33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses

34067 kRt affixes mean the doer. kartarikRt
34069 Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too. laHkarmaNicabhAvecAkarmakebhyaH
34070 kRtya kta khalartha only . tayorevakRtyaktakhalarthAH
34071 When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer. AdikarmaNiktaHkartarica
34072 After movement, objectless, zliS, zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan, ruh, jR . gatyarthAkarmakazliSazIGsthAsavasajanaruhajIryatibhyazca
34073 dAza- goghna- may mean the aim dAzagoghnausampradAne
34076 After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too. ktodhikaraNecadhrauvyagatipratyavasAnArthebhyaH
34077 tense to tiG. lasya
34078 tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG. tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastAtAJjhathAsAthAndhvamiDvahimahiG
34079 Tail of Tit bent to e. TitaAtmanepadAnANTere
34080 Replace thAs with se''' . thAsasse
34081 liT's ta jha to e ire. liTastajhayorezirec
34082 Flat to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama. parasmaipadAnANNalatususthalathusaNalvamAH
34083 After vid, optionally laT to . vidolaTovA
34084 brU to Ah optionally before the first five. bruvaHpaJcAnAmAditaAhobruvaH
34085 Replace loT as if it were laG. loTolaGvat
34086 replace i with u in loT replacers eruH
34087 sip to apit hi'''. serhyapicca
34089 mip to ni. merniH
34090 e to Am. AmetaH
34091 thAs dhvam to sva''' dhvam''''. savAbhyAMvAmau
34092 first person loT gets AT and becomes pit. ADuttamasyapicca
34093 e to ai. etaai

(kartarikRt) (!kartarikR)

kartari kRt ONPANINI 34067
kRt affixes mean the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 371

This rule uses the word kartari "means the doer" in two slightly different senses --

First sense. A kRt affix, such as for instance kvin or tRc, will mean the doer of the action it is attached to, unless some rule says otherwise. Therefore yuj + kvin means "a joiner", and so does yuj + tRc. But yuj + tumun does not mean "a joiner", because rule tumunNvulau says otherwise.

Second sense. The affixes that make verblikes, such as ktavatu, will mean the doer. But the kRtya do not mean the doer, because rule tayoreva says otherwise.

410 letters. -- 34.bse 571 -- popularity 9

182 @Object gets @second.

291 Add /lyu /Nini /ac'' after the !nandAdi !grahAdi !pacAdi.

304 Add {(kh)a(z)} after !eji (when it is compounded after its @object).

333 !bhaJj !bhAs !mid get {(gh)ura(c)}.

335 {bhrAj bhAs dhur}, {dyut Urj pq}, {ju grAvastu} get {(k)v(ip)} compulsorily.

336 {tra(n)} after !dhe means "wet nurse"

339 The {gamin-} class mean what will happen

345 /ac'' after !i !I (means the action).

376 !dAza- !goghna- may mean the @aim

(laHkarmaNi) (!laH)

laH karmaNi ca bhAve c' .AkarmakebhyaH ONPANINI 34069
Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 372

We are trickling "means the doer". So this rule teaches that --

tense replacers, after an objectful root, may mean the doer or mean the object. Choose freely.

tense replacers, after an objectless root, may mean the doer or mean nothing. Choose freely.

Example after kSip "shoot", an objectful root --

To say "the two brothers shoot arrows", we start with kSip + laT, then we must replace laT with a tiG straight away (rule lasya says so). Which tiG we need? kSip is objectful, so our tiG may mean the doer or mean the object.

If we choose doer, we must use tas, dual, because there are two doers --

kSip + laTkSip + kartari taskSip + zap + taskSipatas "both shoot"

As in --

bhrAtarau kSipatazH zarAn "the two brothers shoot arrows"

If we choose object, we need jha, plural, because the objects are many --

kSip + laTkSip + karmaNi jha → .. → kSip + yak + ante'''kSipyante "they are being shot"

As in --

kSipyante bhrAtRbhyAM zarAH "the two brothers shoot arrows"

Example after As "sit", an objectless root --

To say "the cats sat on the mat", with As + laG --

If we choose laG to mean the doer, we replace laG with jha (because root As is bendy) --

biDAlA:: Asata kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"

But if we choose laG to mean nothing, we replace laG with ta --

biDAlair Asyata kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"

Another objectless root, svap --

biDAlAsH svapanti "cats sleep" (has jhi)

biDAlaisH supyate "cats sleep" (has ta)

KAZIKA lakArAH karmaNi kArake bhavanti, cakArAt kartari ca akarmakebhyo dhAtubhyo bhAve bhavanti, punaz cakArAt kartari ca. gamyate grAmo devadattena. gacchati grAmaM devadattaH. akarmakebhyaH Asyate devadattena. Aste devadattaH. sakarmakebhyo bhAve na bhavanti.

