82001 tripAdI ←

chunk 47: 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

→ 83002 n to Ms

82039 serious to jaz. jhalAJjazonte
82040 t th to dh after jhaS, unless after dhA. jhaSastathordhodhaH
82041 S Dh to k before s. SaDhoHkassi
82042 After r d, niSThA to n, and the d too. radAbhyAnniSThAtonaHpUrvasyacadaH
82044 After lUclass . lvAdibhyaH
82045 after odit roots. oditazca
82052 After pac, v. pacovaH
82062 of kvin-ender to ku. kvinpratyayasyakuH
82064 Replace wordfinal m of a root with n. monodhAtoH
82066 s to ru. sasajuSoruH
82068 Replace wordfinal ahan- . ahan
82069 with r when not before sup. rosupi
82072 Replace vasu sraMs dhvaMs anaDuh- with d vasusraMsudhvaMsvanaDuhAndaH
82074 Optionally replace with d the s of a root that is before deleted s'''. sipidhAtorurvA
82075 Optionally replace with s the d of a root that is before deleted s'''. dazcax
82076 Lengthen wordfinal ir ur iv uv . rvorupadhAyAdIrgha::ikaH
82077 before consonant. halica
82079 But not wimpy, kur, chur. nabhakurchurAm
82080 If adas- has no s, d plus vowel to mu or mU. adasoserdAdudomaH
82081 Before plural, replace the de of adas- . etaIdbahuvacane
82084 When calling from afar . dUrAddhUteca
82104 To mean impoliteness blessing command, last vowel of cliffhanger verb turns extralong and falling. kSiyAzIHpraiSeSutiGAkAGkSam


jhalAM jazo 'nte ONPANINI 82039
( Wordfinal) serious to jaz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 930 sandhi

Because of the most-alike rule, this will replace --

c ch jh z with j

p ph bh with b

k kh gh h with g

T Th Dh S with D

t th dh s with d.

This rule, like sasaju, works always, regardless of what comes afterwards.

Examples --

anuSTubh- + su halGyA anuSTubh → anuSTub beforepause anuSTup "stanza"

diz + kvin + su halGyA diz kvinpratyayasyakuH dikh → dig beforepause dik "point of the compass"

madhulih- + su halGyA madhulih hoDhaH madhuliDh → madhuliD beforepause madhuliT "bee"

dviS + laG tip luGlaG adviS + tip puganta adveS + tipadveS + t''' halGyA adveS → adveD beforepause adveT "he hated"

vana- + Gasi TAGasi vanAt → vanAd beforepause vanAt


jhaSas ta;thor dho 'dhaH ONPANINI 82040
t th to dh after jhaS, unless after dhA.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 931

Examples --

budh + kta → budh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi bud- + dhabuddha- "awake"

rudh + laT tiprunadh + ti → runadh + dhi jhalAJjazjhazi runad + dhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs, stops"

gUh + kta hoDhaH gUDh + ta → gUDh + dha STunA gUDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gUDha- "was hidden, was kept secret"

lih + laT tha hoDhaH liDh + tha → liDh + dha STunA liDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH li + Dha Dhralope lIDha "y'all suck"

dhA + laT tasdhA + zlu + tas zlau dadhA + tas znAbhya dadh + tas dadhastathozca dhadh + tas kharica dhattas "both put"

dhA + laT thas → .. → dhadh + thas ( like above ) kharica dhatthas "you two put"


Sa;DhoH kaH si ONPANINI 82041
S Dh to k before s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 932

The s will always become S by kric, so this rule may also be stated as --

"Ss and Dhs to kS".

