83005 Satvam and Natvam ←

chunk 51: 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings

→ FAKE RULES --------------------------------

84040 stu to zcu near zcu. stozzcunAzcuH
84041 STu near STu. STunASTuH
84042 But no after wordfinal Tu, nAm aside. napadAntATToranAm
84043 tu stays before S. toSSi
84044 after z. zAt
84045 Wordfinal b g D d to m G N n before nasal, optionally. yaronunAsikenunAsikovA
84046 After r h, all consonants except r h optionally double. acorahAbhyAndve
84047 before non-vowel. anacica
84048 t of putra won't double before AdinI when insulting. nAdinyAkrozeputrasya
84053 serious to jaz before jhaz. jhalAJjazjhazi
84054 Delete fake h of the stammer. abhyAsecarca
84055 before khar. kharica
84056 Before pause too. But that's optional. vAvasAne
84057 a A i I u U, if they are not nonjoiner, nasalize before pause. aNopragRhyasyAnunAsikaH
84058 Before a Jay, replace M with the nasalized similar of the Jay. anusvArasyayayiparasavarNaH
84059 But optionally if wordfinal. vApadAntasya
84060 tu to before l torli
84061 After ud, replace sthA stambh with t udassthAstambhoHpUrvasya
84062 After stop, replace h optionally. jhayohonyatarasyAm
84063 z to ch . zazchoTi
84065 , optionally delete a jhar before a similar jhar. jharojharisavarNe
84068 A is open but a is half-open. aa




(stozzcunAzcuH) (/stu)

s;toH z;cunA z;cuH ONPANINI 84040
stu to zcu near zcu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1013

stu means "s and the tu", namely s t th d dh n. ( Not same as the root stu'. )

zcu means "z and the cu", namely z c ch j jh J.

So this rule replaces s t th d dh n with z c ch j jh J respectively.

This change happens to the s t th d dh n that is right before or right after z c ch j jh J.

Example of s (that is near c) changing into z --

kapis + caratikapiz carati "monkey walks"

Example of n (that is near j) changing into J --

rAjan + TA alloponaH rAjnA → * rAjJA "by the king"

Example of t (that is near c) changing into c --

gam + ati iSugami gachati checa gatchati stozz gacchati

Example of d (that is near c) changing into j --

pApAt + carati jhalAJjazonte pApAd + carati → * pApAj carati kharica pApAccarati "he walks away from the bad guy"

Why didn't the n of prazna- change into J?

See exception zAt.

538 letters. -- 84.bse 433 -- popularity 26




(STunASTuH) (/ST)

S;TunA S;TuH ONPANINI 84041
( stu to) STu near STu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1014

The expression STunA "with a STu" means here "near a STu, that is, "right before or right after a STu".

The STu letters are S and the five Tu.

So the stu (namely s t th d dh n, when they are near another STu, change into S T Th D Dh N, respectively.

Examples of s changing into S --

vRkSAs + SaTvRkSAS SaT "six trees"

rAmas + TIkate → * rAmaS TIkate "rAma jumps"

Examples of t changing into T --

dviS + kta → * dviSTa- "was hated"

dRz + kta vrazca;bhrasja dRS + ta → * dRSTa- "was seen"

ID + te''' → * ID + Te kharica ITTe "he praises"

tat + TIkA → * taT-TIkA "a subcommentary on that"

Examples of n changing into N --

takSan- + Gas alloponaH takSn- + Gas → * takSNas "of a carpenter"

niSanna- Natvam niSaNna- → * niSaNNa-

See also exceptions napadAntATToranAm and toSSi.

512 letters. -- 84.bse 487 -- popularity 56




(napadAntA) (!nap)

na padAntAT Tor a-nAm ONPANINI 84042
But no ( STunA) after wordfinal Tu, nAm aside.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1015

Exception to STunA. There is no STunA for the stu that follows a wordfinal Tu.