1052 letters. -- 34A.bse 1 -- popularity 3

102 A /tiG that does not [@mean the doer] (must be @bent).

1355 verb assembling machine

(tayoreva) (!tay)

tayor eva kRtya;kta;khal-arthAH ONPANINI 34070
kRtya kta khalartha only ( mean the object or mean nothing).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 373

The kRtya kta khal-artha nounbases never mean the doer of their root. So if the root is objectful, these mean the object, an if it is objectless, they mean nothing.


(1) We add kta after kR, getting kRta-. Because of rule niSThA, this means that an action of making happened in the past. Because of this rule, the nounbase kRta- gets the gender, number and case from its object (whatever was made), and not from the maker --

tvayA kaTaH kRtaz cAruH "you made a pretty mat, a pretty mat was made by you"

(tvayA got third from kartRkaraNa because kRtas does not mean the doer)

(kaTas did not get the second from karmaNidvi because kRtas means the object)

(2) Joining the root kR "make" and the kRtya affix, tavya, we get kartavya-. Because of this rule, here the nounbase kartavya- copied the gender, number and case of kaTau, the object of kR --

kartavyau bhavatA kaTau "two mats must be made by you, you must make two mats"

KAZIKA tayor eva bhAva-karmaNoH kRtya-saMjJAkAH kta-khalarthAz ca pratyayA$ bhavanti. evakAraH kartur apakarzaN%ArthaH. kRtyAH karmaNi kartavyaH kaTo bhavatA. bhoktavya odano bhavatA. bhAve AsitavyaM bhavatA. zayitavyaM bhavatA. ktaH karmaNi kRtaH kaTo bhavatA. bhukta odano bhavatA. bhAve AsitaM bhavatA. zayitaM bhavatA. khalarthAH karmaNi ISatkaraH kaTo bhavatA. sukaraH. duSkaraH. bhAve ISadADhyaMbhavaM bhavatA. svADhyaMbhavaM bhavatA. bhAvo cAkramakebhyaH ityanuvRtteH sakarmakebhyo bhAve na bhavanti.

This rule always applies to the words formed with kRtya affixes and khalartha affixes. However, after certain roots, some kta enders can mean the doer sometimes, by the optional exceptions AdikarmaNi, gatyarthA. Example -- zliSTas can mean either "he was hugged" by this rule, or "he hugged" by gatyarthA.

958 letters. -- 34A.bse 825 -- popularity 6

371 /kRt affixes [@mean the doer].

(Adikarma) (!Adik)

Adi-karmaNi ktaH kartari ca ONPANINI 34071
When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 374

Usually, kta-enders do not mean the doer, by tayoreva above. So we may say ---

prakRtaH kaTo devadattena "John started to make a mat"

But according to this optional exception, we may also say make prakRta- mean the doer --

prakRtaH kaTam devadattaH "John started to make a mat"

Example with an objectless, pra + svap "start to sleep" --

prasuptamM mayA "I fell asleep"

prasupto 'ham "I fell asleep"

KAZIKA AdikarmaNi yaH kto vihitaH sa kartari bhavati. cakArAd yathAprAptaM bhAvakarmaNoH. AdibhUtaH kriyAkSaNa Adikarma, tasminnAdikarmaNi bhUtatvena vivakSite yaH kto vihitaH, tasya ayam arthanirdezaH. prakRtaH kaTaM devadattaH, prakRtaH kaTo devadattena, prakRtam devadattena. prabhukta odanaM devadattaH, prabhukta odano devadattena, prabhuktaM devadattena.

303 letters. -- 34A.bse 952 -- popularity 1

(gatyarthAka) (!gaty)

gaty-arth%Akarmaka-zliSa;zIG;sthA;''sa;vasa;jana;ruha;jIryatibhyaz ca ONPANINI 34072
After movement, objectless, zliS, zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan, ruh, jR ( kta optionally means the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 375

After these roots, kta may mean the doer or not.