Examples --

dviS + laT sip puganta dveS + si → dvek + si kric dvekSi "you hate"

lih + sya + tip puganta leh + sya + ti hoDhaH leDh + sya + ti → lek + sya + ti kric lekSyati "he'll lick"

This rule will not work before laG sip, because halGyA has priority --

dviS + laG sip → .. → adveS + s''' halGyA adveS jhalAJjazonte adveD beforepause adveT "you hated"


radAbhyAM niSThAto naH pUrvasya ca daH ONPANINI 82042
After r d, niSThA to n, and the d too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 933

So r plus the ta of kta ktavatu makes rNa --

tRR + kta RRta::iddhAtoH tirta- halica tIrta- → tIrna- Natvam tIrNa- "shattered, broken"

tRR + ktavatu m + su → .. → tIrNavAn "he crossed"

And d plus the ta of kta ktavatu makes nna --

bhid + kta → bhin + knabhinna- "was cut, was rent asunder"

bhid + ktavatu m + su → .. → bhinnavAn "he cut"

See also lv-AdibhyaH below.


lv-AdibhyaH ONPANINI 82044
After lUclass (t of niSThA to n).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 934

The lUclass are the znAclass roots from AD 09.0016 lUJ "reap" to 09.0039 plI "move". They are pUclass too.

Examples --

lU + ktalUna- "was reaped"

kAzikA says that the t of ktin also gets this n replacement --

kRR + ktin + su → .. → kIrNiH "a scattering"


oditaz ca ONPANINI 82045
( niSThA to n) after odit roots.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 935

laj + kta → .. → lagna-

laj + ktavatu → .. → lagnavat(u)-


paco vaH ONPANINI 82052
After pac, ( niSThA to) v.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 936

All examples --

pac + kta coHkuH pak + ta → pakva- "was cooked"

pac + ktavatu coHkuH pak + tavat → pakvavat- "did cook"


kvin-pratyayasya kuH ONPANINI 82062
( wordfinal) of kvin-ender to ku.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 937

kvin is a rootnoun -maker kRt affix, rarely used. Rule RtvigdadhRk says that Rtvij, diz-, prAc- and others have kvin.

z ordinarily makes D by vrazca;bhrasja and jhalAJjazonte. But this exception turns any wordfinal letter of a quinn-ender into the most-alike ku.

Examples --

diz- + su halGyA diz → dik "point of the compass, course"

diz + bhyas svAdiSva diz (word) + bhyas → digbhyaH "to / from all directions"

yuj- + su yujerasamAse yunjs halGyA yunj saMyogAnta yun → yuG "a joiner"

prAc + su ugidacA prAncs halGyA prAnc saMyogAnta prAn → prAG "eastern"


mo no dhAtoH ONPANINI 82064
Replace wordfinal m of a root with n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 938

This applies to rootnoun -enders, such as prazAm- "tranquillized, pacified, unhurt" (from pra + zam + kvip).

Example with no sup after prazAm-

prazAm- + su halGyA prazAm → prazAn

Examples with svAdiSva --

prazAm- + bhis → prazAnbhis

prazAm- + sup' → prazAnsu

prazAm- + sup' → prazAnsu nazca prazAntsu

Counterexample --

prazAm- + amprazAmam


sa;sajuSo ruH ONPANINI 82066
( Wordfinal) s to ru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 939 sandhi

Always change wordfinal s into ru. Regardless of what comes next.

The ru is a special sort of r that carries label u.

Sometimes that u label has no effect at all, and it is just destroyed by tasyalopaH, like in these two examples --

gurus + brahmA → guru + ru + brahmAgururbrahmA "the teacher is like brahmA"

kapis + pazyati → kapi + ru + pazyati kharava kapiH pazyati kupvoKkaFpauca kapiF pazyati "monkey sees"

Here the label u had no effect. When we put punar, that has a r with no label u, in front of the same word, the same rules work, and we get punar brahmA, punaF pazyati anyway. However, in other situations, that label u will have an effect on rules atoro, hazica, bhobhago and rossupi.

For instance, with a ru we get --

azvas + dravati → azva + ru + dravati hazica azvo dravati "horse runs"

azvas + adravat → azva + ru + adravat atoro azvo 'dravat "horse ran"

But those rules work differently with a r that has no label u. So we get no hazica and no atoro here --

punar dravati "runs again"

punar dravati "ran again"

The wordfinal r that does not carry label u is sort of rarity. See true r for examples.

