33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses

34067 kRt affixes mean the doer. kartarikRt
34069 Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too. laHkarmaNicabhAvecAkarmakebhyaH
34070 kRtya kta khalartha only . tayorevakRtyaktakhalarthAH
34071 When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer. AdikarmaNiktaHkartarica
34072 Also after roots that mean movement, objectless, zliS "hug", zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan "produce", ruh "climb", jR . gatyarthAkarmakazliSazIGsthAsavasajanaruhajIryatibhyazca
34073 dAza- goghna- may mean the aim dAzagoghnausampradAne
34076 After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too. ktodhikaraNecadhrauvyagatipratyavasAnArthebhyaH
34077 tense to tiG. lasya
34078 tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG. tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastAtAJjhathAsAthAndhvamiDvahimahiG
34079 Tail of Tit bent to e. TitaAtmanepadAnANTere
34080 Replace thAs with se''' . thAsasse
34081 liT's ta jha to ez irec. liTastajhayorezirec
34082 Flat to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama. parasmaipadAnANNalatususthalathusaNalvamAH
34083 After vid, optionally laT to . vidolaTovA
34084 brU to Ah optionally before the first five. bruvaHpaJcAnAmAditaAhobruvaH
34085 Replace loT as if it were laG. loTolaGvat
34086 replace i with u in loT replacers eruH
34087 sip to apit hi'''. serhyapicca
34089 mip to ni. merniH
34090 e to Am. AmetaH
34091 thAs to sva''', and dhvam to dhvam''''. savAbhyAMvAmau
34092 first person loT gets AT and becomes pit. ADuttamasyapicca
34093 e to ai. etaai

(kartarikRt) (!kartarikR)

kartari kRt ONPANINI 34067
kRt affixes mean the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 348

This rule uses the word kartari "means the doer" in two slightly different senses --

First sense. A kRt affix, such as for instance kvin or tRc, will mean the doer of the action it is attached to, unless some rule says otherwise. Therefore yuj + kvin means "a joiner", and so does yuj + tRc. But yuj + tumun does not mean "a joiner", because rule tumunNvulau says otherwise.

Second sense. The affixes that make verblikes, such as ktavatu, will mean the doer. But the kRtya do not mean the doer, because rule tayoreva says otherwise.

410 letters. -- 34.bse 561 -- popularity 5

279 Add /lyu /Nini /ac'' after the !nandAdi !grahAdi !pacAdi.

288 Add {(kh)a(z)} after !eji (when it is compounded after its @object).

317 {bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu} get /kvip only.

319 The {gamin-} class mean what will happen

353 !dAza- !goghna- may mean the @aim

(laHkarmaNi) (!laH)

laH karmaNi ca bhAve c' .AkarmakebhyaH ONPANINI 34069
Tenses mean the object too. After objectless mean nothing too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 349

We are trickling "means the doer". So this rule teaches that --

tense replacers, after an objectful root, may mean the doer or mean the object. Choose freely.

tense replacers, after an objectless root, may mean the doer or mean nothing. Choose freely.

Example after kSip "shoot", an objectful root --

To say "the two brothers shoot arrows", we start with kSip + laT, then we must replace laT with a tiG straight away (rule lasya says so). Which tiG we need? kSip is objectful, so our tiG may mean the doer or mean the object.

If we choose doer, we must use tas, dual, because there are two doers --

kSip + laTkSip + kartari taskSip + zap + taskSipatas "both shoot"

As in --

bhrAtarau kSipatazH zarAn "the two brothers shoot arrows"

If we choose object, we need jha, plural, because the objects are many --

kSip + laTkSip + karmaNi jha → .. → kSip + yak + ante'''kSipyante "they are being shot"

As in --

kSipyante bhrAtRbhyAM zarAH "the two brothers shoot arrows"

Example after As "sit", an objectless root --

To say "the cats sat on the mat", with As + laG --

If we choose laG to mean the doer, we replace laG with jha (because root As is bendy) --

biDAlA:: Asata kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"

But if we choose laG to mean nothing, we replace laG with ta --

biDAlair Asyata kaTe "the cats sat on the mat"

Another objectless root, svap --

biDAlAsH svapanti "cats sleep" (has jhi)

biDAlaisH supyate "cats sleep" (has ta)

KAZIKA lakArAH karmaNi kArake bhavanti, cakArAt kartari ca akarmakebhyo dhAtubhyo bhAve bhavanti, punaz cakArAt kartari ca. gamyate grAmo devadattena. gacchati grAmaM devadattaH. akarmakebhyaH Asyate devadattena. Aste devadattaH. sakarmakebhyo bhAve na bhavanti.

1052 letters. -- 34A.bse 1 -- popularity 4

99 (@tense) that [@agrees with object] or [@agrees with nothing] (to @bent).