Example with a gati (movement root). A gati is any root that has gatau written after it in the dhAtupATha. Like plu pluG gatau 01.1112, and gam gamL gatau. So, according to the previous rule, anugata- cannot mean the doer and we can only say --

sItayA 'nugato rAmaH "sItA followed rAma"

But this rule says that anugata- can mean the doer too --

sItA 'py anugatA rAmam "sItA too followed rAma"

Example with objectless glai + kta "weary" --

glAno bhavAn

glAnamM bhavatA

Examples with zliS "hug" --

upazliSTo gurumM bhavAn "you hugged the teacher"

upazliSTo gurur bhavatA "you hugged the teacher"

This root can be objectless too, so we can use it bhAve --

upazliSTamM bhavatA "you did some hugging"

As is not objectful, but upa + As "sit near" is. So we say usually --

upAsito gurur sItayA "sItA sat near the teacher"

But when this rule works --

upAsitA guruM sItA "sItA sat near the teacher"

KAZIKA gatyarthabhyo dhAtubhyo 'karmakebhya zliSAdibhyazca yaH ktaH, sa kartari bhavati. cakArAd yathAprAptaM ca bhAvakarmaNoH. gato devadatto grAmam, gato devadattena grAman, gato devadattena grAmaH, gataM devadattena. akarmakebhyaH glAno bhavAn, glAnaM bhavatA. Asito bhavAn, AsitaM bhavatA. zliSa upazliSTo guruM bhavAn, upazliSTo gururbhavatA, upazliSTaM bhavatA. zIG upazayito guruM bhavAn, upazayito gururbhavatA, upazayitaM bhavatA. sthA upasthito guruM bhavAn, upasthito gururbhavatA, upasthitaM bhavatA. Asa upAsito guruM bhavAn, upAsito gururbhavatA, upAsitaM bhavatA. vasa anUSito guruM bhavAn, anUSito gururbhavatA, anUSitaM bhavatA. jana anujAto mANavako mANa vikAm, anujAtA mANavakena mANavikA, anujAtaM mANavakena. ruha ArUDho vRkSaM bhavAn, ArUDho vRkSo bhavatA, ArUDhaM bhavatA. jIryati anujIrNo vRSalIM devadattaH, anujIrNA vRpalI devadattena, anujIrNaM devadattena. zliSAdayaH sopasargAH sakarmakA bhavanti, tadartham eSAm upAdAnam.

710 letters. -- 34A.bse 983 -- popularity 1

373 /kRtya /kta !khalartha only ([@mean the object] or [@mean nothing]).

(dAzagoghnau) (!dAz)

dAza;goghnau sampradAne ONPANINI 34073
dAza- goghna- may mean the aimmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 376

These two words are exceptions to kartarikRt, that would have made dAza- mean "giver" and goghna- means "cow-killer".

According to this rule, dAza- means dAzanti tasmai "they give to him", that is, "a servant". So it is made from root dAz dAzR 01.1025 "give" with the affix ac''.

This rule also states that the word goghna- means AgatAya tasmai dAtuGM gAM hanti "when he comes they kill a cow for him", that is, an honored guest, such as a Rtvij or a son-in-law.

There is another word goghna- that has the regular meaning "cow-killer" by kartarikRt. It can also mean "a cANDAla".

Some say that in ancient India there was a custom of killing cattle for very honored guests. Same as in the story of the prodigal son, "And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry".

Others say that in ancient India no one ever even THOUGHT of killing cattle. If any of these are among your students, you may skip the explanation of goghna- given by this rule and tell them that goghna- comes from go- + aghna-, "one that does not kill cows" (with eGaHpa). This explanation is grammatically unsound, but will not hurt their feelings.

KAZIKA dAzagoghnau zabdau saMpradAne kArake nipAtyete. dAzR dAne, tataH pacAdyac. sa kRtsaMjJakatvAt kartari prAptaH, sampradAne nipAtyate. dAzanti tasmai iti dAzaH. AgatAya tasmai dAtuM gAM hanti iti goghnaH, arghArho 'tithiH. Tagatra nipAtyate. nipAtanasAmarthyAdeva goghnaH RtvigAdirucyate, na tu caNDAlAdiH. asatyapi ca gohanane tasya yogyatayA goghnaH ityabhidhIyate.

