honored guests. Same as in the story of the prodigal son, "And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry".
Others say that in ancient India no one ever even THOUGHT of killing cattle. If any of these are among your students, you may skip the explanation of
Example with root of staying --
As + kta may mean the place where someone sits
pA + kta may mean the place where someone drinks
In more detail --
"after adding a tense to a root, always replace the tense with a tiG".
Example. To mean "you throw", in a sentence like "you throw stones", we may join
and our sentence will be
IMPORTANT. For shortness, I will sometimes type --
please see ac md ps for more examples.
The tiG are eighteen affixes divided in six groups of three.
They always replace a tense.
Example. When in
This rule replaces eight of the nine bent
Of course, jhe''' will turn into ante''' or ate''', by jhontaH or its exceptions.
Exception to Tita.
This se''' is one of the
kR + liT ta
Replace liT jha with
The other seven bent liT just get Tita, same as the laT --
replace liT, replace them with --
kR + liT tip
After the root vid that means "know, get to know" we may replace flat laT affixes with the Nalatusus etc affixes mentioned in the previous rule --
If we don't take this option --
The first five are Nalatusus thal athus, the first five affixes of the nine mentioned in the previous rule.
This rule boils down to saying that we may, if we like, replace
This Ah is not a true root; it is just a replacement of
After loT is replaced with one of these five --
this rule replaces them with --
tAm''' tam''' ta''' va''' ma'''
just as if they had replaced laG (see tasthastha, nityaGGitaH for the small details). And right after this, rule ADutta turns the last two into Ava''' Ama'''.
So we say --
gaccha + loT tas
gaccha + loT thas
gaccha + loT tha
gaccha + loT vas
gaccha + loT mas
Keep in mind that Ava''' and Ama''' are rarities, so in the sense of "let's go", expect to hear the laT forms instead --
gaccha + laT vas →
gaccha + laT mas →
These laT forms are allowed by vartamAnasAmIpye, as they describe the inmediate future.
This rule turns tip jhi into tu''' jhu''' in the loT. The jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''' by jhontaH ff.
Exception to eruH. The sip that replaces loT must be replaced with a
This hi''' will disappear after
and sometimes after u or znu --
Also, sometimes hi''' will turn into
As in --
This Ani''' is rarely used, as that sense of "let me" is usually conveyed by the laT --
When loT is replaced with one of
Tita works on them and makes
and then this rule replaces them with
tAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm'''' jhAm''''
Of course, jhontaH and its two exceptions will change the jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.
When loT is replaced with the six first person tiG affixes --
then the rules merni loTolaGvat eta::ai replace them with
and then this rule adds an
Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''
all of which have
The forms made with these affixes mean "let me" or "let us". They are seldom used, because the "let's" sense is usually conveyed by the laT. You will find both laT and loT in the epics in this sense --
So iT' vahi mahi first turn into e''' vahe''' mahe''' by Tita, then into
Don't worry much about these forms -- if you ever think you need to use one, use the laT or the liG instead, works fine.
33156 liG and loT ←
→ 34099 Git tenses