73050 more about taddhita ←

chunk 43: 73101 some sup-changing rules

→ 74001 more replacements before soft

73101 Lengthen "a" before hard v m. atodIrghoyaJi
73102 before bhyAm ya. supica
73103 e before plural bh s. bahuvacanejhalyet
73104 Before os too . osica
73105 Ap to before TA os. AGicApaH
73106 before calling. sambuddhauca
73107 Before calling, shorten "dear mother" and nadI ambArthanadyorhrasvaH
73108 Short ik to guNa . hrasvasyaguNaH
73109 before jas. jasica
73110 R to before Gi and strong. RtoGisarvanAmasthAnayoH
73111 Wee to before Git gherGiti
73112 After nadI, get AT ANnadyAH
73113 yAT after Ap yADApaH
73114 After pronoun, syAT, and the stem shortens. sarvanAmnassyADDhrasvazca
73116 Replace Gi with Am after nadI, Ap, nI. GerAmnadyAmnIbhyaH
73117 after i u . idudbhyAm
73118 au . aut
73119 wee merges with Gi into au. accagheH
73120 TA to nA after non-feminine wee. AGonAstriyAm


ato dIrgho yaJi ONPANINI 73101
Lengthen "a" before hard v m.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 832 tiG

Example. mip mahi are hard when they replace laT, and start with m, so they lengthens any a --

paca + laT mip → pacAmi "I cook"

adRzya + mahe''' → dRzyAmahe "we are being seen"

More xamples --

gaccha + loT masgaccha + ma''' → gacchAma "let's go"

hR + lRT mip → .. → hariSya + mip → hariSyAmi "I will take"

adRzya + mahi → adRzyAmahi "we were seen"

Counterexample. am''' is hard here, but it starts with a, not m, so this rule does not work --

paca + laG mip luGlaG apaca + mipapaca + am''' atoguNe apacam "I cooked"


supi ca ONPANINI 73102
(Lengthen "a") before bhyAm ya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 833

ya is the replacement of Ge made by GeryaH. Example before ya --

rAma- + Ge GeryaH rAma + ya → rAmAya "to rAma"

Example before bhyAm --

azva- + bhyAm → azvAbhyAm "with / to / from two horses"


bahuvacane jhaly et ONPANINI 73103
(a to) e before plural bh s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 834

Exception to supica, that would have replaced a with A.

This rule works before sup' bhyas, and very rarely before bhis. We say "before plural" so that supica works before dual bhyAm.

Example with sup' --

vRkSa- + sup' → vRkSe + su kric vRkSe + SuvRkSeSu "on trees"

Example with bhyas --

vRkSa- + bhyas → vRkSebhyas "to trees, from trees"

This rule won't ordinarily work before bhis, because rule atobhisa::ais is stronger. Yet, when some exception stops atobhisa, then bhis stays, and then bahuvacanejhalyet makes abhis into ebhis. There are two such exceptions --

(1) nedamadasorakoH says that bhis is not replaced with ais after idam-

idam- + bhis → .. → a + bhis → ebhis "by these"

(2) bahulaMchandasi says that sometimes, in the veda, bhis stays after a. So there we hear --

deva + bhis → devebhis "by the devas"

As in devo devebhir A gamat "the god (agni) brings the gods", from the agnisUktam.


osi ca ONPANINI 73104
Before os too (replace a with e).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 835 sup

Examples --

vRkSa- + os → vRkSe- + os ecoya vRkSayos "of two trees"

azva- + os → azve- + osazvayos "of two horses"


AGi c' ApaH ONPANINI 73105
Ap to (e) before TA os.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 836 sup

ecoya will always make that e into ay --

azvA- "mare" + TA → azve- + A ecoya azvay- + AazvayA "with a mare"

azvA- + os → azve + os ecoya azvayos "of two mares"

rAma;sItA- + os → rAma;sIte- + osrAma;sItayos "of rAma and sItA"


sambuddhau ca ONPANINI 73106
( Ap to e) before calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 837

Example --

sItA- + @calling → sIte + s eGhra sItesIte "hey sItA"


ambArtha;nadyor hrasvaH ONPANINI 73107
Before calling, shorten "dear mother" and nadImmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 838

The compound ambArtha- translates as "nounbases that mean dear mother". Three of those not nadI -- amba-, akka- and alla-. Those three take Ap by ajAdya, then shorten before the calling --

amba- @f + @calling ajAdya ambA + s → amba + s eGhra amba "hey mommy"

akka "hey mommy"

alla "hey mommy"

All nadI shorten before the calling --

kacchapa- @f + @calling jAtera kacchapa- + GI + s yasyetica kacchapI + s yUstryAkhyaunadI kacchapI ( nadI ) + s → kacchapi + s eGhra kacchapi "hey she-turtle"

vadhU- + @calling → vadhu + s eGhra vadhu "hey young lady"


hrasvasya guNaH ONPANINI 73108
Short ik to guNa (before calling).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 839

Examples --

kapi- + @calling → kape + s eGhra kape "hey monkey"

guru- + @calling → guro + s eGhra guro "hey teacher"

mAtR- + @calling → mAtar + s halGyA mAtar "hey mother"


jasi ca ONPANINI 73109
(i u to guNa) before jas.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 840

Exception to prathamayo.