872 letters. -- 34A.bse 1023 -- popularity none

(ktodhikara) (!kto)

kto 'dhikaraNe ca dhrauvya-gati-pratyavasAn%ArthebhyaH ONPANINI 34076
After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 377

Example with root of staying --

As + kta may mean the place where someone sits

idam eSAm Asitam "this is where they sit"

moving --

yA + kta may mean the place to which someone goes

idanM tasya yAtam "this is where he goes"

consuming --

pA + kta may mean the place where someone drinks

idaGM gavAmM pItam "this is where the cows drink"

The rule says "too". Therefore, these kta-enders do not have to mean the location, and they can still mean the object --

yAto devadattena grAmaH "John went to the village"

mean the doer --

yAto devadatto grAmam "John went to the village"

or mean nothing --

Asitam devadattena "John sat"

when other rules allow them to.

KAZIKA drauvyArthAH akarmakAH, pratyavasAnArthAH abhyavahArArthAH iti svanikAya-prasiddhiH. dhrauvyAgatipratyavasAnArthebhyaH yaH kto vihitaH so 'dhikaraNe bhavati. ca-kArAd yathAprAptaM ca. dhrauvyArthebhyaH kartR-bhAvAdhikaraNeSu, gaty-arthebhyaH kartR-karmabhAv%AdhikaraneSu, pratyavasAnArthebhyaH karmabhAvAdhikaraNesu. bhrauvyArthebhyaH tAvat Asito devadattaH, AsitaM tena, idam eSAm Asitam. gaty-arthebhyaH yAto devadatto grAmam, yAto devadattena grAmaH, yAtaM devadattena, idam eSAM yAtam. pratyavasAnArthebhyaH bhuktaH odano devadattena, devadattena bhuktam, idam eSAM bhuktam. kathaM bhuktA brAhmaNAH, pItA gAvaH iti. akAro matvarthIyaH, bhuktam eSAm asti, pItam eSAm astIti.

495 letters. -- 34A.bse 1055 -- popularity none

(lasya) (!las)

lasya ONPANINI 34077
tense to tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 378

In more detail --

"after adding a tense to a root, we must always replace the tense with a tiG".


To mean "you throw", in a sentence like "you throw stones", we may join kSip + laT, because rule vartamAnelaT says so.

Now, because of this rule, we must inmediately replace laT with one of the eighteen tiG. Because of other rules ( laHkarmaNi and many others), in this case we can use either sip or jha as replacement.

If we choose sip --

kSip + laT → * kSip + kartari sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

and our sentence will be

zilAH kSipasi "you throw stones"

But if we choose jha --

kSip + laT → * kSip + karmaNi jhakSip + yak + jhakSip + ya + ante'''kSipyante "they are being thrown"

and our sentence will be

zilAH kSipyante tvayA "you throw stones, stones are thrown by you"

KAZIKA lasya tib-Adya AdezA bhavanti. tipsipmipAM pakAraH svarArthaH. iTaSTakAraH iTod iti vizeSaNArthaH, tibAdibhirAdezais tulyatvAn na dezavidhyarthaH. mahiGo GakAraH tiGiti pratyAhAragrahaNArthaH. pacati, pacataH, pacanti. pacasi, pacathaH, pacatha. pacAmi, pacAvaH, pacAmaH. pacate, pacete, pacante. pacase, pacethe, pacadhve. pace, pacAvahe, pacAmahe. evam anyeSvapi lakareSu udAhAryam.

These are some of the rules that teach which ones of the eighteen tiG affixes will replace a tense. Do not read all in one sitting, lest your head should fall off --







Most of the time, two of the tiG affixes are allowed, because rule laHkarmaNi allows us to choose freely between two options, and once we have made that choice, usually all the other rules work automatically with no more options allowed. There are exceptions to that; for instance, after the root plu or other bendy roots, only one tiG is allowed.

VERY IMPORTANT WARNING. This rule works every single time we make a verb. This is why, instead of typing --

kSip + laT lasya kSip + kartari sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

, like I did above, I will sometimes type --

kSip + laT sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

, in order to save space. This "kSip + laT sip" thingie means that first we add laT after the root kSip, and then we replace laT with sip by rule lasya . This laT sip NEVER EVER means that we first add laT and then add sip after it. laT or other tenses never get anything added after them, they are always replaced with something else. No exceptions.

1514 letters. -- 34A.bse 1088 -- popularity 6

127 [/sup]-[/tiG]-ender is @word.