This rule has the optional exception sipidhAtorurvA. When the option is taken, the s is not replaced by ru; instead, it becomes d by jhalAJjazonte.


ahan ONPANINI 82068
Replace wordfinal ahan- (with ru).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 940

This rule only works when ahan- "day" gets word status from svAdiSva, so there are exactly four examples --

ahan + bhyAm svAdiSva ahan ( word ) → aha + ru + bhyAm hazica ahobhyAm "within two days"

ahan + bhisahobhis "within days"

ahan + bhyasahobhyas "after days"

ahan + sup' → aha + ru + su kharava ahaHsu vAzari ahasHsu "in days"

This rule will not work before su am luk, because of rosupi below --

ahan- + su + Agame supodhA ahan- + luk + Agame rosupi aharAgame "at daybreak"

When ahan- is wimpy, alloponaH works --

ahan- + Gas alloponaH ahnas "of the day"


ro 'supi ONPANINI 82069
(Replace ahan-) with r when not before sup.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 941

Exception to rule ahan, that would have replaced ahan- with ru.

(Do not confuse this rule with rossupi "r stays before sup'".)

A nounbase is asupi "not before sup" if its sup became luk by svamorna or supodhA.

Example with svamorna --

ahan- n + su + yat svamorna ahan + yat → ahar yat "the day that..."

Example with supodhA --

ahan- + Gas + Agame supodhA ahan + Agame → ahar-Agame "at the coming of the day, at daybreak"


vasu;sraMsu;dhvaMsv;anaDuhAM daH ONPANINI 82072
Replace ( wordfinal) vasu sraMs dhvaMs anaDuh- with dmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 942

This is an exception to sasaju and hoDhaH.

Examples with vasu --

vidvas- n + su svamorna vidvas → vidvad beforepause vidvat "that knows"

vidvas- mn + bhis → vidvadbhis "by sages"

vidvas- mn + sup' → vidvadsu kharica vidvatsu "about sages"

Example with sraMs + kvip --

sraMs + kvip + su aniditA sras + s halGyA sras → srat "whatever falls"

which may be used as a latter in the compound --

ukhAsrat mfn "fallen from the pan"

Example with anaDuh-

anaDuh- m + bhis svAdiSva anaDuh ( word ) + bhis → anaDudbhis m "by beasts of burden"


sipi dhAto rur vA ONPANINI 82074
Optionally replace with d the s of a root that is before deleted s'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 943

Optional exception to sasajuSoruH.

Example --

cakAs + laG sip luGlaG acakAs + sipacakAs + s''' halGyA acakAs → acakAd "you shone"

as in the sentence --

acakAt tvam "you shone"

If we don't take this option, sasaju works as usual --

cakAs + laG sip luGlaG acakAs + sipacakAs + s''' halGyA acakAs "you shone"

as in the sentence --

acakAs tvam "you shone"

See also dazcax below.

"before sip, the replacing of the wordfinal s of a root with ru is optional".

The s of a root becomes wordfinal only when itazca and halGyA work. If we choose to not make sasaju turn that s into ru, then jhalAMjazonte turns the s into d.


daz ca x ONPANINI 82075
Optionally replace with s the d of a root that is before deleted s'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 944

So we may either say --

rudh- + laG sip → .. → arunadhs halGyA arunadh jhalAJjazonte arunad Natvam aruNad "you obstructed"

or apply this option and say --

rudh- + laG sip → .. → arunad → arunas Natvam aruNas "you obstructed"

There is an unrelated rule that sounds the same, daz ca.


r;vor upadhAyA dIrgha:: ikaH ONPANINI 82076
Lengthen wordfinal ir ur iv uv (of a root).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 945

A rootnoun that ends in r v, when wordfinal, lengthens its nexttolast i u.

