82001 tripAdI ←

chunk 47: 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

→ 83002 n to Ms

82039 serious to jaz. jhalAJjazonte
82040 t th to dh after jhaS, unless after dhA. jhaSastathordhodhaH
82041 S Dh to k before s. SaDhoHkassi
82042 After r d, niSThA to n, and the d too. radAbhyAnniSThAtonaHpUrvasyacadaH
82044 After lUclass . lvAdibhyaH
82045 after odit roots. oditazca
82052 After pac, v. pacovaH
82062 of kvin-ender to ku. kvinpratyayasyakuH
82064 Replace wordfinal m of a root with n. monodhAtoH
82066 s to ru. sasajuSoruH
82068 Replace wordfinal ahan- . ahan
82069 with r when not before sup. rosupi
82072 Replace vasu sraMs dhvaMs anaDuh- with d vasusraMsudhvaMsvanaDuhAndaH
82074 Optionally, of a root before sip. sipidhAtorurvA
82075 d . dazcax
82076 Lengthen wordfinal ir ur iv uv . rvorupadhAyAdIrgha::ikaH
82077 Non-wordfinal lengthen before consonant. halica
82079 But not wimpy, kur, chur. nabhakurchurAm
82080 If adas- has no s, d plus vowel to mu or mU. adasoserdAdudomaH
82081 Before plural, replace the de of adas- . etaIdbahuvacane
82082 Make the last vowel of a sentence extralong and acute when... vAkyasyaTeHpluta::udAttaH
82084 When calling from afar . dUrAddhUteca
82104 When meaning impoliteness blessing command, last vowel of cliffhanger verb becomes extralong and falling. kSiyAzIHpraiSeSutiGAkAGkSam




(jhalAJjazo) (!jhalAJjazo)

jhalAM jazo 'nte ONPANINI 82039
( wordfinal) serious to jaz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 972 sandhi

Because of the most-alike rule, this will replace --

c ch jh z

with j

p ph bh

with b

k kh gh h

with g

T Th Dh S

with D

t th dh s

with d.

Examples --

anuSTubh- + su halGyA anuSTubh → * anuSTub "stanza"

diz + kvin + su halGyA diz kvinpratyayasyakuH dikh → * dig "point of the compass"

madhulih- + su halGyA madhulih hoDhaH madhuliDh → * madhuliD "bee"

dviS + laG tip luGlaG adviS + tip puganta adveS + tipadveS + t''' halGyA adveS → * adveD "he hated"

vana- + Gasi TAGasi vanAt → * vanAd "from forest"

This rule, like sasaju, works always, regardless of what is after the wordfinal letter. So, dikh always becomes dig, and then, depending on what letter comes afterwards, that dig will either stay --

dikh + ucyate → * dig ucyate

dikh + lohitAkArA → * dig lohitAkAra

dikh + @pause → * dig

Or change into something else --

dikh + ca → * dig ca kharica dik ca

dikh + nAgAH → * dignAgAH yaronu diGnAgAH

dikh + @pause → * dig vAvasAne dik

KAZIKA jhalAM jazaH AdezA bhavanti padasyAnte vartamAnAnAm. vAg atra. zvaliD atra. agnicid atra. triSTub atra. antagrahaNaM jhali ity etasya nivRtty artham. vastA. vastavyam.

582 letters. -- 82C.bse 3 -- popularity 34




(jhaSastatho) (!jhaS)

jhaSas ta;thor dho 'dhaH ONPANINI 82040
t th to dh after jhaS, unless after dhA.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 973

Examples --

budh + kta → * budh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi bud- + dhabuddha- "awake"

rudh + laT tiprunadh + ti → * runadh + dhi jhalAJjazjhazi runad + dhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs, stops"

gUh + kta hoDhaH gUDh + ta → * gUDh + dha STunA gUDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gUDha- "was hidden, was kept secret"

lih + laT tha hoDhaH liDh + tha → * liDh + dha STunA liDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH li + Dha Dhralope lIDha "y'all suck"

After the root dhA this rule won't work. So the t th stay, and kharica works --

dhA + laT tasdhA + zlu + tas zlau dadhA + tas znAbhya dadh + tas dadhastathozca dhadh + tas kharica dhattas "both put"

dhA + laT thas → .. → dhadh + thas ( like above ) kharica dhatthas "you two put"

KAZIKA jhaSa uttarayoH takArathakArayoH sthAne dhakAraH Adezo bhavati, dadhAtiM varjayitvA. labdhA. labdhum. labdhavyam. alabdha. alabdhAH. duha dogdhA. dogdhum. dogdhavyam. adugdha. adugdhAH. liha leDhA. leDhum. leDhavyam. alIDha. alIDhAH. budha boddhA. boddhum. boddhavyam. abuddha. abuddhAH. adhaH iti kim? dhattaH. dhatthaH.