157 Use [@second person] when the @verb means "you", even if the word meaning "you" is hidden.

(tiptasjhisi) (/tiG)

tip;tas;jhi sip;thas;tha mib;vas;mas tAtAJ;jha thAs;AthAn;dhvam iD;vahi;mahiG ONPANINI 34078
tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 379 tiG

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4166

The tiG are eighteen affixes divided in six groups of three.

They always replace a tense.

See also:





KAZIKA lasya tibAdya AdezA bhavanti. tipsipmipAM pakAraH svarArthaH. iTaSTakAraH iTo 'd iti vizeSaNArthaH, tibAdibhirAdezais tulyatvAn na dezavidhyarthaH. mahiGo GakAraH tiGiti pratyAhAragrahaNArthaH. pacati, pacataH, pacanti. pacasi, pacathaH, pacatha. pacAmi, pacAvaH, pacAmaH. pacate, pacete, pacante. pacase, pacethe, pacadhve. pace, pacAvahe, pacAmahe. evam anyeSvapi lakareSu udAhAryam.

The last affix is mahi, not mahiG. This G is added at the end of the whole list so that, by rule Adirantyena, the term tiG will mean "the affixes from tip to mahi", and taG will mean "affixes from ta to mahi". See Adirantyena and taG;AnAv Atmanepadam.

Also, the T in the iT' affix is just a tellaparter. It does not trigger Tita.

355 letters. -- 34A.bse 1564 -- popularity 70

(TitaAtma) (/te''')

Tita:: AtmanepadAnAM Ter e ONPANINI 34079
tail of Tit bent to e.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 380

Example. When in plu + laT dhvam, the dhvam is a bent tiG replaces laT, a Tit tense. The tail of dhvam is am. Replacing the tail with e makes dhvam become dhve --

plu + laTplu + dhvamplava + dhvam → * plava + dhve'''plavadhve "y'all jump"

This rule replaces eight of the nine bent tiG , and the next rule thAsasse replaces the ninth. So, in Tit tenses, the bent turn into --

te''' Ate''' jhe'''

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

Of course, jhe''' will turn into ante''' or ate''', by jhontaH or its exceptions.

397 letters. -- 34A.bse 1624 -- popularity 85

(thAsasse) (/se')

thAsaH se ONPANINI 34080
Replace thAs with se''' (in the Tit tenses).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 381

Exception to Tita.

Examples --

plava + laT thAs → * plava + se'''plavase "you jump"

plava + loT thAs → * plava + se''' savAbhyAMvAmau plava + sva'''plavasva "jump!"

This se''' is one of the laT replacements and of the liT replacements , and appears in the list of luT replacements as tAse.

203 letters. -- 34A.bse 1694 -- popularity 11

(liTastajha) (/ez)

liTas ta;jhayor ez;irec ONPANINI 34081
liT's ta jha to e(z) ire(c).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 382

Replace liT ta with e(z) --

kR + liT ta → * kR + ezcakR + e ikoyaNaci cakre "he made; it was made"

Replace liT jha with ire(c) --

kR + liT jha → * kR + ireccakR + ire ikoyaNaci cakrire "they made; they were made"

The other seven bent liT just get Tita or thAsasse, same as the laT --

kR + liT AtAm Tita kR + Ate'''cakR + Ate ikoyaNaci cakrAte "both made; both were made"

KAZIKA liDAdezayoH tajhayoH yathAsaGkhyam ezirecityetAvAdezau bhavataH. zakAraH sarvAdezArthaH. cakAraH svarArthaH. pece, pecAte, pecire. lebhe, lebhAte, lebhire.

For the flats, see Nalatusus below.

255 letters. -- 34B.bse 1 -- popularity 22

(parasmaipa) (/Nal)

parasmaipadAnAM Nal;atus;us; thal;athus;a; Nal;va;mAH ONPANINI 34082
Flat ( liT) to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 383

When the nine flat tiG --

tip tas jhi

sip thas tha

mip vas mas

replace liT, they turn into --

(N)a(l) atus us

tha(l) athus a

(N)a(l) va ma.