Examples with the words madhuliD (from madhulih + su) and SaD (from SaS- + jas) --

madhuliD + nRtyati → * madhuliDnRtyati "bee dances"

madhuliD + nRtyati → * madhuliDnRtyati yaronu madhuliNnRtyati "bee dances"

SaD + te → * SaD te kharica SaT te "those six"

Why do we say " nAm aside"?

We can get a wordfinal Tu before nAm only when nAm follows SaS- "six". That nAm gets STunA change in spite of being after wordfinal Tu --

SaS- + Am SaT;caturbhyazca SaS + nAm svAdiSva SaS ( word ) + nAm jhalAJjazonte SaD + nAm STunA SaDNAm yaronu SaNNAm "of six"

See also DassidhuT.

yaronu is optional. May I say SaDNAm?

Yes you may. pANini says so. Praised be pANini.

484 letters. -- 84.bse 511 -- popularity 4

977 !G !N to !Gk !NT before /zar, optionally.

1183 /SaS- "six"




(toSSi) (!toS)

toH Si ONPANINI 84043
( wordfinal) tu stays before S.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1016

Exception to STunA.

So no Tu replacement in --

san SaSThaH "being sixth"

agnicit SaNDe "the holy-fire-arranger is in the thicket"

Careful. Rule stozz has no analogous exception, so wordfinal tu doesn't stay before z -- tAJzapati, tacchakyam .

189 letters. -- 84.bse 554 -- popularity 2

816 !c !j to /ku before /ghit and /Nyat




(zAt) (!zAt)

zAt ONPANINI 84044
(The tu stay) after z.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1017

Exception to stozz.

praz + naGprazna- "question"

Notice that STunA has no similar exception -- the tu do NOT stay after S.

dRz + kta vrazcabhrasja dRS + tadRSTa- "was seen"

116 letters. -- 84.bse 572 -- popularity 3

607 Replace !cch with !z and !v with !UTh before @nasal, ( !kvi, and @serious /kGit).




(yaronunA) (!yar)

yaro 'nunAsike 'nunAsiko vA ONPANINI 84045
wordfinal b g D d to m G N n before nasal, optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1018

As in --

anuStub + nigadatianuSTum nigadati "recites a zloka"

vAg + nayativAG nayati "speech leads"

madhuliD + nazyatimadhuliN nazyati "bee dies"

tad + nibadhnAtitan nibadhnAti "it binds"

Wait. "Optionally", you say? I never saw anything like madhuliDnazyati in print. I thought this change was compulsory.

You may PRONOUNCE anuSTubnigadati, madhuliDnayati, pANini says so. Yet, you will never find bn Dn in print, as spelling tradition forbids that.

Shouldn't monusvA and anusvA change anuSTum nigadati into anuSTunnigadati or anuSTunMnigadati?

Nope. Rule cantgoback forbids that. You must pronounce and spell anuSTumnigadati, if the b is in saMhitA and you take this option.

The original rule changes all yar letters, so why do you say that it only works on b g D d?

I failed to find examples of the other yar reaching this rule. As far as I know there ain't any.

The why didn't pANini say baz instead of yar?

So that yar trickles down to the next rules.

758 letters. -- 84.bse 580 -- popularity 5

465 /matup means "this has it" or "there is in this".

711 (/Am gets /nuT) after @sixlike and /catur-.

1015 But no (!!STunA) after @wordfinal /Tu, /nAm aside.

1183 /SaS- "six"




(acorahA) (@dou)

aco ra;hAbhyAM dve ONPANINI 84046
After r h, all consonants except r h optionally double.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1019

We may, if we want, replace such a consonant with its double consonant .

For instance, the word arkaH "sun" may also be pronounced arkkaH, if you like. And ardha as arddha.

You may say arkkaH or arkaH, but nowadays you should spell arkaH whichever way you say it.

In the manuscript spelling age, however, some people wrote arkkaH, other people wrote arkaH. We have good reason to guess that the ones that wrote two pronounced two.