As in --

gir- + bhis sv;AdiSva @word gir + bhis → gIrbhis "with words"

gir- + su halGyA gir → gIr "speech"

gir- + sup' → gIrSu "in words"

dhur- + su halGyA dhur → dhUr "yoke"

Azis- + su halGyA Azis sasaju Azir → AzIr "hope"


hali ca ONPANINI 82077
(Lengthen ir ur iv uv of a root) before consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 946

In a root that ends in r v, the nexttolast i u lengthen before consonant. Even if the r v is not wordfinal.

So here ir iv lengthen before y and t --

div + laT tipdiv + zyan + tip → dIvyati "gambles"

vi + stRR + kta RRta::iddhAtoH vi + stir + ta → vistIrta radAbhyAnni vistIrna Natvam vistIrNa- "spread out"

As in --

kaz cid bhavati vistIrNo na prastAro mama kSateH "no extension can be wider than my wound"

Example with ur --

pRR + kta udoSThya pur + kta → pUr + kta radAbhyAnni pUrna- Natvam pUrNa- "filled, full"

As in --

kaSTamM pUrNaJM jalavyAlair vimAnamM plotR mAmakam "drat, my hovercraft is full of eels!"

kRR + za + tip RRta::i kirati "disperses"


na bha;kur;churAm ONPANINI 82079
But not wimpy, kur, chur.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 947

Exception to previous rule. wimpy, kur, and chur won't lengthen.

Example with a wimpy --

dhur "burden" is wimpy before yat'', which is a taddhita allowed by dhuro yaDDhakau

dhuraM vahati "carries a load" → dhurya- "beast of burden, porter"

Example with kur, which is the kuru that was affected by nityaGkaroteH --

kR + @hard liG tipkuru + tip nityaGkaroteH kur + tipkur + yAt'''kuryAt "he would do"

Example with chur "cut", a zaclass root --

kR + @hard liG tip → .. → churyAt "he would cut"


adaso 'ser dAd u do maH ONPANINI 82080
If adas- has no s, d plus vowel to mu or mU.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 948

Because of the most-alike rule, we get mU if the vowel is long --

adas- m + zas tyadAdInAmaH ada- + zas prathamayo adAs tasmAccha adAn → amUn "those"

adas- m + au tyadAdInAmaH ada- + au nAdici adau → amU "those two"


And mu if it's short --

adas- m + am tyadAdInAmaH ada- + am amipUrvaH adam → amum

adas- m + TAada + TA → amu + TA AGonAstriyAm amunA

This won't work on the de of the plural, because of next rule eta::Idba.

See also pronoun tables .


eta:: Id bahuvacane ONPANINI 82081
Before plural, replace the de of adas- (with mI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 949

Exception to adasose.

This rule replaces de with mI while building these five words --

adas- m + jas tyadAdInAmaH ada + jas jasazzI ada + zI AdguNaH ade → amI "those"

adas- + bhis tyadAdInAmaH ada + bhis bahuvacanejhalyet ade + bhisamIbhis "with those"

amIbhyas "at those; from those"

amISAm "of those"

amISu "in those"

The word amI "those" is a nonjoiner, by adasomAt.

See also pronoun tables .


dUrAd @dhUte ca ONPANINI 82084
When calling from afar (a sentence-final calling is optionally extralong and acute).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 950

As in --

Agaccha bho devadattA3 "come here, devadattaaaa!"


kSiyA;''zIH;praiSeSu tiG AkAGkSam ONPANINI 82104
To mean impoliteness blessing command, last vowel of cliffhanger verb turns extralong and falling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 951 extralong

svayaM rathena yAti3 upAdhyAyamM padAtiGM gamayati "on chariot himself he gooooes, and makes his teacher go on foot! (rolls eyes)"

But we cannot say just the first sentence to express impoliteness, because there's nothing wrong with going on a chariot by itself; the second explanatory sentence is necessary. You may still say svayaM rathena yAti "he goes on a chariot by himself", but that never gets the extralong.

The first sentence must have its verb at the end for this rule to work.

82001 tripAdI ←

chunk 47: 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

→ 83002 n to Ms