357 letters. -- 82C.bse 137 -- popularity 16




(SaDhoHkassi) (!SaDh)

Sa;DhoH kaH si ONPANINI 82041
S Dh to k before s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 974

The k will always trigger kric, so this rule may also be stated as --

" S + s = kS

Dh + s = kS "

Examples --

dviS + laT sip puganta dveS + si → * dvek + si kric dvekSi "you hate"

lih + sya + tip puganta leh + sya + ti hoDhaH leDh + sya + ti → * lek + sya + ti kric lekSyati "he'll lick"

This rule will not work before laG sip, because halGyA has priority --

dviS + laG sip → .. → adveS + s''' halGyA adveS jhalAJjazonte adveD beforepause adveT "you hated"

KAZIKA SakAraDhakArayoH kakArAdezo bhavati sakAre parataH. SakArasya piS pekSyati apekSyat. pipakSati. dhakArasya liha lekSyati. alekSyat. lilikSati. si iti kim? pinaSti. leDhi.

252 letters. -- 82C.bse 165 -- popularity 13




(radAbhyAnni) (!rad)

radAbhyAM niSThAto naH pUrvasya ca daH ONPANINI 82042
After r d, niSThA to n, and the d too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 975

So r plus the ta of kta ktavatu makes rNa --

tRR + kta RRta::iddhAtoH tirta- halica tIrta- → * tIrna- Natvam tIrNa- "crossed, gone beyond"

tRR + ktavatu m RRta::iddhAtoH tirtavat- halica tIrtavat- → * tIrNavat- "he crossed"

And d plus the ta of kta ktavatu makes nna --

bhid + kta → * bhin + knabhinna- "was cut, was rent asunder"

bhid + ktavatu m → .. → bhinnavat- "he cut"

vi + sad + kta → * vi + san + kna kric viSanna Natvam viSaNna STunA viSaNNa- "depressed"

Notice that this rule does not work when there is R but no r --

smR + ktasmRta- "remembered"

See also lv-AdibhyaH below.

KAZIKA rephadakArAbhyAm uttarasya niSThAtakArasya nakAraH Adezo bhavati pUrvasya ca dakArasya. rephAntAt tAvat AstIrNam. vistIrNam. vizIrNam. nigIrNam. avagUrNam. dakArAt bhinnaH. bhinnavAn. dhinnaH. chinnavAn. radAbhyAm iti kim? kRtaH . kRtavAn. raH ityatra razrutisAm anyaM na upAdIyate, kiM tarhi, vyaJjanamAtram. rephasAmAnyanirdeze 'pi sati rephAt parA yA 'jbhaktis tadvyavadhAnAnnatvaM na bhavati. niSThA iti kim? kartA. hartA. taH iti kim? caritam. muditam. pUrvasya iti kim? parasya mA bhUt, bhinnavadbhyAm. bhinnavadbhiH. iha kRtasya apatyaM kArtiH iti vRddheH bahiraGgalakSaNAyA asiddhatvAnnatve kartavye rephasya asiddhatvam.

352 letters. -- 82D.bse 1 -- popularity 5

772 (!q to) !ur after @root @labial.

1031 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

1404 No /Natvam before @serious.




(lvAdibhyaH) (@luc)

lv-AdibhyaH ONPANINI 82044
After luclass (t of niSThA and ktin to n).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 976

The luclass are the roots from lUJ 09.0016 "reap" to plI 09.0039 "move". They all are puclass too. These include lU "reap", kRR "scatter, throw", vRR "choose", pRR "fill" and jyA "grow old, decay".

Examples --

lU + kta → * lUna- "was reaped"

kRR + kta → * kRR + na → .. → kIrNa- "scattereded"

pRR + kta → * pRR + na → .. → pUrna Natvam pUrNa- "full"

jyA + ktavatu → .. → jInavat- "he grew old"

kRR + ktin → .. → kIrNi- f "a scattering, a throwing"

(The rule does not mention ktin, but a vArttika adds it.)

KAZIKA lUJ chedane ityetat prabhRti vRJ varaNe iti yAvat vRtkaraNena samApitA lvAdayo gRhyante. tebhyaH uttarasya niSThAtakArasya nakArAdezo bhavati. lUnaH. lUnavAn. dhUnaH. dhUnavAn. jInaH. jInavAn. RkAralvAdibhyaH ktinniSThAvadbhavati iti vaktavyam. kIrNiH. gIrNiH. zIrNiH. lUniH. pUniH.

304 letters. -- 82D.bse 32 -- popularity 3

529 (@stretch) /grah /jyA !vay, !vyadh !vaz !vyac, !vrazc /pracch !bhrasj before /kGit.

621 (Lengthen rootfinal @stretched !a !i !u,) after consonant.

975 After !r !d, /niSThA to !n, and the !d too.




(oditazca) (!od)

oditaz ca ONPANINI 82045
( niSThA to n) after odit roots.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 977

For instance, the root vij 06.0009 "tremble" appears in the dhAtupATha as (o)vij(I), so this rule applies --

ud + (o)vij(I) + kta → * ud + (o)vij(I) + (k)na coHkuH udvigna- "shuddering"

ud + vij + ktavatu m + su → .. → udvignavAn "he shuddered"

KAZIKA o-kAr%eto dhAtor uttarasya niSThA takArasya nakArĀ“Adezo bhavati. olasjI lagnaH. lagnavAn. ovijI udvignaH. udvignavAn. opyAyI vRddhau ApInaH. ApInavAn. svAdaya oditaH. SUG sUnaH. sUnavAn. dUG dUnaH. dUnavAn. dIG dInaH. dInavAn. DIG DInaH. DInavAn. dhIG dhInaH. dhInavAn. mIG mInaH. mInavAn. rIG rINaH. rINavAn. lIG lInaH. lInavAn. vrIG vrINaH. vrINavAn.

149 letters. -- 82D.bse 101 -- popularity 2

783 /niSThA (don't get /iT) after /Idit roots or !zvi.




(pacovaH) (!pac)

paco vaH ONPANINI 82052
After pac, ( niSThA to) v.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 978

All examples --

pac + kta coHkuH pak + ta → * pakva- "was cooked"

pac + ktavatu coHkuH pak + tavat → * pakvavat- "did cook"

69 letters. -- 82D.bse 114 -- popularity 3

99 [@Label]s are invisible.

779 After some one-vowel [@root]s there's no /iT.

1180 /nI "lead", /pac "cook"




(kvinpratyaya) (!kvin)

kvin-pratyayasya kuH ONPANINI 82062
( wordfinal) of kvin-ender to ku.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 979

kvin is a rootnounmaker affix, rarely used. Rule RtvigdadhRk says that Rtvij-, diz-, prAc- and others end in kvin.

z ordinarily turns into D by vrazca;bhrasja and jhalAJjazonte. But this exception turns any wordfinal letter of a quinn-ender into the most-alike ku. Therefore, this rule turns

z into kh,

j into g,

and n into G.

The very few words that end in G are made by this rule (such as prAG "eastern", dadhyaG "name of a sage").

Examples --

diz- + su halGyA diz → * dik "point of the compass, course"

diz + bhyas svAdiSva diz (word) + bhyas → * digbhyaH "to / from all directions"

yuj- + su yujerasamAse yunjs halGyA yunj saMyogAnta yun → * yuG "a joiner"

prAc + su ugidacA prAncs halGyA prAnc saMyogAnta prAn → * prAG "eastern"

KAZIKA padasya iti vartate. kvinpratyayasya sarvatra padAnte kutvam iSyate. kvin pratyayo yasmAd dhAtoH sa kvin-pratyayaH, tasya padasyAlo 'ntyasya ka-varg'-Adezo bhavati. spRzo 'nudake kvin 32058. ghRtaspRk. halaspRk. mantraspRk. kvinaH kuH iti vaktavye pratyayagrahaNaM kRtaM bahuvrIhivijJAnArtham. kvin pratyayo yasmAd vihitas tasmAdanyasminnapi pratyaye kutvaM yathA syAt. mA no asrAk. mA no adrAk. sRjidRzibhyAM hi kvin vihitaH, tayor luGi kutvam etat. mAGyoge 'pi chandasatvAdaDAgamaH. IT ca na bhavati, bahulaM chandasi 73097 iti. tathA dRgbhyAm, dRgbhiH iti kvibantasya api dRzeH kutvaM bhavati. evaM ca sati rajjusRDbhyAm ityatra api kutvaM prApnoti. atha tu na iSyate, pratividhAnaM kartavyam iti.

479 letters. -- 82D.bse 136 -- popularity 12




(monodhAtoH) (!mono)

mo no dhAtoH ONPANINI 82064
Replace wordfinal m of a root with n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 980

This applies to rootnoun-enders, such as prazAm- "tranquillized, pacified, unhurt" (from pra + zam + kvip, with A by anunAsikasya kvi;jhaloH kGiti).

Example with an m that becomes wordfinal because su disappears -

prazAm- + su halGyA prazAm → * prazAn

Counterexample with a non- wordfinal m --

prazAm- + amprazAmam

Examples when m is wordfinal by svAdiSva --

prazAm- + bhis → * prazAnbhis

prazAm- + sup' → * prazAnsu

And optionally --

prazAm- + sup' → * prazAnsu nazca prazAntsu

KAZIKA makArantasya dhAtoH padasya nakArAdezo bhavati. prazAn pratAn. pradAn. zamitam idam AdInAM kvip, anunAsikasya kvijhaloH kGitIti dIrghatvam. natvasya asiddhatvAn nalopo na bhavati. maH iti kim? bhit. chit. dhAtoH iti kim? idam. kim. padasya ity eva, pratAmau. pratAmaH.

This footnote is necessary because my students keep telling me that if inria disagrees with me, I must be wrong --

As of 2024, Inria declension, locative plural, has prazAMsu, not prazAnsu nor prazAntsu. That's a bug. Im prazAm- + sup', rule 82064 monodhAtoH must work, making prazAnsu that has wordfinal n, and a wordfinal n cannot be turned into M neither by 83023 monusvA nor by 83024 nazcA.

711 letters. -- 82D.bse 218 -- popularity 2

349 /ktin makes @feminine [@action noun]s.




(sasajuSo) (/ru)

sa;sajuSo ruH ONPANINI 82066
( wordfinal) s to ru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 981 sandhi

Always change wordfinal s into r(u). Regardless of what comes next.

A r(u) is a r that carries label u. Most of the time, r(u) behaves just like a normal r --

Example:

agnis + atra → * agniratra "here's the fire"

However, the r(u), unlike the r, will trigger some other rules, such as hazica and atoro --

azvas + bibheti → * azva + ru + bibheti hazica azvobibheti "horse is afraid"

azvas + atra → * azva + ru + atra atoro azvotra "here's a horse"

The wordfinal r that is not a ru is called a true r.

KAZIKA sakAr%Antasya padasya sajuS ity etasya ca ruH bhavati. sakArAntasya agniratra. vAyuratra. sajuSaH sajUr RtubhiH. sajUr devebhiH. juSeH kvipi sapUrvasya rupam etat.

Above I have translated only half of the original rule. The other half explains that the vedic word sajUr "with" is a compound of saha- + juS + kvip. As in sajUr devebhiH "together with the gods", modern Sanskrit devaisH saha.

sa- + juS + kvip → * sajur rvoru sajUr

539 letters. -- 82D.bse 244 -- popularity 41




(ahan) (!ahan)

ahan ONPANINI 82068
Replace wordfinal ahan- (with ru).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 982

This rule only works when ahan- "day" gets word status from svAdiSva, so there are exactly four examples --

ahan + bhyAm svAdiSva ahan ( word ) → * aha + ru + bhyAm hazica ahobhyAm "within two days"

ahan + bhisahobhis "within days"

ahan + bhyasahobhyas "after days"

ahan + sup' → * aha + ru + su kharava ahaHsu vAzari ahasHsu "in days"

This rule will not work before su am luk, because of rosupi below --

ahan- + su + Agame supodhA ahan- + luk + Agame rosupi aharAgame "at daybreak"

When ahan- is wimpy, alloponaH works --

ahan- + Gas alloponaH ahnas "of the day"

358 letters. -- 82D.bse 369 -- popularity 5

952 [@Nounbase]final (@wordfinal) !n to /lopa.

1285 [@True r] is the @wordfinal !r that is not a /ru.

1286 words with [@true r]




(rosupi) (!rosu)

ro 'supi ONPANINI 82069
(Replace ahan-) with r when not before sup.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 983

Exception to rule ahan, that would have replaced ahan- with ru.

(Do not confuse this rule with rossupi "r stays before sup'".)

A nounbase is asupi "not before sup" if its sup became luk by svamorna or supodhA.

Example with svamorna --

ahan- n + su + yat svamorna ahan + yat → * ahar yat "the day that..."

Example with supodhA --

ahan- + Gas + Agame supodhA ahan + Agame → * ahar-Agame "at the coming of the day, at daybreak"

This rule have worked on the compoint ahar + rAtri of tehorAtravidojanAH at bhg 8:17, but, because of some vArttika, the ahan- of certain compounds gets ru replacement, not r.

KAZIKA ahann ity etasya rephAdezo bhavati asupi parataH. ahar dadAti. ahar bhuGkte. asupi iti kim? ahobhyAm. ahobhiH. nanu catra api pratyayalakSaNena subasti, ahardadAti, aharbhuGkte iti? na etadasti. uktam etat ahnoravidhau lumatA lupte pratyayalakSaNaM na bhavati iti. nAyam ahaH-zabdaH sup-paro bhavati. yatra tu lopazabdena lupyate tatra pratyayalakSaNaM bhavatyeva, yathA he dIrghaho 'tra, dIrghAho nidAgha iti. atra hi halGyAbbhya iti lopena pratyayasya nivRttiH.

426 letters. -- 82D.bse 380 -- popularity 4

6 cute animals

952 [@Nounbase]final (@wordfinal) !n to /lopa.




(vasusraMsu) (!vasu)

vasu;sraMsu;dhvaMsv;anaDuhAM daH ONPANINI 82072
Replace ( wordfinal) vasu sraMs dhvaMs anaDuh- with dmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 984

This is an exception to sasaju and hoDhaH.

Examples with vasu --

vidvas- n + su svamorna vidvas → * vidvad beforepause vidvat "that knows"

vidvas- mn + bhis → * vidvadbhis "by sages"

vidvas- mn + sup' → * vidvadsu kharica vidvatsu "about sages"

Example with sraMs + kvip --

sraMs + kvip + su aniditA sras + s halGyA sras → * srat "whatever falls"

which may be used as a latter in the compound --

ukhAsrat mfn "fallen from the pan"

Example with anaDuh-

anaDuh- m + bhis svAdiSva anaDuh ( word ) + bhis → * anaDudbhis m "by beasts of burden"

342 letters. -- 82D.bse 428 -- popularity 5

130 But @wimpy before /yac.

312 /kvip too (appears randomly).

686 @Stretch (@wimpy) /vasu /kvasu.

1419 /vasu with /sup.




(sipidhAto) (!sip)

sipi dhAto$ rur vA ONPANINI 82074
Optionally, (s) of a root (to d) before sip.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 985

This is an exception to sasaju.

Example --

cakAs + laG sip luGlaG acakAs + sipacakAs + s''' halGyA acakAs → * acakAd "you shone"

as in --

acakAt tvam "you shone"

If we don't take this option, sasaju works as usual --

cakAs + laG sip luGlaG acakAs + sipacakAs + s''' halGyA acakAs "you shone" sasaju acakA + ru

as in --

acakAs tvam "you shone"

See also dazcax below.

KAZIKA sipi parataH sakArAntasya padasya dhAtoH ruH ityayam Adezo bhavati, dakAro vA. acakAH tvam, acakAt tvam. anvazAH tvam, anvazAt tvam. dhAtugrahaNaM ca uttarArthaM rugrahaNaM ca.

236 letters. -- 82D.bse 466 -- popularity none




(dazcax) (!dazcax)

daz ca x ONPANINI 82075
(Optionally,) d (of a root to s before sip).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 986

Example --

rudh- + laG sip → .. → arunadhs halGyA arunadh jhalAJjazonte arunad → * arunas Natvam aruNas "you obstructed"

But if we don't take this option --

rudh- + laG sip → .. → arunad Natvam aruNad "you obstructed"

There is an unrelated rule that sounds the same, daz ca.

KAZIKA dakArAntasya dhAtoH padasya sipi parato ruH bhavati, dakAro vA. abhinas tvam, abhinat tvam. acchinas tvam, acchinat tvam.

See about the letter x in rules .

193 letters. -- 82D.bse 574 -- popularity 3

970 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.

985 Optionally, (!s) of a root (to !d) before /sip.




(rvorupadhA) (!rv)

r;vor upadhAyA dIrgha:: ikaH ONPANINI 82076
lengthen wordfinal ir ur iv uv (of a root).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 987

A rootnoun that ends in r v, when wordfinal, lengthens its nexttolast i u.

As in --

gir- + bhis sv;AdiSva @word gir + bhis → * gIrbhis "with words"

gir- + su halGyA gir → * gIr "speech"

gir- + sup' → * gIrSu "in words"

dhur- + su halGyA dhur → * dhUr "yoke"

Azis- + su halGyA Azis sasaju Azi + ru → * AzIr "hope"

Azis- + bhis sasaju Azi + ru + bhis sasaju Azi + ru + bhi + ru → * AzIrbhi + ruAzIrbhir "with hopes, with blessings"

KAZIKA rephavakArAntasya dhAtoH padasya upadhAyAH ikaH dIrgho bhavati. gIH. dhUH. pUH. AzIH. vakAra-grahaNam uttar%Artham. upadhAgrahaNaM kim? abibhar bhavAn. abhyAsekArasya mA bhUt. ikaH iti kim? atra eva pratyudAharaNe bhazabdAkArasya mA bhUt. dhAtoH ityeva, agniH. vAyuH. padasya ityeva, girau. giraH.

239 letters. -- 82D.bse 614 -- popularity 5

988 Non-@wordfinal (!ir !ur !iv !uv of a @root) lengthen before @consonant.

1005 [@True r] stays before /sup'.

1029 (non-@wordfinal !s to !S) after /ku, !r, /ic.

1286 words with [@true r]




(halica) (!halic)

hali ca ONPANINI 82077
Non- wordfinal (ir ur iv uv of a root) lengthen before consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 988

In a root that ends in r v, the nexttolast i u lengthen before consonant affixes. Even if the r v is not wordfinal.

So here ir iv lengthen before y and t --

div + laT tipdiv + zyan + tip → * dIvyati "gambles"

vi + stRR + kta RRta::iddhAtoH vi + stir + ta → * vistIrta radAbhyAnni vistIrna Natvam vistIrNa- "spread out"

As in --

kaz cid bhavati vistIrNo na prastAro mama kSateH "no extension can be wider than my wound"

Example with ur --

pRR + kta udoSThya pur + kta → * pUr + kta radAbhyAnni pUrna- Natvam pUrNa- "filled, full"

As in --

kaSTamM pUrNaJM jalavyAlair vimAnamM plotR mAmakam "drat, my hovercraft is full of eels!"

Of course this rule will not work before vowel affixes --

kRR + za + tip RRta::i kirati "disperses"

KAZIKA hali ca parato rephavakArAntasya dhAtoH upadhAyAH ikaH dIrghaH bhavati. AstIrNam. vistIrNam. vizIrNam. avagUrNam. vakArAntasya dIvyati. sivyati. dhAtoH ityeva, divam icchati divyati. caturaH icchati caturyati. ikaH ityeva, smaryate. bhavyam. apadAntArtho 'yam ArambhaH.

I added the word "non- wordfinal" to my translation just for clarity. It is not necessary, because the wordfinal will be catched by the previous rule, rvorupadhA, and will not reach this rule.

This rule worked in dIvyati "gambles", from the root div, but not in divyati "longs for heaven". That's because the second divyati is made from the noun divam "heaven" by adding to it one of the affixes kyac kyaG kyaS, making the sanAdyanta root divya, whose iv is not rootfinal.

840 letters. -- 82D.bse 666 -- popularity 10




(nabhakurchu) (!nabha)

na bha;kur;churAm ONPANINI 82079
But not wimpy, kur, chur.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 989

Exception to previous rule. kur, chur, and wimpy ir ur iv uv won't lengthen their i u before consonant.

Example with a wimpy --

dhur "burden" is wimpy before yat'', which is a taddhita allowed by dhuro yaDDhakau

dhuraM vahati "carries a load" → dhurya- "beast of burden, porter"

Example with kur, which is the kuru that was affected by nityaGkaroteH --

kR + @hard liG tipkuru + tip nityaGkaroteH kur + tipkur + yAt'''kuryAt "he would do"

Example with chur "cut", a zaclass root --

kR + @hard liG tip → .. → churyAt "he would cut"

KAZIKA repha-va-kAr'-.Antasya bhasya kur chur ity etayoz ca dIrgho na bhavati. dhuraM vahati dhuryaH. dhuri sAdhuH dhuryaH. divyam. kur - kuryAt. chur - churyAt. rephavakArAbhyAM bhavizeSaNaM kim? pratidIvnA. pratidIvne..

380 letters. -- 82D.bse 729 -- popularity 1




(adasose) (!adasos)

adaso 'ser dAd u do maH ONPANINI 82080
If adas- has no s, d plus vowel to mu or mU.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 990

adas- loses its s before vibhakti because of tyad-AdInAmaH. After adding the vibhakti, the d will be before a vowel. Then we replace the d and the vowel with mu or mU.

We replace with mu when the vowel is short and with mU when it's long, because the most-alike rule says so.

Examples with mu replacement--

adas- m + am tyadAdInAmaH ada- + am amipUrvaH adam → * amum

adas- m + TAada + TA → * amu + TA AGonAstriyAm amunA

Examples with mU replacement--

adas- m + zas tyadAdInAmaH ada- + zas prathamayo adAs tasmAccha adAn → * amUn "those"

adas- m + au tyadAdInAmaH ada- + au nAdici adau → * amU "those two"

adas- mfn + bhyAmada- + bhyAm supica adA + bhyAm → * amUbhyAm "by those two"

This rule won't affect the de of the plural, because of exception eta::Idba below.

Here is a more literal translation of this rule --

" When adas lost its s, replace what is after d with u U, and the d with m. "

See also adas- at pronoun tables .

KAZIKA adaso '-sakAr%Antasya varNasya dAt parasya uvarNĀ“Adezo bhavati, dakArasya ca makAraH. amum, amU, amUn. amunA, amUbhyAm. bhAvyamAnena apyukAreNa savarNAnAM grahaNam iSyate iti ekamAtrikasya mAtrikaH, dvimAtrikasya dvimAtrikaH Adezo bhavati. aseH iti kim? adaH icchati adasyati. adaso 'nosra iti vaktavyam. okArarephayorapi pratiSedho yathA syAd iti. ado 'tra. adaH. tad-arthaM kecit sUtraM varNayanti, aH seH yasya so 'yam asiH, yatra sakArasya akAraH kriyate iti, tena tyadAdya-tva-vidhAne etad anyatra na bhavitavyam eva iti. adryAdeze katham? adaso 'dreH pRthaG mutvaM kecid icchanti latva-vat. kecid antyasadezasya nety eke 'serhi dRzyate. iti. yaiH aseH iti sakArasya pratiSedhaH kriyate, anantyavikAre antyasadezasya iti ca paribhASA na azrIyate, teSAm ubhayorapi mutvena bhavitavyam, amumuyaG, amumuyaJcau, amumuyaJcaH iti , yathA calIkLpyate iti latvam. ye tu paribhASAm Azrayanti teSAm antyasadezasya eva bhavitavyam, adamuyaG, adamuyaJcau, adamuyaJcaH iti. yeSaM tu tyadAdyatvaviSaya eva mutvena bhavitavyam iti darzanam teSAm atra na bhavitavyam, adadryaG, adadryaJcau, adadryaJcaH iti. dAtiti kim? alo 'ntyasya mA bhUt, amuyA. amuyoH.

593 letters. -- 82D.bse 782 -- popularity 2




(etaIdba) (/amI)

eta:: Id bahuvacane ONPANINI 82081
Before plural, replace the de of adas- (with mI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 991

Exception to adasose. In the plural, the de of adas- turns into mI, not mU.