The l labels trigger liti and the N labels acoJNiti or ata_upa.


kR + liT tip → * kR + Nal acoJNiti kAr + Nal liTidhA kA + kAr + Nal hrasvaH ka + kAr + Nal kuhozcuH cakAra "he made"

kR + liT tas → * kR + atuscakR + atus ikoyaNaci cakratus "both made"

kR + liT jhi → * kR + uscakR + us ikoyaNaci cakrus "they made"

KAZIKA liTaH ity eva. liD-AdezAnAM parasmaipada-saMjJAkAnAM yathA-saGkhyaM tib-AdInAM Nal-Adayo nava AdezA bhavanti. lakAraH svar%ArthaH. NakAro vRddhy-arthaH. papAca, pecatuH, pecuH. pecitha, papaktha, pecathuH, peca. papAca, papaca, peciva, pecima.

For the bent replacers of liT, see liTas ta;jhayor ez;irec above.

320 letters. -- 34B.bse 32 -- popularity 84

(vidolaTo) (!vid)

vido laTo vA ONPANINI 34083
After vid, optionally laT to ( Nalatusus etc).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 384

After the root vid that means "know, get to know" we may replace flat laT affixes with the Nalatusus etc affixes mentioned in the previous rule --

vid + laT tip → * vid + Nal puganta veda "knows"

(here liTidhA did not work because it only works on affixes that replaced liT, and this Nal replaced laT)

vid + laT tas → * vidatus "both know"

vid + laT jhi → * vidus "they know"

vid + laT sip → * vid + thal puganta vedtha kharica vettha "you know"

If we don't take this option --

vid + laT tip puganta vedti kharica vetti "knows"

vittas "both know"

vidanti "they know"

KAZIKA parasmaipadAnAm ityeva. vida jJAne, asmAd dhAtoH pareSAM laDAdezAnAM parasmaipadAnAM NalAdayo nava vikalpena AdezA bhavanti. veda, vidatuH, viduH. vettha, vidathuH, vida. veda, vidva, vidma. na ca bhavati. vetti, vittaH, vidanti. vetsi, vitthaH, vittha. vedmi, vidvaH, vidmaH.

380 letters. -- 34B.bse 104 -- popularity 2

403 (/jhi to /jus) after /sic, @stammered, /vid.

(bruvaHpaJcA) (/Ah)

bruvaH paJcAnAm Adita$ Aho bruvaH ONPANINI 34084
brU to Ah optionally before the first five.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 385

The first five are Nalatusus thal athus, the first five affixes of the nine mentioned in the previous rule.

This rule boils down to saying that we may, if we like, replace bravIti brUtaH bruvanti bravISi brUThas with --

Aha "says"

Ahatus "they two say"

Ahus "they say"

Attha "you say"

Ahathus "you2 say"


This Ah is not a true root; it is just a replacement of brU root that is only used to make these five words.

If we take pANini seriously, we are trickling laT from the previous rule, so those five words can only mean the present and not the past. Yet, ignore that. They have been used to mean the present or the past since forever. For instance in the bhg we can hear --

hRSIkezanM tadA vAkyam idam Aha mahIpate "then kRSNa said"

KAZIKA parasmaipadAnAm ity eva, laTo vA iti ca. bruvaH parasya laTaH parasmaipadAnAM paJcAnAma adibhUtAnAM paJcaiva NalAdaya AdezA bhavanti, tat-sanniyogena ca bruva Aha-zabda Adezo bhavati. Aha, AhatuH, AhuH. Attha, AhathuH. na ca bhavati. bravIti, brUtaH, bruvanti. bravISi, brUthaH. paJcAnAm iti kim? brUtha. bravImi, brUvaH, brUmaH. AditaH iti kim? pareSAM mA bhUt. bruvaH iti punar vacanaM sthAnyartham, parasmaipadAnAm eva hi syAt.

For the formation of Attha, see Ahas thaH.

611 letters. -- 34B.bse 153 -- popularity 2

1202 Roots for "say".

(loTolaGvat) (!loT)

loTo laGvat ONPANINI 34085
Replace loT as if it were laG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 386

After loT is replaced with one of these five --

tas thas tha vas mas

the rules that replace laG (namely tasthastha, nityaGGitaH) work on them, and turn them into --

tAm''' tam''' ta''' va''' ma'''

and then ADutta will turn the last two into Ava''' Ama'''.

This rule will not work on the other thirteen loT replacers, because of the exceptions merniH serhyapicca savAbhyAM vAmau eruH eta::ai AmetaH.