174 When not expressed somehow else...

359 [/liT]'s /ta /jha to /ez /irec.

(tayoreva) (!tay)

tayor eva kRtya;kta;khal-arthAH ONPANINI 34070
kRtya kta khalartha only ( mean the object or mean nothing).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 350

The kRtya kta khal-artha nounbases never mean the doer of their root. So if the root is objectful, these mean the object, an if it is objectless, they mean nothing.


(1) We add kta after kR, getting kRta-. Because of rule niSThA, this means that an action of making happened in the past. Because of this rule, the nounbase kRta- gets the gender, number and case from its object (whatever was made), and not from the maker --

tvayA kaTaH kRtaz cAruH "you made a pretty mat, a pretty mat was made by you"

(2) Joining the root kR "make" and the kRtya affix, tavya, we get kartavya-. Because of this rule, here the nounbase kartavya- copied the gender, number and case of kaTau, the object of kR --

kartavyau bhavatA kaTau "two mats must be made by you, you must make two mats"

KAZIKA tayoreva bhAvakarmaNoH kRtyasaMjJAkAH ktakhalarthAzca pratyayA bhavanti. evakAraH kartur apakarzaN%ArthaH. kRtyAH karmaNi kartavyaH kaTo bhavatA. bhoktavya odano bhavatA. bhAve AsitavyaM bhavatA. zayitavyaM bhavatA. ktaH karmaNi kRtaH kaTo bhavatA. bhukta odano bhavatA. bhAve AsitaM bhavatA. zayitaM bhavatA. khalarthAH karmaNi ISatkaraH kaTo bhavatA. sukaraH. duSkaraH. bhAve ISadADhyaMbhavaM bhavatA. svADhyaMbhavaM bhavatA. bhAvo cAkramakebhyaH ityanuvRtteH sakarmakebhyo bhAve na bhavanti.

Why did the doers bhavatA and tvayA get third ending in the examples above?

Because rule kartRkaraNa says so.

Why did rule karmaNidvitIyA not work in the examples above, making kaTam?

That rule does not work here because kRta- and kartavya- already mean the object. See anabhihite

In suptasya siMhasya mukhe "in the mouth of a sleeping lion", the word suptasya, a kta-ender, describes its doer siMhasya. Why did this rule not work there? Same with sItApy anugatA rAmam "sItA followed rAma".

This rule is sometimes optional on kta-enders (see AdikarmaNi, gatyarthA). No exceptions affect the kRtya-enders and the !khalartha-enders, however; they never mean the doer.

What is a khalartha affix?

The khal-enders are compound nounbases (such as ISatkara-, sukara-, duSkara-) made with khal by rule ISad;dus;su. So, sukara- always means the object --

kaTaz ca sukaras tvayA "and you can make a mat easily"

The khal-artha-enders are the compounds made with this khal, or with some other affixes that give the same meanings as khal ("little by little", "easy to", "hard to").

Can you show an example with an objectless root?

Root svap has no object, so svap + tavya "sleeping must happen" means nothing --

suptavyamM bhavatA "sleeping must be done by you, you must sleep"

suptavyam "sleep time!"

1597 letters. -- 34A.bse 825 -- popularity 4

348 /kRt affixes [@mean the doer].

(Adikarma) (!Adik)

Adi-karmaNi ktaH kartari ca ONPANINI 34071
When meaning initial action, kta optionally means the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 351

Usually, kta-enders do not mean the doer, by tayoreva above. So we may say ---

prakRtaH kaTo devadattena "John started to make a mat"

But according to this optional exception, we may also say make prakRta- mean the doer --

prakRtaH kaTam devadattaH "John started to make a mat"

Example with an objectless, pra + svap "start to sleep" --

prasuptamM mayA "I fell asleep"

prasupto 'ham "I fell asleep"

KAZIKA AdikarmaNi yaH kto vihitaH sa kartari bhavati. cakArAd yathAprAptaM bhAvakarmaNoH. AdibhUtaH kriyAkSaNa Adikarma, tasminnAdikarmaNi bhUtatvena vivakSite yaH kto vihitaH, tasya ayam arthanirdezaH. prakRtaH kaTaM devadattaH, prakRtaH kaTo devadattena, prakRtam devadattena. prabhukta odanaM devadattaH, prabhukta odano devadattena, prabhuktaM devadattena.

May I translate the first of your two examples as "the mat started to be made by John"?

Why just thefirst one? Both examples mean the exact same thing, so technically you may translate BOTH that way. Yet, your translation, even though grammatical, is likely to be bad English style.