338 letters. -- 84.bse 635 -- popularity 4

981 (@Wordfinal) /Gam [@double]s after @short before @vowel.

1021 !t of !putra won't @double before !AdinI when insulting.

1328 /mAtrA theory.




(anacica) (!anac)

an-aci ca ONPANINI 84047
(Optionally double yar after vowel) before non- vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1020

The rule is optional according to pANini, so here we may replace t with a double consonant or not --

putraH

puttraH

See exception nAdinyA right below.

Even though pronouncing puttra is very common and very correct, only the spelling putra is used nowadays. See manuscript spelling .

If I can trust my ears, when chanting, this option appears to be always taken when the yar is after a short and before a yaN. So, my advice is that you should always chant attrazUrAmaheSvAsA with tt, even though the standard spelling with one t appears to suggest that a short t sound is better.

yar means "all consonants except h". May the r be doubled?

No. Later grammarians say that r can never be doubled, even though pANini doesn't bother mentioning that.

592 letters. -- 84.bse 673 -- popularity 2




(nAdinyAkro) (!nAdin)

n' Adiny.. Akroze putrasya ONPANINI 84048
t of putra won't double before AdinI when insulting.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1021

Exception to anacica. This rule makes it ungrammatical to double the first t of the insult --

putrAdinI tvam asi pApe "you'd eat your own kids, wench"

When the eating is meant literally, this rule won't work. So we may say either --

putrAdinI vyAghrI "a tigress that eats her own cubs"

or

puttrAdinI vyAghrI "a tigress that eats her own cubs"

267 letters. -- 84.bse 745 -- popularity 1




(jhalAJjazjha) (!jhalAJjazj)

jhalAM jaz jhazi ONPANINI 84053
serious to jaz before jhaz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1022

(See also jhalAMjazonte rule above, "wordfinal serious to jaz".)

So the serious letters d dh t th s turn into d when a jhaz follows --

rudh + laT dhvamrudh + dhve'''rundh + dhve''' → * runddhve "y'all are getting in the way"

rudh + loT siprundh + siprundh + hi''' hujha rundh + dhi → * runddhi "stop that!"

And T Th Dh S turn into D --

dviS + hi''' hu;jhalbhyoherdhiH dviS + dhi → * dviD + dhi STunA dviDDhi "hate!"

And p ph bh turn into b --

labh + kta jhaSastathordhodhaH labh + dha → * labdha- "gotten"

For examples of z to j, and of S to D, see this page --

ashtadhyayidotcom on jhalAM jaz jhazi

Why didn't you show any examples of this rule working on wordfinal letters?

I didn't find any examples. Rule jhalAJjazonte already turned those letters into a jaz two chapters ago.

498 letters. -- 84.bse 774 -- popularity 14




(abhyAseca) (!abhyAse)

abhyAse car ca ONPANINI 84054
Delete fake h of the stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1023

In more words --

" jh bh gh Dh dh ch Th th kh ph of stammer to j b g D d c T t k p. "

Examples with roots reduplicating by liTidhA --

chi chid → * ci chid checa cicchid

bhI bhI → * bI bhI hrasvaH bibhI

bhe bhe → * be bhebibhe ( hrasvaH ( with eca::igghra )

sthA sthA zarpUrvAHkhayaH thA sthA → * tA sthA hrasvaH tasthA

khA khAn kuhozcuH chA khAn → * cA khAn hrasvaH cakhAn

hu hu kuhozcuH jhu hu → * juhu

ho ho kuhozcuH jho ho → * jo ho hrasvaH juho

KAZIKA abhyAse vartamAnAnAM jhalAM carAdezo bhavati, cakArAj jazca. cikhaniSati. cicchitsati. TiThakArayiSati. tiSThAsati. piphakArayiSati. bubhUSati. jighatsati. DhuDhaukiSate. prakRticarAM prakRticaro bhavanti. cicISati. TiTIkiSate. titaniSati. prakRtijazAM prakRtijazo bhavanti. jijaniSate. bubudhe. dadau. DiDye.