Examples --

gaccha + loT tas → * gaccha + tAm'''gacchatAm "let both go"

gaccha + loT thas → * gaccha + tam'''gacchatam "go! (the two of you)"

gaccha + loT tha → * gaccha + ta'''gacchata "go! (y'all)"

gaccha + loT vas → * gaccha + va''' ADutta gaccha + Ava'''gacchAva "let's go (the two of us)"

gaccha + loT mas → * gaccha + ma''' ADutta gaccha + Ama'''gacchAma "let's go"

KAZIKA atidezo 'yam. loTo laGvat kAryaM bhavati. tAmAdayaH, salopazca. pacatAm. pacatam. pacata. pacAva. pacAma. aDATau kasmAn na bhavataH, tathA jher jusAdezaH laGaH zAkaTAyanasya eva 34111 iti vAntu, yAntu ityato vAgrahaNam anuvartate, sA ca vyavasthitavibhASA bhaviSyati.

To mean "let's go", you may always use the laT forms, gacchAvas and gacchAmas. This is allowed by vartamAnasAmIpye.

653 letters. -- 34B.bse 207 -- popularity 4

405 Optionally /laG (/jhi to /jus after !A).

1098 /loT replacement rules

(eruH) (/atu)

er uH ONPANINI 34086
replace i with u in loT replacersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 387

This rule turns tip jhi into tu''' jhu''' in the loT. The jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''' by jhontaH ff.


bhU + loT tip → * bhU + tu'''bhava + tubhavatu "may he be"

as in sukhI bhavatu "may he be happy"

bhU + loT jhi → * bhU + jhu'''bhava + jhu jhontaH bhavantu "may they be"

as in sarve bhavantu sukhinaH "may all be happy"

dviS + loT tip → * dviS + tu''' puganta dveStu STunA dveSTu "may he hate"

dviS + loT jhi → * dviS + jhu jhontaH dviSantu "may they hate"

This rule does not work on sip (see hi''') nor on mip (see Ani''').

See also loT replacements .

KAZIKA loTaH ity eva. loD-AdezAnAm ikArasya ukAr'-Adezo bhavati. pacatu. pacantu. hinyorutva-pratiSedho vaktavyaH. na vA uccAraNa-sAmarthyAt. atha vA vA iti vartate, sA ca vyavazita-vibhASA.

391 letters. -- 34B.bse 297 -- popularity 10

(serhyapicca) (/hi)

ser hy apic ca ONPANINI 34087
( loT) sip to apit hi'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 388

Exception to eruH. The sip that replaces loT must be replaced with a hi that has no p label. Example --

brU + loT sip → * brU + hi'''brUhi "tell!"

This hi''' has no p label because the rule says it doesn't; otherwise it would have inherited the p of sip.

hi''' being apit, rule hard apit is Git works on it, and it has label G.

This G explains why rule hardsoft did not work on brU before hi(G).

The hi''' will disappear, or turn into dhi, when rules atoheH utazca hujha say so.

Back to loT replacements .

KAZIKA loTaH ity eva. loD Adezasya ser hi ityayam Adezo bhavati, apic ca bhavati. sthAnivadbhAvAt pittvaM prAptaM pratiSidhyate. lunIhi. punIhi. rAdhnuhi. takSNuhi.

382 letters. -- 34B.bse 326 -- popularity 20

(merniH) (/Ani)

mer niH ONPANINI 34089
( loT) mip to ni.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 389

After this rule replaces loT mip with ni, this ni always turns into Ani''' (which is a pit affix) by ADutta --

loT mip → * ni ADutta Ani(p)

This Ani''' affix means "let me" or "I shall" --

Example --

kR + loT mip → * kR + Ani'''kR + u + Ani hardsoft kar + u + Ani hardsoft karo + Ani ecoya karavAni Natvam karavANi "i shall do"

As in --

bhagavan svAgatanM te 'stu kim ahaGM karavANi te "welcome, your holiness! what shall I do for you?"

This Ani''' is rarely used, as the sense of "let me" is usually conveyed by the laT --

bhagavan kiGM karomi te "what do I do for you?, what can I do for you?"

KAZIKA loTaH ityeva. loDAdezasya meH niH Adezo bhavati. utvalopayor apavAdaH. pacAni. paThAni.

390 letters. -- 34B.bse 361 -- popularity 9

52 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

358 What means near present, is optionally like present.

386 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

387 replace !i with !u in /loT replacers

864 @Stammered doesn't (get !!puganta) before @vowel /pit @hard.

865 /bhU !sU get no @hardsoft before @hard /tiG.