526 letters. -- 34A.bse 947 -- popularity 1

(gatyarthAka) (!gaty)

gaty-arth%Akarmaka-zliSa;zIG;sthA;''sa;vasa;jana;ruha;jIryatibhyaz ca ONPANINI 34072
Also after roots that mean movement, objectless, zliS "hug", zIG, sthA, As, vas', jan "produce", ruh "climb", jR (to grow old).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 352

After these roots, kta may mean the doer or not.

Example with a movement root, gam. According to the previous rule, anugata- cannot mean the doer and we can only say --

sItayA 'nugato rAmaH "sItA followed rAma"

( Here kartRkaraNa worked because anugata- did not mean the doer )

Yet, this rule says that anugata- can mean the doer too --

sItA 'py anugatA rAmam "sItA too followed rAma"

( Here karmaNidvi worked because anugata- meant the doer )

Example with objectless glai + kta "weary" --

glAno bhavAn

glAnamM bhavatA

Examples with zliS --

upazliSTo gurumM bhavAn "you hugged the teacher"

upazliSTo gurur bhavatA "you hugged the teacher"

This root can be objectless too, so we can use it bhAve --

upazliSTamM bhavatA "you did some hugging"

KAZIKA gatyarthabhyo dhAtubhyo 'karmakebhya zliSAdibhyazca yaH ktaH, sa kartari bhavati. cakArAd yathAprAptaM ca bhAvakarmaNoH. gato devadatto grAmam, gato devadattena grAman, gato devadattena grAmaH, gataM devadattena. akarmakebhyaH glAno bhavAn, glAnaM bhavatA. Asito bhavAn, AsitaM bhavatA. zliSa upazliSTo guruM bhavAn, upazliSTo gururbhavatA, upazliSTaM bhavatA. zIG upazayito guruM bhavAn, upazayito gururbhavatA, upazayitaM bhavatA. sthA upasthito guruM bhavAn, upasthito gururbhavatA, upasthitaM bhavatA. Asa upAsito guruM bhavAn, upAsito gururbhavatA, upAsitaM bhavatA. vasa anUSito guruM bhavAn, anUSito gururbhavatA, anUSitaM bhavatA. jana anujAto mANavako mANa vikAm, anujAtA mANavakena mANavikA, anujAtaM mANavakena. ruha ArUDho vRkSaM bhavAn, ArUDho vRkSo bhavatA, ArUDhaM bhavatA. jIryati anujIrNo vRSalIM devadattaH, anujIrNA vRpalI devadattena, anujIrNaM devadattena. zliSAdayaH sopasargAH sakarmakA bhavanti, tadartham eSAm upAdAnam.

How can I know if a root is a movement root or not? Is plu a movement root?

Look up your root in the dhAtupATha. The movement roots have gatau written after them. Like 01.1112 plu pluG gatau.

As is an objectless root, so why does the sUtra bother to mention it?

because As may be objectful sometimes

upAsito gurumM bhavAn

upAsito gurur bhavatA

838 letters. -- 34A.bse 978 -- popularity 1

350 /kRtya /kta !khalartha only ([@mean the object] or [@mean nothing]).

(dAzagoghnau) (!dAz)

dAza;goghnau sampradAne ONPANINI 34073
dAza- goghna- may mean the aimmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 353

These two words are exceptions to kartarikRt, that would have made dAza- mean "giver" and goghna- means "cow-killer".

According to this rule, dAza- means dAzanti tasmai "they give to him", that is, "a servant". So it is made from root dAz dAzR 01.1025 "give" with the affix ac''.

This rule also states that the word goghna- means AgatAya tasmai dAtuGM gAM hanti "when he comes they kill a cow for him", that is, an honored guest, such as a Rtvij or a son-in-law.

There is another word goghna- that has the regular meaning "cow-killer" by kartarikRt. It can also mean "a cANDAla".

Some say that in ancient India there was a custom of killing cattle for very honored guests. Same as in the story of the prodigal son, "And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry".

Others say that in ancient India no one ever even THOUGHT of killing cattle. If any of these are among your students, you may skip the explanation of goghna- given by this rule and tell them that goghna- comes from go- + aghna-, "one that does not kill cows" (with eGaHpa). This explanation is grammatically unsound, but will not hurt their feelings.

KAZIKA dAzagoghnau zabdau saMpradAne kArake nipAtyete. dAzR dAne, tataH pacAdyac. sa kRtsaMjJakatvAt kartari prAptaH, sampradAne nipAtyate. dAzanti tasmai iti dAzaH. AgatAya tasmai dAtuM gAM hanti iti goghnaH, arghArho 'tithiH. Tagatra nipAtyate. nipAtanasAmarthyAdeva goghnaH RtvigAdirucyate, na tu caNDAlAdiH. asatyapi ca gohanane tasya yogyatayA goghnaH ityabhidhIyate.