As this makes an e o before an a, ecoya will always work --

kapi- + jas → kape + jas ecoya kapayas "monkeys"

guru- + jas → guro + jas ecoya guravas "teachers"


Rto Gi;sarvanAmasthAnayoH ONPANINI 73110
R to (ar) before Gi and strong.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 841

Example before Gi --

pitR- m + Gi → pitari "about father"

Examples before strong au, jas, am, and the calling su --

pitR- m + am → pitaram "father"

mAtA pitA ca "mother and father" supodhA mAtR- + pitR- + su dvyeka mAtR- + pitR + au AnaGRtodvandve mAtA + pitR + au → matApitarau "parents"

pitR- m + @calling → pitar + s halGyA pitar "hey dad"

As in --

naivAnyathedamM bhavitA pitar eSa bravImi te

pitas te pratijAnAmi na zlokSye 'haGM kadA cana "Father, I promise, I promise! that I won't ever make verses"

There are no examples before non- calling su, because of exception Rduzana.

This ar will maybe become Ar by ap;tRn;tRc --

netR- m + am → netaram aptRntRc netAram "leader"

kartR- @n + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH kartRn + zi rAjAnam kartRRni Natvam kartRRNi @n "maker devices"


gher Giti ONPANINI 73111
Wee to ( guNa) before Gitmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 842

For instance, kapi- and guru- are wee, so we get --

kapi- + Gas → kape- + Gas GasiGasozca kapes "of monkey"

guru- + Gas → guro + Gas GasiGasozca guros "of teacher"

This also works before Gasi and Ge --

kapi- + Gasi → kape- + Gasi GasiGasozca kapes "from monkey"

kapi- + Ge → kape- + e ecoya kapaye "to monkey"

But it won't work before Gi, because aut overrides this rule --

kapau matkuNAH "on monkey there are fleas"

This rule always works on all masculines that end in i u, except sakhi- and uncompounded pati-, because those are not wee. Those two just get khyatyAtparasya before Gas Gasi. And before Ge they get just ikoyaNaci.

After a feminine in i u, this rule will work only if we didn't take the Gitihrasvazca option --

mati- @f + Gas → .. → mates "of opinion"

After a neuter, rule ikocivibhaktau will ordinarily work, debarring this one, but when the optional exception tRtIyAdiSu stops the ikocivibhaktau, this one kicks back in. So we may have masculine-like zuces here --

zucer vAriNaH "of clean water"

instead of the ordinary zucino vAriNaH, with ikocivibhaktau on both words.


AN nadyAH ONPANINI 73112
After nadI, (the Git) get ATmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 843

As AT is a Titaugment, it will replace Ge Gasi Gas Gi with ai As As Am, this way --

AT + Ge vRddhireci ai

AT + Gasi OR Gas akassa As

AT + Gi GerAm AT + Am akassa Am

This rule will always work on the I U feminines that are compulsorily nadI --

nadI- + Gasi → nadI + As ikoyaNaci nadyAs "from river"

strI- + Gasi → strI + As striyAH striyAs "from woman"

but after the i u feminines, it will only work if we take the Gitihrasvazca option --

mati- @f + Gas → mati + As ikoyaNaci matyAs "of opinion"

dhenu- @f + Gas → dhenu + As ikoyaNaci dhenvAs "of cow"

Otherwise, they work just like the masculine --

mati- @f + Gas → .. → mates "of opinion" ( same steps as kapes, see gherGiti )

dhenu- @f + Gas → .. → dhenos "of cow" ( same steps as guros )

Remember that the Ap-enders are feminine, but not nadI. This rule does not work on them, but yADApaH does.