You said above that rule hrasvaH turned bebhe into bibhe and joho into juho. But I think it's rule eca::igghra that did that.

No, it's rule hrasvaH that did the work of replacing. See --

Rule hrasvaH says --

replace long vowel with short

Rule eca::igghra is a talkaround rule that clarifies --

when hrasvaH says " replace e ai with short " , that means " replace e ai with i "

What does the "car ca" in the original rule mean?

It means "replace jh bh gh Dh dh ch Th th kh ph with j b g D d c T t k p".

I can't imagine how the five letters carca can end up meaning that.

Neither could I, the first time I saw it. Yet, if you know how trickles work, you can figure that out with a bit of patience, a pencil and the back of an envelope. I'm not depriving you of the pleasure of solving this puzzle yourself.

How much did you take to solve the puzzle yourself?

A week. That's why I give this as an exercise to juniors, not freshmen.

948 letters. -- 84.bse 877 -- popularity 10




(kharica) (!khari)

khari ca ONPANINI 84055
( stop to c p k T t) before khar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1024

All stops, wordfinal or not, before khar, turn into the most-alike of c p k T t.

Examples --

g to k before t --

bhunj + te''' coHkuH bhung + te → * bhunkte nazcA bhuMkte anusvA bhuGkte "eats"

j to c before c --

vRkAt + carati jhalAJjazonte vRkAd + carati stozzcunAzcuH vRkAj + carati → * vRkAc + carati "moves away from tree"

dh to t before s --

runadh + sip → * runatsi Natvam ruNatsi "you are getting in the way"

b to p before s --

ap- + sup' svAdiSva ap ( word ) + su jhalAJjazonte ab + su → * apsu "in the waters"

D to T before p --

madhulih- + su + patati halGyA madhulih + patati hoDhaH madhuliDh + patati jhalAJjazonte madhuliD + patati → * madhuliT patati "bee flies"

KAZIKA khari ca parato jhalAM carAdezo bhavati. jazgrahaNaM na anuvartate, pUrvasUtre ca anukRStatvAt. bhettA. bhettum. bhettavyam. yuyutsate. Aripsate. Alipsate.

384 letters. -- 84.bse 941 -- popularity 39




(vAvasAne) (!vAv)

vA 'vasAne ONPANINI 84056
Before pause too. But that's optional.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1025

Addition to kharica.

Examples:

apacat + @pause jhalAJjazonte apacad + @pause → * apacat "he cooked"

suhRt- + su + @pause halGyA suhRt + @pause jhalAJjazonte suhRd + @pause → * suhRt "friend"

madhulih- + su + @pause halGyA madhulih + @pause hoDhaH madhuliDh + @pausemadhuliD + @pause → * madhuliT "bee"

anuSTub + @pause → * anuSTup "shloka"

pRthag + @pausepRthak "separately, each one its own"

You say this rule is optional. May I say suhRd before a pause?

Sure you may. pANini says so. apacad, suhRd, madhuliD, anuSTub, pRthag are all good before pause.

So, may I write suhRd |?

Ganz verboten! Spelling tradition forbids that.

Then, why does my dictionary show suhRd?

Because a dictionary shows nounbases the way they look before you add a su and a pause after them.

525 letters. -- 84.bse 1085 -- popularity 2

1210 "Turtle /vA" means "or a turtle".

1329 About " @beforepause ".




(aNopragR) (!aNo)

aNo 'pragRhyasy' .AnunAsikaH ONPANINI 84057
a A i I u U, if they are not nonjoiner, nasalize (optionally) before pause.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1026

Example --

he devi~

he devi

KAZIKA aNaH apragRhyasaMjJasya avasAne vartamAnasya vA anunAsikAdezo bhavati. dadhi~, dadhi. madhu~, madhu. kumArI~, kumArI. aNaH iti kim? kartR. hartR. apragRhyasya iti kim? agnI. vAyU.