872 letters. -- 34A.bse 1015 -- popularity none

(ktodhikara) (!kto)

kto 'dhikaraNe ca dhrauvya-gati-pratyavasAn%ArthebhyaH ONPANINI 34076
After staying, moving and consuming, kta can mean the location too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 354

Example with root of staying --

As + kta may mean the place where someone sits

idam eSAm Asitam "this is where they sit"

moving --

yA + kta may mean the place to which someone goes

idanM tasya yAtam "this is where he goes"

consuming --

pA + kta may mean the place where someone drinks

idaGM gavAmM pItam "this is where the cows drink"

The rule says "too". Therefore, these kta-enders do not have to mean the location, and they can still mean the object --

yAto devadattena grAmaH "John went to the village"

mean the doer --

yAto devadatto grAmam "John went to the village"

or mean nothing --

Asitam devadattena "John sat"

when other rules allow them to.

KAZIKA drauvyArthAH akarmakAH, pratyavasAnArthAH abhyavahArArthAH iti svanikAya-prasiddhiH. dhrauvyAgatipratyavasAnArthebhyaH yaH kto vihitaH so 'dhikaraNe bhavati. ca-kArAd yathAprAptaM ca. dhrauvyArthebhyaH kartR-bhAvAdhikaraNeSu, gaty-arthebhyaH kartR-karmabhAv%AdhikaraneSu, pratyavasAnArthebhyaH karmabhAvAdhikaraNesu. bhrauvyArthebhyaH tAvat Asito devadattaH, AsitaM tena, idam eSAm Asitam. gaty-arthebhyaH yAto devadatto grAmam, yAto devadattena grAmaH, yAtaM devadattena, idam eSAM yAtam. pratyavasAnArthebhyaH bhuktaH odano devadattena, devadattena bhuktam, idam eSAM bhuktam. kathaM bhuktA brAhmaNAH, pItA gAvaH iti. akAro matvarthIyaH, bhuktam eSAm asti, pItam eSAm astIti.

495 letters. -- 34A.bse 1047 -- popularity none

(lasya) (!las)

lasya ONPANINI 34077
tense to tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 355

In more detail --

"after adding a tense to a root, we must always replace the tense with a tiG".


To mean "you throw", in a sentence like "you throw stones", we may join kSip + laT, because rule vartamAnelaT says so.

Now, because of this rule, we must inmediately replace laT with one of the eighteen tiG. Because of other rules ( laHkarmaNi and many others), in this case we can use either sip or jha as replacement.

If we choose sip --

kSip + laT → * kSip + kartari sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

and our sentence will be

zilAH kSipasi "you throw stones"

But if we choose jha --

kSip + laT → * kSip + karmaNi jhakSip + yak + jhakSip + ya + ante'''kSipyante "they are being thrown"

and our sentence will be

zilAH kSipyante tvayA "you throw stones, stones are thrown by you"

KAZIKA lasya tib-Adya AdezA bhavanti. tipsipmipAM pakAraH svarArthaH. iTaSTakAraH iTod iti vizeSaNArthaH, tibAdibhirAdezais tulyatvAn na dezavidhyarthaH. mahiGo GakAraH tiGiti pratyAhAragrahaNArthaH. pacati, pacataH, pacanti. pacasi, pacathaH, pacatha. pacAmi, pacAvaH, pacAmaH. pacate, pacete, pacante. pacase, pacethe, pacadhve. pace, pacAvahe, pacAmahe. evam anyeSvapi lakareSu udAhAryam.

These are some of the rules that teach which ones of the eighteen tiG affixes will replace a tense. Do not read all in one sitting, lest your head should fall off --







Most of the time, two of the tiG affixes are allowed, because rule laHkarmaNi allows us to choose freely between two options, and once we have made that choice, usually all the other rules work automatically with no more options allowed. There are exceptions to that; for instance, after the root plu or other bendy roots, only one tiG is allowed.

VERY IMPORTANT WARNING. This rule works every single time we make a verb. This is why, instead of typing --

kSip + laT lasya kSip + kartari sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

, like I did above, I will sometimes type --

kSip + laT sipkSip + za + sipkSipasi "you throw"

, in order to save space. This "kSip + laT sip" thingie means that first we add laT after the root kSip, and then we replace laT with sip by rule lasya . This laT sip NEVER EVER means that we first add laT and then add sip after it. laT or other tenses never get anything added after them, they are always replaced with something else. No exceptions.

1514 letters. -- 34A.bse 1080 -- popularity 8

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

122 [/sup]-[/tiG]-ender is @word.

233 (@Root gets) /sya /tAs before !lR /luT.

(tiptasjhisi) (/tiG)

tip;tas;jhi sip;thas;tha mib;vas;mas tAtAJ;jha thAs;AthAn;dhvam iD;vahi;mahiG ONPANINI 34078
tiG are tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 356 tiG

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4166

The tiG are eighteen affixes divided in six groups of three.

They always replace a tense.

See also:





KAZIKA lasya tibAdya AdezA bhavanti. tipsipmipAM pakAraH svarArthaH. iTaSTakAraH iTo 'd iti vizeSaNArthaH, tibAdibhirAdezais tulyatvAn na dezavidhyarthaH. mahiGo GakAraH tiGiti pratyAhAragrahaNArthaH. pacati, pacataH, pacanti. pacasi, pacathaH, pacatha. pacAmi, pacAvaH, pacAmaH. pacate, pacete, pacante. pacase, pacethe, pacadhve. pace, pacAvahe, pacAmahe. evam anyeSvapi lakareSu udAhAryam.

Does that mahiG affix have G label?

No. The last affix is mahi, not mahiG. This G is added at the end of the whole list so that ti-G will mean "the affixes from tip to mahi" and ta-G will mean "affixes from ta to mahi". See Adirantyena and taG;AnAv Atmanepadam.

Does that iT' affix have T label?

No. This T is just a tellaparter. So this iT' is not a Tit affix, and will not trigger Tita.

397 letters. -- 34A.bse 1556 -- popularity 72

(TitaAtma) (/te''')

Tita:: AtmanepadAnAM Ter e ONPANINI 34079
tail of Tit bent to e.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 357

Example. When in plu + laT dhvam, the dhvam is a bent tiG replaces laT, a Tit tense. The tail of dhvam is am. Replacing the tail with e makes dhvam become dhve --

plu + laTplu + dhvamplava + dhvam → * plava + dhve'''plavadhve "y'all jump"

This rule replaces eight of the nine bent tiG , and the next rule thAsasse replaces the ninth. So, in Tit tenses, the bent turn into --

te''' Ate''' jhe'''

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

Of course, jhe''' will turn into ante''' or ate''', by jhontaH or its exceptions.

397 letters. -- 34A.bse 1620 -- popularity 73

(thAsasse) (/se')

thAsaH se ONPANINI 34080
Replace thAs with se''' (in the Tit tenses).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 358

Exception to Tita.

Examples --

plava + laT thAs → * plava + se'''plavase "you jump"

plava + loT thAs → * plava + se''' savAbhyAMvAmau plava + sva'''plavasva "jump!"

This se''' is one of the laT replacements and of the liT replacements , and appears in the list of luT terminations as tAse.

Why do we say "in the Tit tenses"?

thAs stays unchanged when it replaces a Git tense --

plava + laG thAsaT + plava + thAsaplavathAs "you jumped"

310 letters. -- 34A.bse 1690 -- popularity 8

878 !s to ( !t ) before @soft !s.

936 /dadh to (!dhadh-) before {t th s dh}.

1242 The [@Tit tense]s are /laT /liT /luT /lRT !leT /loT.

1341 non-[@third person] /liT is VERY uncommon

(liTastajha) (/ez)

liTas ta;jhayor ez;irec ONPANINI 34081
liT's ta jha to ez irec.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 359

Replace liT ta with e(z) --

kR + liT ta → * kR + ezcakR + e ikoyaNaci cakre "he made; it was made"

Replace liT jha with ire(c) --

kR + liT jha → * kR + ireccakR + ire ikoyaNaci cakrire "they made; they were made"

The other seven bent liT just get Tita, same as the laT --

kR + liT AtAm Tita kR + Ate'''cakR + Ate ikoyaNaci cakrAte "both made; both were made"

For the flats, see Nalatusus rule below.

KAZIKA liDAdezayoH tajhayoH yathAsaGkhyam ezirecityetAvAdezau bhavataH. zakAraH sarvAdezArthaH. cakAraH svarArthaH. pece, pecAte, pecire. lebhe, lebhAte, lebhire.

How come cakre can mean "it was made" as well as "he made"?

Rule laHkarmaNi allows that.

Why no yak in the cakre that means "it was made"? Looks to me as if sArvadhAtukeyak should apply here.

No. That rule only works sArvadhAtuke "before hard". Rule liTca made the liT replacers soft.

467 letters. -- 34B.bse 1 -- popularity 20

(parasmaipa) (/Nal)

parasmaipadAnAM Nal;atus;us; thal;athus;a; Nal;va;mAH ONPANINI 34082
Flat ( liT) to Nalatusus thalathusa Nalvama.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 360

When the nine flat tiG --

tip tas jhi,

sip thas tha,

mip vas mas

replace liT, replace them with --

Nal atus us,

thal athus a,

Nal va ma

, respectively.


kR + liT tip → * kR + Nal acoJNiti kAr + Nal liTidhA kA + kAr + Nal hrasvaH ka + kAr + Nal kuhozcuH cakAra "he made"

kR + liT tas → * kR + atuscakR + atus ikoyaNaci cakratus "both made"

kR + liT jhi → * kR + uscakR + us ikoyaNaci cakrus "they made"

KAZIKA liTaH ityeva. liDAdezAnAM parasmaipadasaMjJAkAnAM yathAsaGkhyaM tib-AdInAM NalAdayo nava AdezA bhavanti. lakAraH svarArthaH. NakAro vRddhyarthaH. papAca, pecatuH, pecuH. pecitha, papaktha, pecathuH, peca. papAca, papaca, peciva, pecima.

What happens to the bent liTs?

See rule liTas ta;jhayor ez;irec right above.

294 letters. -- 34B.bse 32 -- popularity 82

(vidolaTo) (!vid)

vido laTo vA ONPANINI 34083
After vid, optionally laT to ( Nalatusus etc).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 361

After the root vid that means "know, get to know" we may replace flat laT affixes with the Nalatusus etc affixes mentioned in the previous rule --

vid + laT tip → * vid + Nal puganta veda "knows"

vid + laT tas → * vidatus "both know"

vid + laT jhi → * vidus "they know"

vid + laT sip → * vid + thal puganta vedtha kharica vettha "you know"

If we don't take this option --

vid + laT tip puganta vedti kharica vetti "knows"

vittas "both know"

vidanti "they know"

KAZIKA parasmaipadAnAm ityeva. vida jJAne, asmAd dhAtoH pareSAM laDAdezAnAM parasmaipadAnAM NalAdayo nava vikalpena AdezA bhavanti. veda, vidatuH, viduH. vettha, vidathuH, vida. veda, vidva, vidma. na ca bhavati. vetti, vittaH, vidanti. vetsi, vitthaH, vittha. vedmi, vidvaH, vidmaH.

Wait. Why does liTidhA not turn vid + Nal into viveda, as usual?

Because liTidhA only works before affixes that replaced liT. The affixes in the examples above replaced laT.

Will the Nalatusus affixes replace liT after this root too?

Compulsorily so. And then, they will trigger liTidhA --

vid + liT tip Nalatusus vid + Nal liTidhA viveda "he knew"

vid + liT jhi → .. → vividus "they knew"

unless of course we choose to apply rule uSavida --

vid + liT tipvidAJcakAra "he knew"

vidAJcakrus "they knew"

662 letters. -- 34B.bse 105 -- popularity 2

380 (/jhi to /jus) after /sic, @stammered, /vid.

(bruvaHpaJcA) (/Ah)

bruvaH paJcAnAm Adita$ Aho bruvaH ONPANINI 34084
brU to Ah optionally before the first five.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 362

The first five are Nalatusus thal athus, the first five affixes of the nine mentioned in the previous rule.

This rule boils down to saying that we may, if we like, replace bravIti brUtaH bruvanti bravISi brUThas with --

Aha "says"

Ahatus "they two say"

Ahus "they say"

Attha "you say"

Ahathus "you2 say"


This Ah is not a true root; it is just a replacement of brU root that is only used to make these five words.

KAZIKA parasmaipadAnAm ity eva, laTo vA iti ca. bruvaH parasya laTaH parasmaipadAnAM paJcAnAma adibhUtAnAM paJcaiva NalAdaya AdezA bhavanti, tat-sanniyogena ca bruva Aha-zabda Adezo bhavati. Aha, AhatuH, AhuH. Attha, AhathuH. na ca bhavati. bravIti, brUtaH, bruvanti. bravISi, brUthaH. paJcAnAm iti kim? brUtha. bravImi, brUvaH, brUmaH. AditaH iti kim? pareSAM mA bhUt. bruvaH iti punar vacanaM sthAnyartham, parasmaipadAnAm eva hi syAt.

In the verse hRSIkezanM tadA vAkyam idam Aha mahIpate, the Aha word is clearly used in the sense of "he said", not "he says". Is that kosher?

No. Technically speaking that is ungrammatical, because pANini only allows Aha to replace the laT, bravIti, but not abravIt or any other form of brU expressing past time. HOWEVER. Since time inmemorial, these five forms have been used also to mean past time. Therefore, if you do the same thing, no one is going to complain.

When joining Ah + thal, rule hoDhaH says we must turn Ah into ADh, not into At. How come we got At?

hoDhaH has an exception AhasthaH.

793 letters. -- 34B.bse 154 -- popularity 2

1155 Roots for "say".

(loTolaGvat) (!loT)

loTo laGvat ONPANINI 34085
Replace loT as if it were laG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 363

After loT is replaced with one of these five --

tas thas tha vas mas

this rule replaces them with --

tAm''' tam''' ta''' va''' ma'''

just as if they had replaced laG (see tasthastha, nityaGGitaH for the small details). And right after this, rule ADutta turns the last two into Ava''' Ama'''.

So we say --

gaccha + loT tas → * gaccha + tAm'''gacchatAm "let both go"

gaccha + loT thas → * gaccha + tam'''gacchatam "go! (the two of you)"

gaccha + loT tha → * gaccha + ta'''gacchata "go! (y'all)"

gaccha + loT vas → * gaccha + va''' ADutta gaccha + Ava'''gacchAva "let's go (the two of us)"

gaccha + loT mas → * gaccha + ma''' ADutta gaccha + Ama'''gacchAma "let's go"

Keep in mind that Ava''' and Ama''' are rarities, so in the sense of "let's go", expect to hear the laT forms instead --

gaccha + laT vas atodIrghoyaJi gacchAvas "the two of us go; let's go (the two of us)"

gaccha + laT mas atodIrghoyaJi gacchAmas "we go; let's go"

These laT forms are allowed by vartamAnasAmIpye, as they describe the inmediate future.

The rule says that all of the loT is like laG. Why does this rule work on those five affixes only? Why not on the other thirteen?

Because of the exceptions merniH serhyapicca savAbhyAM vAmau eruH eta::ai AmetaH. Quod vide.

In other rules that have "vat", the affix that is like another affix works like the other affix, and triggers rules that the other affix would have triggered. Then, how come our laGval loT doesn't trigger luGlaG as if it were a true laG?

Because this rule is not loTlaGvat " loT is like laG", but loTolaGvat , with a Gas from SaSThI sthAne-yogA. So it means "REPLACE loT laGwise". The laG-like-ness is restricted to the replacing, id est, the affixes are not laGlike as far as luGlaG and other rules are concerned. They are still loT-replacers.

1320 letters. -- 34B.bse 201 -- popularity 4

382 Optionally /laG (/jhi to /jus after !A).

1060 /loT replacement rules

(eruH) (/atu)

er uH ONPANINI 34086
replace i with u in loT replacersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 364

This rule turns tip jhi into tu''' jhu''' in the loT. The jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''' by jhontaH ff.


bhU + loT tip → * bhU + tu'''bhava + tubhavatu "may he be"

as in sukhI bhavatu "may he be happy"

bhU + loT jhi → * bhU + jhu'''bhava + jhu jhontaH bhavantu "may they be"

as in sarve bhavantu sukhinaH "may all be happy"

dviS + loT tip → * dviS + tu''' puganta dveStu STunA dveSTu "may he hate"

dviS + loT jhi → * dviS + jhu jhontaH dviSantu "may they hate"

This rule does not work on sip (see hi''') nor on mip (see Ani''').

See also loT replacements .

KAZIKA loTaH ity eva. loD-AdezAnAm ikArasya ukAr'-Adezo bhavati. pacatu. pacantu. hinyorutva-pratiSedho vaktavyaH. na vA uccAraNa-sAmarthyAt. atha vA vA iti vartate, sA ca vyavazita-vibhASA.

391 letters. -- 34B.bse 286 -- popularity 9

44 @Sixth in a rule can mean "replace".

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

679 (!jh to) !at after @stammered

705 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

1060 /loT replacement rules

(serhyapicca) (/hi)

ser hy apic ca ONPANINI 34087
( loT) sip to apit hi'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 365

Exception to eruH. The sip that replaces loT must be replaced with a hi that has no p label. Example --

brU + loT sip → * brU + hi'''brUhi "tell!"

Wait. Why no brohi there?

Being apit, this hi''' is Git by hard apit is Git . That's why hardsoft didn't work.

This hi''' will disappear after a --

car + loT sip → * car + hi'''car + zap + hi atoheH car + zap + lukcara "move!"

and sometimes after u or znu --

kR + loT sipkR + u + sip → * kR + u + hi''' utazca kR + u + luk hardsoft kar + u ata::utsA kuru "make!"

zru + loT sipzRNu + sip → * zRNu + hi''' utazca zRNu "listen!"

Also, sometimes hi''' will turn into dhi by hujha.

Back to loT replacements .

Why wasn't the rule worded as serhiGicca? That would have worked the same way. Simpler too.

No. It would have worked the same way only for people like you and me, who don't care about getting the accents right. pANini did care.

bravIti ..

KAZIKA loTaH ityeva. loD Adezasya ser hi ityayam Adezo bhavati, apic ca bhavati. sthAnivadbhAvAt pittvaM prAptaM pratiSidhyate. lunIhi. punIhi. rAdhnuhi. takSNuhi.

604 letters. -- 34B.bse 315 -- popularity 19

(merniH) (/Ani)

mer niH ONPANINI 34089
( loT) mip to ni.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 366

After this rule replaces loT mip with ni, this ni always turns into Ani''', which is a pit affix, by ADutta --

loT mip → * ni ADutta Ani(p)

Example --

kR + loT mip → * kR + Ani'''kR + u + Ani hardsoft kar + u + Ani hardsoft karo + Ani ecoya karavAni Natvam karavANi "i shall do"

As in --

bhagavan svAgatanM te 'stu kim ahaGM karavANi te "welcome, your holiness! what shall I do for you?"

This Ani''' is rarely used, as the sense of "let me" is usually conveyed by the laT --

bhagavan kiGM karomi te "what do I do for you?, what can I do for you?"

KAZIKA loTaH ityeva. loDAdezasya meH niH Adezo bhavati. utvalopayor apavAdaH. pacAni. paThAni.

357 letters. -- 34B.bse 340 -- popularity 8

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

364 replace !i with !u in /loT replacers

831 /bhU !sU get no @hardsoft before @hard /tiG.

833 !tRnah gets !im (before @consonant @hard /pit).

1059 /loT replacements

1060 /loT replacement rules

(AmetaH) (/tAm'''')

Am etaH ONPANINI 34090
e (of the loT) to Am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 367

When loT is replaced with one of

ta AtAm AthAm jha

Tita works on them and makes

te''' Ate''' Athe''' jhe'''

and then this rule replaces them with

tAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm'''' jhAm''''

Of course, jhontaH and its two exceptions will change the jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.

Back to loT replacements .

249 letters. -- 34B.bse 360 -- popularity 7

252 (@Root gets) /yak before @hard nondoer.

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

624 /ghu {mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA} to !I before consonant /kGit @soft.

680 (!jh) of /jha (to !at) after non-!a.

681 After /zIG, (this !at from /jha gets) !ruT.

1060 /loT replacement rules

(savAbhyAMvA) (/sva')

sa;vAbhyAM v';.Amau ONPANINI 34091
(In the loT,) thAs to sva''', and dhvam to dhvam''''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 368

Examples --

yudh + loT thAsyudh + zyan + thAs → * yudhya + sva'''yudhyasva "fight!"

yudh + loT dhvamyudh + zyan + dhvam → * yudhya + dhvam''''yudhyadhvam "fight! (y'all)"

Back to loT replacements .

Looks like saying "replace dhvam with dhvam" is useless.

It is not useless; it is an exception to Tita, that would have made dhve'''.

Can you please show the literal translation of the rule?

Don't open that can of worms. Very ugly wording. Just believe that it boils down to "thAs turns into sva and dhvam stays".

384 letters. -- 34B.bse 470 -- popularity 7

217 /san after !gup !tij !kit has special senses.

358 Replace /thAs with /se''' (in the /Tit tenses).

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

923 (Erase !s) before !dh.

927 Delete !s !k that start a @cluster that is (before @serious) or is @wordfinal.

1060 /loT replacement rules

(ADuttama) (/Av)

AD uttamasya pic ca ONPANINI 34092
first person loT gets AT and becomes pit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 369

When loT is replaced with the six first person tiG affixes --

mip vas mas iT' vahi mahi

then the rules merni loTolaGvat eta::ai replace them with

ni va''' ma''' ai vahai mahai

and then this rule adds an A in front of them and makes them pit. So we get --

Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

all of which have p label. The p label stops rule hard apit is Git , so that none of these have label G.

The forms made with these affixes mean "let me" or "let us". They are seldom used, because the "let's" sense is usually conveyed by the laT. You will find both laT and loT in the epics in this sense --

te vayanM tatra gacchAmaH praSTuGM kurupitAmaham | praNamya zirasA cainamM mantramM pRcchAma mAdhava || "we go ask Grampa, let's ask him humbly for advice"

Back to loT replacements .

609 letters. -- 34B.bse 534 -- popularity 8

831 /bhU !sU get no @hardsoft before @hard /tiG.

1060 /loT replacement rules

(etaai) (!eta)

eta:: ai ONPANINI 34093
e (of the first person loT) to ai.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 370

So iT' vahi mahi first turn into e''' vahe''' mahe''' by Tita, then into ai vahai mahai by this rule, and then get AT by the previous rule, making ai''', Avahai''', Amahai''', which are pit --

edh + loT iT'edh + e''' → * edh + ai ADutta edh + ai'''edhai "let me increase"

edh + loT vahiedh + vahe''' → * edh + vahai ADutta edh + Avahai'''edhAvahai "let the two of us increase"

edh + loT mahiedh + mahe''' → * edh + mahai ADutta edh + Amahai'''edhAmahai "let us increase"

Don't worry much about these forms -- if you ever think you need to use one, use the laT or the liG instead, works fine.

419 letters. -- 34B.bse 696 -- popularity 3

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

1060 /loT replacement rules

33156 liG and loT ←

chunk 23: 34067 kartari karmaNi

→ 34099 Git tenses