( Git get) yAT after Apmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 844

As yAT is a Titaugment, this is the same thing as saying --

"After Ap, replace Ge Gasi Gas Gi with yai yAs yAs yAm "

Because --

Ap + Ge → A + Ge + yATA + (yA + e) vRddhireci Ayai

Ap + Gasi OR Gas → A + (yA + as) akassa AyAs

Ap + Gi GerAm A + Am → A + (yA + Am) akassa AyAm

Examples --

sItA- + GesItAyai "to sItA"

sItA- + GasisItAyAs "from sItA"

sItA- + GassItAyAs "of sItA"

sItA- + GisItAyAm "about sItA"

A sentence with sItayAs in it --

5020001a sItAyA vacanaM zrutvA paruSaM rAkSasAdhipaH

5020001c pratyuvAca tatasH sItAM vipriyamM priyadarzanAm

rAmAyaNa 5 22 Griffith translation

This will not work if the Ap follows a pronoun, because the next rule, sarvanAmnassyADDhrasvazca.


sarvanAmnaH syAD Dhrasvaz ca ONPANINI 73114
After pronoun, ( Git gets) syAT, and the stem shortens.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 845

Exception to yADApaH, that will not work after a pronoun that got Ap.

By the same reasons explained under yADApaH, this rule replaces

Ge Gasi Gas Gi


syai syAs syAs syAm.

In addition, it shortens the Ap. This rule is unusual because the replacement and the shortening happen at the same time; most command rules do just one thing.

Examples after tA- ( which comes from tad- + Ap , by tyadAdInAmaH and yasyetica ) --

tA- + Ge → ta- + syaitasyai "to her"

tA- + Gasi → ta- + syAstasyAs "from her"

tA- + Gi → ta- + syAmtasyAm "about her"

And this is a prayer --

yA devI sarvabhuteSu nidrArUpeNa saMsthitA | namas tasyai namas tasyai namas tasyai namo namaH ||

that you can hear here --

Complete Devi Suktam (Ya Devi Sarva Bhuteshu...) with Sanskrit lyrics

in order to get used to this "eye" sound.


Ger Am nady;Am;nIbhyaH ONPANINI 73116
Replace Gi with Am after nadI, Ap, nI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 846

Exception to ANnadyAH.

Examples after nadI --

nadI- + Gi → nadI- + AmnadyAm "in river"

vadhU- + Gi → vadhU- + AmvadhvAm "about the wife"

Example after Ap --

khaTvA- + Gi → khaTvA- + Am yADApaH khaTvA- + yAmkhaTvAyAm "in bed"

Example after rootnoun nI --

grAmaNI- @mf + Gi → grAmaNI- + AmgrAmaNyAm "about the mayor"

Here aciznu was overriden by eranekAco. grAmaNI- mf stays before consonants, gets y replacement before vowels.

In the mahAbhArata this change happens after lakSmI- too --

yathA nArAyaNo lakSmyAJM jAhnavyAJM ca yathodadhiH


id;udbhyAm ONPANINI 73117
(Replace Gi with Am) after i u (-ender nadI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 847

So, if we use rule Gitihrasvazca to make feminine mati- "opinion" into a nadI, we get --

mati- + Gi → mati + AmmatyAm "in the opinion (of)"

Otherwise mati- will be a wee, and mati- will get the same rules as the masculine --

mati- + Gi accagheH mata- + aumatau "in the opinion"


aut ONPANINI 73118
( Gi to) au (after non- nadI i u).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 848

Example --

guru- m + Gi → guru + au accagheH gura + augurau "about teacher"

Example when mati- did not become nadI by Gitihrasvazca --

mati- @f + Gi → mati + aumatau "in the opinion (of)"

When we choose mati- to be nadI, however, we get matyAm by GerAm.

sakhi- does not get accagheH, because it is not a wee --

sakhi- + Gi → sakhi + ausakhyau "about friend"


ac ca gheH ONPANINI 73119
wee merges with Gi into au.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 849

So we replace u + i with au and i + i with au too. Examples --

guru- m + Gi → gurau "about teacher"

giri- m + Gi → girau "on mountain"

As in --

gurau dveSaH "hate towards teacher"

girau vRkSAH "there are trees on the mountain"

Rule Gitihra says that feminines in i u, such as mati-, can be wee or not. So "in the opinion" is matau if we choose to make it wee. Otherwise matyAm, by id;udbhyAm. See also aut.

sakhi + Gi aut sakhi + au ikoyaNaci sakhyau "about friend"

pati + Gi → .. → patyau "about husband"

' Replace wee that is before Gi with a, and the Gi with au. '


AGo nA '-striyAm ONPANINI 73120
TA to nA after non- feminine wee.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 850

Examples --

RSi- m + TA → RSi + nA Natvam RSiNA "by prophet"

guru- m + TA → guru + nA Natvam guruNA "with teacher"

kapi- m n + TA → kapinA "with monkey"

mati- + TA ikoyaNaci matyA "with opinion"

dhenu- + TA ikoyaNaci dhenvA "with cow"

73050 more about taddhita ←

chunk 43: 73101 some sup-changing rules

→ 74001 more replacements before soft