There are exactly five examples --

adas- m + jas tyadAdInAmaH ada + jas jasazzI ada + zI AdguNaH ade → * amI "those"

(This amI a nonjoiner, by adasomAt.)

adas- + bhis tyadAdInAmaH ada + bhis bahuvacanejhalyet ade + bhis → * amIbhis "with those"

(Here atobhisa::ais did not work, because of the exception nedamadasorakoH.)

adas- + sup' tyadAdInAmaH ada + su bahuvacanejhalyet ade + su → * amIsu kric amISu "in those"

adas- + Am tyadAdInAmaH ada + Amada + sAm bahuvacanejhalyet adesAm → * amIsAm kric amISAm "of those"

adas- + bhyas → .. → amIbhyas "at those; from those"

See also pronoun tables .

369 letters. -- 82D.bse 944 -- popularity 2




(vAkyasyaTe) (!vAk)

vAkyasya TeH pluta udAttaH ONPANINI 82082
Make the last vowel of a sentence extralong and acute when...mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 992

headline --

" In the circumstances mentioned in the following rules, down to the end of the chapter, we may optionally make the last vowel of the sentence extralong and acute. "

KAZIKA adhikAro 'yam. vAkyasya TeH iti, plutaH iti ca, udAttaH iti ca, etat trayam apy adhikRtaM veditavyam ApAda-parisamApteH. yad iti Urdhvam anukramiSyAmaH vAkyasya TeH pluta udattaH ity evaM tad veditavyam.

139 letters. -- 82D.bse 998 -- popularity none




(dUrAddhUte) (!dUrAd)

dUrAd @dhUte ca ONPANINI 82084
When calling from afar (a sentence-final calling is optionally extralong and acute).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 993

As in --

Agaccha bho devadattA3 "come here, devadattaaaa!"

43 letters. -- 82D.bse 1010 -- popularity 2

1378 /mAtrA theory.




(kSiyAzIHprai) (!kSi)

kSiyA;''zIH;praiSeSu tiG AkAGkSam ONPANINI 82104
When meaning impoliteness blessing command, last vowel of cliffhanger verb becomes extralong and falling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 994 extralong

A "cliffhanger" is the first of two sentences that together make one idea. Example. To express that someone else is impolite, we may say --

svayaM rathena yAti3 upAdhyAyamM padAtiGM gamayati "on chariot himself he gooooes, and makes his teacher go on foot! (rolls eyes)"

Here the first sentence is a cliffhanger.

The first sentence must have a verb at the end for this rule to work, so I translate the next two examples into Yodaese --

A blessing made of two closely related sentences --

sutAMz ca lapsISTa3 dhanaJM ca tAta "may you sons geeeet, and wealth!"

And a compound command --

kaTaGM kuru3 grAmaJM ca gaccha "a mat maaake, and go to the village!"

BTW, this lapsISTa verb is a soft bent liG, so inria will fail to parse it. It is built like this --

labh + @soft liG talabh + sISTa''' jhalAJjazjhazi lab + sISTa kharica lapsISTa

KAZIKA svaritaH iti vartate. kSiyA AcarabhedaH, AzIH prArthanAvizeSaH, zabdena vyApAraNam praiSaH, eteSu gamyamAneSu tiGantam AkAGkSaNaM yat tasya svaritaH pluto bhavati. AkAGkSati iti AkAGkSam, tiGantam uttarapadam AkAGkSati ityarthaH. kSiyAyAM tAvat svayaM rathena yAti3, upAdhyAyaM padAtiM gamayati iti. svayam odanaM ha bhuGkte3, upAdhyAyaM saktUn pAyayati. pUrvam atra tiG-antam uttarapadam AkAGkSati iti sAkAGkSaM bhavati. AziSi sutAMz ca lapsISTa3 dhanaM ca tAta. chando 'dhyeSISTa3 vyAkaraNam ca bhadra. praiSe kaTaM kuru3 grAmaM ca gaccha. yavAn lunIhi3 saktUMzca piba. AkAGkSam iti kim? dIrghaM te Ayur astu. agnIn vihara.

617 letters. -- 82D.bse 1021 -- popularity 2

641 (@Nexttolast of) /zAs to !i before /aG or @consonant /kGit affix.
















82001 tripAdI ←

chunk 47: 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

→ 83002 n to Ms