KAZIKA aNaH apragRhyasaMjJasya avasAne vartamAnasya vA anunAsikAdezo bhavati. dadhi~, dadhi. madhu~, madhu. kumArI~, kumArI. aNaH iti kim? kartR. hartR. apragRhyasya iti kim? agnI. vAyU.

19 letters. -- 84.bse 1150 -- popularity 2

1416 The @moondot shows @nasalization.




(anusvAra) (!anus)

anusvArasya yayi para-savarNaH ONPANINI 84058
Before a Jay, replace M with the nasalized similar of the Jay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1027

In more words:

" before ku, replace M with G. "

" before cu, replace M with J. "

" before Tu, replace M with N. "

" before tu, replace M with n. "

" before pu, replace M with m. "

Example with a wordfinal m before t --

nadIm + tarati monus nadIM + tarati → * nadInM tarati "he crosses river"

Example with a nonwordfinal n before t --

udazvit + zi nonfunny udazvinti nazcA udazviMti → * udazvinti "mixtures"

Example with a nonwordfinal m before t --

zAm + kta nazcA zaMta → * zAnta- "calm"

See optional exception vApadAntasya.

352 letters. -- 84B.bse 1 -- popularity 33




(vApadAnta) (!vAp)

vA padAntasya ONPANINI 84059
But optionally if wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1028

The previous rule anusvA says that you must replace M, when it is before most consonants, with a nasalized similar of the consonant.

This rule says that when the M is wordfinal you may, if you wish, not do that replacement. You may pronounce the anusvAra sound as an anusvAra sound. So you may say either --

azvanM tarati with n sound,

or

azvaM tarati with M sound.

My personal advice is:

PLEASE FORGET THAT THIS OPTIONAL EXCEPTION EXISTS, AND APPLY anusvA ALWAYS, NO MATTER IF THE M IS wordfinal OR NOT.

Why do you advise such a thing?

Because mostly everybody who talks Sanskrit nowadays says n in such a case, and they can't avoid doing it without thinking when they talk fast.

In that case, why did pANini say that both ways is okay?

My guess is that in his time, some people, when talking fast, always said n, and others always used the SOFT anusvAra sound. Even though my guess might be wrong, you can be assured that pANini had very good reasons to make this optional, as otherwise this rule wouldn't be here.

See also vApadAntasya in chanting.

830 letters. -- 84B.bse 89 -- popularity 2




(torli) (!tor)

tor li ONPANINI 84060
tu to ( similar of the next) before lmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1029

This is the same thing as saying --

" Before l, d to l, and n to nasalized l. "

That nasalized l sound should theoretically be written as l~, that is, an l with a moondot on it.

Examples of d to l before l --

tad + labhasva → * tal labhasva "get it!"

tena + liptam supodhA tad + liptam → * talliptam "smeared with it"

Examples of n to l~ before l --

tAn + labhasva → * tAl~ labhasva "get 'em!"

zraddhAvAn + labhate + jJAnam → * zraddhAvAl~ labhate jJAnam "self-trust brings knowledge"

KAZIKA ta-vargasya lakAre parataH para-savarN'-Adezo bhavati. agnicil lunAti. somasul lunAti. bhavAl~ lunAti. mahAl~ lunAti.

Now. What is that "nasalized ell" sound? Is it hard to say?

Not hard to say. If you try to say "main language" in English fast, it is quite unlikely that you will manage to say the n letter as a normal English N sound. Automatically and without you noticing, your tongue, while saying the n sound, will take the same position of the l. That's how the Sanskrit l must sound.

How must I spell that "nasalized ell" sound? Your "theoretically" word above is giving me the creeps.

Grammarians say that you must write a moondot above the ell. Yet, a long tradition allows you to not do that, and to instead write tAllamMbhasva, zraddhAvAllAmMbhate with a topdot above a double ll. You may also write the topdot atop the previous syllable -- tAMllabhasva, zraddhAvAMllAbhate.

I tried that in inria reader and it did not work.

There, you are supposed to type tAn labhasva, zraddhAvAn lAbhate.

Am I allowed to spell tAn labhasva, zraddhAvAn lAbhate when writing in devanAgarI?

No. Because you may not spell with the letter n any sound whose tongue position is not the exact same as a normal n.

If the principle "spell as you talk" is so to be taken seriously, why then I am allowed to spell AMll instead of Al~l? A topdot should mean that an anusvAra sound must precede the ll, a moondot on the first l means that the l is a nasalized l. That is not the same sound.

Long story short, most typewriters and most print fonts have no moondot, and it's hard to type in computer keyboards.

1490 letters. -- 84B.bse 252 -- popularity 4

819 /ji (to !gi) before /san and /liT.

1424 HKL transliteration




(udassthAsta) (!uda)

udaH sthA;stambhoH pUrvasya ONPANINI 84061
After ud, replace sthA stambh with tmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1030

Example --

ud + sthAnam → * ud + tthAnam kharica ut + tthAnam jharojhari utthAnam "rising"

This works only on sthA stambh. Other st-sth-starters keep their s --

ud + stana- + GI + su → .. → utstanI "she who is endowed with stanau that defy the law of gravity"

Also, even sthA stambh lose s only after ud. They keep it after other d, like the mad here --

mat-sthAni sarva-bhUtAni na c/AhanM teSv avasthitaH "all creatures are rooted on me, but I'm not rooted on them" bhg 9 4

KAZIKA savarNaH iti vartate. udaH uttarayoH sthA stambha ity etayoH pUrva-savarNĀ“Adezo bhavati. utthAtA. utthAtum. utthAtavyam. stambheH khalv api uttambhitA. uttambhitum. uttambhitavyam. sthA-stambhoH iti kim? utsnAtA. udaH pUrva-savarna-tve skandez chandasy upasaGkhyAnam. agne dUram utkandaH. roge ca iti vaktavyam. utkandako nAma rogaH. kandater vA dhAtv-antarasya etad rUpam.

327 letters. -- 84B.bse 360 -- popularity 1




(jhayohonya) (!jhayo)

jhayo ho 'nyatarasyAm ONPANINI 84062
After stop, replace h (with similar) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1031

Examples --

indrajid + hasati → * indrajid dhasati "indrajit laughs"

sA + anUSTub + hyas + agIyata → * sAnuSTub bhyo 'gIyata "that stanza was sung yesterday"

prAg + hitAt → * prAg ghitAt (as in rule prAgghitAdyat)

UkAlas + ac + hrasva → * UkAlo 'j jhrasva (as in UkAlojjhra)

If we don't take the option --

indrajid hasati "indrajit laughs"

I never heard that option.

Neither did I. Even though the rule is optional, please treat it as compulsory. In writing, you'll never see the alternative indrajid hasati. In speech, personally, I find d h harder to say than ddh. But you may use both, pANini says so. tasmai pANinaye namaH!

473 letters. -- 84B.bse 399 -- popularity 2

23 @vowel and @consonant aren't (@similar).

45 Replace with the @most-alike.




(zazchoTi) (!zaz)

zaz cho 'Ti ONPANINI 84063
z to ch (after stop, optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1032

According to pANini, when z can change to ch or stay z whenever it follows t T k c p --

tat + zakyam → * tat + chakyam stozzcu tac chakyam "it's possible"

amauT + zaS → * amauTchaS

In the alternative --

tat + zakyam stozzcu tac zakyam "it's possible"

amauT + zaSamauTzaS

Even thought the rule is optional according to pANini, you will find that most people apply it always after t, but never after T c p k. So you will most often hear tacchakyam. The amauTchaS of rule svaujas is the only place I ever found this ch in writing after non-t. Well, that, and the examples in the kAzikA below.