1097 /loT replacements

1098 /loT replacement rules

(AmetaH) (/tAm'''')

Am etaH ONPANINI 34090
e (of the loT) to Am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 390

When loT is replaced with one of --

ta AtAm AthAm jha

rule Tita works on them and makes --

te''' Ate''' Athe''' jhe'''

and then this Am etaH rule replaces that e with Am --

tAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm'''' jhAm''''

After this, rule jhontaH and its two exceptions will change the jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.

Example --

plu + zap + loT jhaplava + jha Tita plava + jhe → * plava + jhAm jhontaH plava + antAm'''' atoguNe plavantAm "let them jump, make them jump"

Back to loT replacements .

KAZIKA loTaH ityeva. loT sambadhinaH ekArasya Am ityayam Adezo bhavati. pacatAm, pacetAm, pacantAm.

357 letters. -- 34B.bse 370 -- popularity 7

386 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

652 /ghu {mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA} to !I before consonant /kGit @soft.

711 (!jh) of /jha (to !at) after non-!a.

712 After /zIG, (this !at from /jha gets) !ruT.

1098 /loT replacement rules

1427 root changes before /yak and @soft /liG

(savAbhyAMvA) (/sva')

sa;vAbhyAM v';.Amau ONPANINI 34091
(In the loT,) thAs dhvam to sva''' dhvam''''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 391

Examples --

yudh + loT thAsyudh + zyan + thAs → * yudhya + sva'''yudhyasva "fight!"

yudh + loT dhvamyudh + zyan + dhvam → * yudhya + dhvam''''yudhyadhvam "fight! (y'all)"

Back to loT replacements .

KAZIKA loTa ityeva. sakAravakArAbhyAm uttarasya loTsambandhina ekArasya yathAsaGkhyaM va am ityetAvAdezau bhavataH. Amo'pavAdaH. pacasva. pacadhvam.

The "replace dvam with dhvam" in the rule appears to be useless at first sight. But if it wweren't there, then Tita would work.

238 letters. -- 34B.bse 489 -- popularity 9

224 /san after !gup !tij !kit has special senses.

381 Replace /thAs with /se''' (in the /Tit tenses).

386 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

680 (Before /kGit @hard), !A of /znA and @stammered to (/lopa).

912 !s to ( !t ) before @soft !s.

958 (Erase !s) before !dh.

962 Delete !s !k that start a @cluster that is (before @serious) or is @wordfinal.

1098 /loT replacement rules

(ADuttama) (/Av)

AD uttamasya pic ca ONPANINI 34092
first person loT gets AT and becomes pit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 392

When loT is replaced with the six first person tiG affixes --

mip vas mas iT' vahi mahi

then the rules merni loTolaGvat eta::ai replace them with

ni va''' ma''' ai vahai mahai

and then this rule adds an A in front of them and makes them pit. So we get --

Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

all of which have p label. The p label stops rule hard apit is Git , so that none of these have label G.

The forms made with these affixes mean "let me" or "let us". They are seldom used, because the "let's" sense is usually conveyed by the laT. You will find both laT and loT in the epics in this sense --

te vayanM tatra gacchAmaH praSTuGM kurupitAmaham | praNamya zirasA cainamM mantramM pRcchAma mAdhava || "we go ask Grampa, let's ask him humbly for advice"

Back to loT replacements .

609 letters. -- 34B.bse 559 -- popularity 9

358 What means near present, is optionally like present.

865 /bhU !sU get no @hardsoft before @hard /tiG.

1098 /loT replacement rules

(etaai) (!eta)

eta:: ai ONPANINI 34093
e (of the first person loT) to ai.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 393

So iT' vahi mahi first turn into e''' vahe''' mahe''' by Tita, then into ai vahai mahai by this rule, and then get AT by the previous rule, making ai''', Avahai''', Amahai''', which are pit --

edh + loT iT'edh + e''' → * edh + ai ADutta edh + ai'''edhai "let me increase"

edh + loT vahiedh + vahe''' → * edh + vahai ADutta edh + Avahai'''edhAvahai "let the two of us increase"

edh + loT mahiedh + mahe''' → * edh + mahai ADutta edh + Amahai'''edhAmahai "let us increase"

Don't worry much about these forms -- if you ever think you need to use one, use the laT or the liG instead, works fine.

419 letters. -- 34B.bse 721 -- popularity 3

386 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

1098 /loT replacement rules

33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses