83005 Satvam and Natvam ←

chunk 51: 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings

→ FAKE RULES --------------------------------

84040 stu to zcu near zcu. stozzcunAzcuH
84041 STu near STu. STunASTuH
84042 But no after wordfinal Tu, nAm aside. napadAntATToranAm
84043 tu stays before S. toSSi
84044 after z. zAt
84045 Wordfinal b g D d to m G N n before nasal, optionally. yaronunAsikenunAsikovA
84046 After r h, all consonants except r h optionally double. acorahAbhyAndve
84047 before non-vowel. anacica
84048 t of putra won't double before AdinI when insulting. nAdinyAkrozeputrasya
84053 serious to jaz before jhaz. jhalAJjazjhazi
84054 Delete fake h of the stammer. abhyAsecarca
84055 before khar. kharica
84056 Before pause too. But that's optional. vAvasAne
84057 a A i I u U, if they are not nonjoiner, nasalize before pause. aNopragRhyasyAnunAsikaH
84058 Before a Jay, replace M with the nasalized similar of the Jay. anusvArasyayayiparasavarNaH
84059 But optionally if wordfinal. vApadAntasya
84060 tu to before l torli
84061 After ud, replace sthA stambh with t udassthAstambhoHpUrvasya
84062 After stop, replace h optionally. jhayohonyatarasyAm
84063 z to ch . zazchoTi
84065 , optionally delete a jhar before a similar jhar. jharojharisavarNe
84068 A is open but a is half-open. aa


s;toH z;cunA z;cuH ONPANINI 84040
stu to zcu near zcu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1003

stu means "s and the tu", namely s t th d dh n. ( Not same as the root stu'. )

zcu means "z and the cu", namely z c ch j jh J.

So this rule replaces s t th d dh n with z c ch j jh J respectively.

This change happens to the s t th d dh n that is right before or right after z c ch j jh J.

Example of s (that is near c) changing into z --

kapis + caratikapiz carati "monkey walks"

Example of n (that is near j) changing into J --

rAjan + TA alloponaH rAjnA → rAjJA "by the king"

Example of t (that is near c) changing into c --

gam + ati iSugami gachati checa gatchati stozz gacchati

Example of d (that is near c) changing into j --

pApAt + carati jhalAJjazonte pApAd + carati → pApAj carati kharica pApAccarati "he walks away from the bad guy"


( stu to) STu near STu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1004

The expression STunA "with a STu" means here "near a STu, that is, "right before or right after a STu".

The STu letters are S and the five Tu.

So the stu (namely s t th d dh n, when they are near another STu, change into S T Th D Dh N, respectively.

Examples of s changing into S --

vRkSAs + SaTvRkSAS SaT "six trees"

rAmas + TIkate → rAmaS TIkate "rAma jumps"

Examples of t changing into T --

dviS + kta → dviSTa- "was hated"

dRz + kta vrazca;bhrasja dRS + ta → dRSTa- "was seen"

ID + te''' → ID + Te kharica ITTe "he praises"

tat + TIkA → taT-TIkA "a subcommentary on that"

Examples of n changing into N --

takSan- + Gas alloponaH takSn- + Gas → takSNas "of a carpenter"

niSanna- Natvam niSaNna- → niSaNNa-

See also exceptions napadAntATToranAm and toSSi.


na padAntAT Tor a-nAm ONPANINI 84042
But no ( STunA) after wordfinal Tu, nAm aside.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1005

Exception to STunA. There is no STunA for the stu that follows a wordfinal Tu.

Examples with the words madhuliD (from madhulih + su) and SaD (from SaS- + jas) --

madhuliD + nRtyati → madhuliDnRtyati "bee dances"

madhuliD + nRtyati → madhuliDnRtyati yaronu madhuliNnRtyati "bee dances"

SaD + te → SaD te kharica SaT te "those six"

SaS- + Am SaT;caturbhyazca SaS + nAm svAdiSva SaS ( word ) + nAm jhalAJjazonte SaD + nAm STunA SaDNAm yaronu SaNNAm "of six"

See also DassidhuT.


toH Si ONPANINI 84043
( Wordfinal) tu stays before S.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1006

Exception to STunA.

So no Tu replacement in --

san SaSThaH "being sixth"

agnicit SaNDe "the holy-fire-arranger is in the thicket"

Careful. Rule stozz has no analogous exception, so wordfinal tu doesn't stay before z -- tAJzapati, tacchakyam .


zAt ONPANINI 84044
(The tu stay) after z.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1007

Exception to stozz.

praz + naGprazna- "question"

Notice that STunA has no similar exception -- the tu do NOT stay after S.

dRz + kta vrazcabhrasja dRS + tadRSTa- "was seen"


yaro 'nunAsike 'nunAsiko vA ONPANINI 84045
Wordfinal b g D d to m G N n before nasal, optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1008

As in --

anuStub + nigadatianuSTum nigadati "recites a zloka"

vAg + nayativAG nayati "speech leads"

madhuliD + nazyatimadhuliN nazyati "bee dies"

tad + nibadhnAtitan nibadhnAti "it binds"


aco ra;hAbhyAM dve ONPANINI 84046
After r h, all consonants except r h optionally double.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1009

We may, if we want, replace such a consonant with its double consonant .

For instance, the word arkaH "sun" may also be pronounced arkkaH, if you like. And ardha as arddha.

You may say arkkaH or arkaH, but nowadays you should spell arkaH whichever way you say it.

In the manuscript spelling age, however, some people wrote arkkaH, other people wrote arkaH. We have good reason to guess that the ones that wrote two pronounced two.


an-aci ca ONPANINI 84047
(Optionally double yar after vowel) before non- vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1010

The rule is optional according to pANini, so here we may replace t with a double consonant or not --



See exception nAdinyA right below.

Even though pronouncing puttra is very common and very correct, only the spelling putra is used nowadays. See manuscript spelling .

If I can trust my ears, when chanting, this option appears to be always taken when the yar is after a short and before a yaN. So, my advice is that you should always chant attrazUrAmaheSvAsA with tt, even though the standard spelling with one t appears to suggest that a short t sound is better.


n' Adiny.. Akroze putrasya ONPANINI 84048
t of putra won't double before AdinI when insulting.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1011

Exception to anacica. This rule makes it ungrammatical to double the first t of the insult --

putrAdinI tvam asi pApe "you'd eat your own kids, wench"

When the eating is meant literally, this rule won't work. So we may say either --

putrAdinI vyAghrI "a tigress that eats her own cubs"


puttrAdinI vyAghrI "a tigress that eats her own cubs"


jhalAM jaz jhazi ONPANINI 84053
serious to jaz before jhaz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1012

(See also jhalAMjazonte rule above, "wordfinal serious to jaz".)

So the serious letters d dh t th s turn into d when a jhaz follows --

rudh + laT dhvamrudh + dhve'''rundh + dhve''' → runddhve "y'all are getting in the way"

rudh + loT siprundh + siprundh + hi''' hujha rundh + dhi → runddhi "stop that!"

And T Th Dh S turn into D --

dviS + hi''' hu;jhalbhyoherdhiH dviS + dhi → dviD + dhi STunA dviDDhi "hate!"

And p ph bh turn into b --

labh + kta jhaSastathordhodhaH labh + dha → labdha- "gotten"

For examples of z to j, and of S to D, see this page --

ashtadhyayidotcom on jhalAM jaz jhazi


abhyAse car ca ONPANINI 84054
Delete fake h of the stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1013

In more words --

" jh bh gh Dh dh ch Th th kh ph of stammer to j b g D d c T t k p. "

Examples with roots reduplicating by liTidhA --

chi chid → ci chid checa cicchid

bhI bhI → bI bhI hrasvaH bibhI

bhe bhe → be bhebibhe ( hrasvaH ( with eca::igghra )

sthA sthA zarpUrvAHkhayaH thA sthA → tA sthA hrasvaH tasthA

khA khAn kuhozcuH chA khAn → cA khAn hrasvaH cakhAn

hu hu kuhozcuH jhu hu → juhu

ho ho kuhozcuH jho ho → jo ho hrasvaH juho

Rule hrasvaH says --

replace long vowel with short

Rule eca::igghra is a talkaround rule that clarifies --

when hrasvaH says " replace e ai with short " , that means " replace e ai with i "


khari ca ONPANINI 84055
( Stop to c p k T t) before khar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1014

All stops, wordfinal or not, before khar, turn into the most-alike of c p k T t.

Examples --

g to k before t --

bhunj + te''' coHkuH bhung + te → bhunkte nazcA bhuMkte anusvA bhuGkte "eats"

j to c before c --

vRkAt + carati jhalAJjazonte vRkAd + carati stozzcunAzcuH vRkAj + carati → vRkAc + carati "moves away from tree"

dh to t before s --

runadh + sip → runatsi Natvam ruNatsi "you are getting in the way"

b to p before s --

ap- + sup' svAdiSva ap ( word ) + su jhalAJjazonte ab + su → apsu "in the waters"

D to T before p --

madhulih- + su + patati halGyA madhulih + patati hoDhaH madhuliDh + patati jhalAJjazonte madhuliD + patati → madhuliT patati "bee flies"


vA 'vasAne ONPANINI 84056
Before pause too. But that's optional.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1015

Addition to kharica.


apacat + @pause jhalAJjazonte apacad + @pause → apacat "he cooked"

suhRt- + su + @pause halGyA suhRt + @pause jhalAJjazonte suhRd + @pause → suhRt "friend"

madhulih- + su + @pause halGyA madhulih + @pause hoDhaH madhuliDh + @pausemadhuliD + @pause → madhuliT "bee"

anuSTub + @pause → anuSTup "shloka"

pRthag + @pausepRthak "separately, each one its own"


aNo 'pragRhyasy' .AnunAsikaH ONPANINI 84057
a A i I u U, if they are not nonjoiner, nasalize (optionally) before pause.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1016

Example --

he devi~ |

he devi |


anusvArasya yayi para-savarNaH ONPANINI 84058
Before a Jay, replace M with the nasalized similar of the Jay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1017

In more words:

" before ku, replace M with G. "

" before cu, replace M with J. "

" before Tu, replace M with N. "

" before tu, replace M with n. "

" before pu, replace M with m. "

Example with a wordfinal m before t --

nadIm + tarati monus nadIM + tarati → nadInM tarati "he crosses river"

Example with a nonwordfinal n before t --

udazvit + zi nonfunny udazvinti nazcA udazviMti → udazvinti "mixtures"

Example with a nonwordfinal m before t --

zAm + kta nazcA zaMta → zAnta- "calm"

See optional exception vApadAntasya.


vA padAntasya ONPANINI 84059
But optionally if wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1018

The previous rule anusvA says that you must replace M, when it is before most consonants, with a nasalized similar of the consonant.

This rule says that when the M is wordfinal you may, if you wish, not do that replacement. You may pronounce the anusvAra sound as an anusvAra sound. So you may say either --

azvanM tarati with n sound,


azvaM tarati with M sound.

My personal advice is:


See also vApadAntasya in chanting.


tor li ONPANINI 84060
tu to ( similar of the next) before lmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1019

This is the same thing as saying --

" Before l, d to l, and n to nasalized l. "

That nasalized l sound should theoretically be written as l~, that is, an l with a moondot on it.

Examples of d to l before l --

tad + labhasva → tal labhasva "get it!"

tena + liptam supodhA tad + liptam → talliptam "smeared with it"

Examples of n to l~ before l --

tAn + labhasva → tAl~ labhasva "get 'em!"

zraddhAvAn + labhate + jJAnam → zraddhAvAl~ labhate jJAnam "self-trust brings knowledge"


udaH sthA;stambhoH pUrvasya ONPANINI 84061
After ud, replace sthA stambh with tmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1020

Examples --

ud + sthAnam → uttthAnam jharojhari utthAnam "rising"

ud + stambhitavyam → utttambhitavyam jharojhari uttambhitavyam "that should be supported"

ud + stana- + au + GI + su → .. → utstanI "she who is endowed with stanau that defy the law of gravity"

mat-sthAni sarva-bhUtAni na c/AhanM teSv avasthitaH

Listen to that verse at --

bhagavad gItA 9:4


jhayo ho 'nyatarasyAm ONPANINI 84062
After stop, replace h (with similar) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1021

Examples --

indrajid + hasati → indrajid dhasati "indrajit laughs"

sA + anUSTub + hyas + agIyata → sAnuSTub bhyo 'gIyata "that stanza was sung yesterday"

prAg + hitAt → prAg ghitAt (as in rule prAgghitAdyat)

UkAlas + ac + hrasva → UkAlo 'j jhrasva (as in UkAlojjhra)

If we don't take the option --

indrajid hasati "indrajit laughs"


zaz cho 'Ti ONPANINI 84063
z to ch (after stop, optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1022

According to pANini, when z can change to ch or stay z whenever it follows t T k c p --

tat + zakyam → tat + chakyam stozzcu tac chakyam "it's possible"

amauT + zaS → amauTchaS

In the alternative --

tat + zakyam stozzcu tac zakyam "it's possible"

amauT + zaSamauTzaS

Even thought the rule is optional according to pANini, you will find that most people apply it always after t, but never after T c p k. So you will most often hear tacchakyam. The amauTchaS of rule svaujas is the only place I ever found this ch in writing after non-t. Well, that, and the examples in the kAzikA below.

See also rule zituk, that manages z after n.

tac zcotati "it oozes"

never tac ccotati.


jharo jhari savarNe ONPANINI 84065
(After consonant), optionally delete a jhar before a similar jhar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1023

So, here, we may delete the second t that is before its similar th --

ud + sthA kharica ut + sthA udassthAstambh uttthA → utthA

And here we may delete c which is similar to ch --

tAn + zapati zituk tAntzapati → .. → tAJcchapati → tAJchapati "curses them"

This deletion is optional, so we may still say uttthA, tAJcchapati.

See also zituk, zazchoTi.


a: a ONPANINI 84068
A is open but a is half-open.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1024

Exception to tulyAsya. This rule states that, in spite of the fact that grammar rules such as tulyAsya and others consider a and A to be similar sounds, in the actual language the A sound and the a sound do not have the same position --

The A sound is an open vowel (sort of like the A in "fAther"). The tongue is low and the jaw drops.

The a sound is a half-open vowel (sort of like the U in "cUp", the A in "bAlloon" or the O in "hOt"). The tongue center is mid-height and the jaw in normal position.

The kAzikA explains this rule very succintly: akAro vivRtasH saMvRto bhavati "make the short a more closed (than the long A)".

Notice that the rule is badly written. In writing, the rule appears to be made of two equal a letters. Yet, it may not be chanted that way. The first a letter represents a shortened A sound, full open (with the jaw dropped), while the second a stands for the ordinary short a sound, half-closed.

83005 Satvam and Natvam ←

chunk 51: 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings

→ FAKE RULES --------------------------------