See also rule zituk, that manages z after n.

KAZIKA jhayaH iti vartate, anyatarasyAm iti ca. jhaya uttarasya zakArasya aTi parataH chakarAdezo bhavati anyatarasyAm. vAk chete, vAk zete. agnicic chete, agnicit zete. somasuc chete, somasut zete. zvaliT chete, zvaliT zete. triSTup chete, triSTup zete. chatvam amIti vaktavyam. kiM prayojanam? tacchlokena, tacchmazruNA ity evam artham.

Wait. There is a word aTi in the original rule, but you did not translate it. What does it mean?

Oops, I forgot. It boils down to saying that the z of root zcut "ooze" is not affected by this rule. So we say --

tac zcotati "it oozes"

never tac ccotati.

654 letters. -- 84B.bse 477 -- popularity 4

977 !G !N to !Gk !NT before /zar, optionally.

1033 (After consonant), optionally delete a /jhar before a @similar /jhar.




(jharojhari) (!jhar)

jharo jhari savarNe ONPANINI 84065
(After consonant), optionally delete a jhar before a similar jhar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1033

So, here, we may delete the second t that is before its similar th --

ud + sthA kharica ut + sthA udassthAstambh uttthA → * utthA

And here we may delete c which is similar to ch --

tAn + zapati zituk tAntzapati → .. → tAJcchapati → * tAJchapati "curses them"

This deletion is optional, so we may still say uttthA, tAJcchapati.

See also zituk, zazchoTi.

KAZIKA halaH iti vartate, anyatarasyAm iti ca. hala uttarasya jharo jhari savarNe parato lopo bhavati anyatarasyAm. pratttam, avatttam ityatra trayastakArAH, kramajazcaturthaH. tatra madhyamasya madhyamayor vA lopo bhavati. maruttttaH ityatra catvArastakArAH kramajaH paJcamaH. tatra madhyamasya madhyamayoH madhyamAnAM vA lopo bhavati. marucchabdasya hi upasaGkhyAnasAmarthyAt aca upasargAt taH iti tatvaM bhavati. jharaH iti kim? zArGgam. jhari iti kim? priyapaJcJA. allopasya ca pUrvatra asiddhe na sthAnivatiti sthAnivadbhAvapratiSedhAt cakArasya JakAre lopaH syAt. savarNe iti kim? tarptA taptum. tarptavyam. savarNagrahaNasAmarthyAtiha saGkhyAtAnudezo na bhavati, savarNamAtre lopo vijJAyate. tena ziNDhi, piNDhi iti DhakAre DakArasya lopo bhavati.

235 letters. -- 84B.bse 566 -- popularity 1




(aa) (!aa)

a:: a ONPANINI 84068
A is open but a is half-open.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1034

Exception to tulyAsya. This rule states that, in spite of the fact that grammar rules such as tulyAsya and others consider a and A to be similar sounds, in the actual language the A sound and the a sound do not have the same position --

The A sound is an open vowel (sort of like the A in "fAther"). The tongue is low and the jaw drops.

The a sound is a half-open vowel (sort of like the U in "cUp", the A in "bAlloon" or the O in "hOt"). The tongue center is mid-height and the jaw in normal position.

Notice that the rule is badly written. In writing, the rule appears to be made of two equal a letters. Yet, it may not be chanted that way. The first a letter represents a shortened A sound, full open (with the jaw dropped), while the second a stands for the ordinary short a sound, half-closed.

The kAzikA explains this rule very succintly: akAro vivRtasH saMvRto bhavati "make the short a more closed (than the long A)".

KAZIKA akAro vivRtaH saMvRto bhavati

705 letters. -- 84B.bse 580 -- popularity 1
















83005 Satvam and Natvam ←

chunk 51: 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings

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