vibhakti ←

chunk 29: 61001 reduplication

→ 61084 merge rules

61001 Replace the first onevowel part with two. ekAcodveprathamasya
61002 the second of a vowelstarter. ajAderdvitIyasya
61003 But not the n d r b that start a cluster. nandrAssaMyogAdayaH
61004 Stammer is the first . pUrvobhyAsaH
61005 Stammered are both. ubheabhyastam
61006 jakSa~ jAgR daridrA cakAsR zAsu dIdhIG vevIG . jakSityAdayaSSaT
61008 Before liT, stammer-less root. liTidhAtoranabhyAsasya
61009 before san and yaG. sanyaGoH
61010 before zlu zlau
61011 before caG caGi
61015 vac, svap, yaj-class before kit. vacisvapiyajAdInAGkiti
61016 grah jyA vay, vyadh vaz vyac, vrazc pracch bhrasj before kGit. grahijyAvayivyadhivaSTivicativRzcatipRcchatibhRjjatInAGGitica
61017 Before liT, stammer of the vacisvapi and the grahijyA. liTyabhyAsasyobhayeSAm
61019 svap syam vyeJ before yaG. svapisyamivyeJAMyaGi
61037 No stretching before stretched. nasamprasAraNesamprasAraNam
61038 The y of vay . liTivayoyaH
61039 This to v before kit optionally. vazcAsyAnyatarasyAGkiti
61040 veJ veJaH
61041 before lyap lyapica
61042 jyA . jyazca
61043 vyA vyazca
61044 optionally after pari . vibhASApareH
61045 dhAtupATha ec to A unless before zit. Adeca::upadezeziti
61058 sRj dRz get a before akit serious sRjidRzorjhalyamakiti
61064 Rootstarter S to s. dhAtvAdeSSassaH
61065 N to n. NonaH
61066 v y to lopa before val. lopovyorvali
61067 One-letter vi-affixes lose v. verapRktasya
61068 su s''' t''' after hal or long GI Ap. halGyAbbhyodIrghAtsutisyapRktaMhal
61069 After eG and short, calling. eGhrasvAtsambuddheH
61071 Short gets tuk before pit kRt. hrasvasyapitikRtituk
61072 Not before pause. saMhitAyAm
61073 before ch. checa
61074 AG mAG compulsorily . AGmAGozca
61075 non-wordfinal long . dIrghAt
61076 wordfinal optionally. padAntAdvA
61077 ik to yaN before ac. ikoyaNaci
61078 ec to ay av Ay Av . ecoyavAyAvaH
61079 av Av before y affix. vAntoyipratyaye
61080 of root only if that affix made the o au. dhAtostannimittasyaiva
61081 kSayya- and jayya- only mean "-ible". kSayyajayyauzakyArthe




(ekAcodve) (@redu)

ek%Aco dve prathamasya ONPANINI 61001
Replace the first onevowel part with two.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 521

Sometimes, we have to " reduplicate" roots, that is, we replace the first part of the root with two of the same. The "first part" of a root is everything up to the first vowel. Examples --

The first part of yudh is yu

so "reduplicate yudh" means "replace yudh with yu + yudh"

The first part of nI is nI

so we replace nI with nI + nI

The first part of ad is a

so we replace ad with a + ad

(See also the exceptions below, ajAderdvi and nan;d;rAssaMyo.)

We reduplicate when the rules liTidhA sanyaGoH zlau caGi below say so. In other words, whn the root is before the affixes liT san yaG zlu caG.

For instance, when rakS "protect" is before a liT affix, rule liTidhA replaces its ra with rara --

rakS + liT tiprakS + Nal liTidhA rarakS + NalrarakSa "he protected"

KAZIKA adhikAro 'yam. ekAcaH iti ca, dve iti ca, prathamasya iti ca tritayam adhikRtaM veditavyam. ita uttaraM yad vakSyAmaH prAk saMprasAraNavidhAnAt tatra ekAcaH prathamasya dve bhavataH ity evaM tad veditavyam. vakSyati liTi dhAtoranabhyAsasya iti. tatra dhAtoravayavayasya anabhyAsasya prathamasya ekAco dve bhavataH. jajAgAra. papAca. iyAya. Ara. ekAca iti bahuvrIhinirdezaH. eko 'c yasya so 'yam ekAcityavayavena vigrahaH. tatra samudAyaH samAsArthaH. abhyantarazca samudAye 'vayavo bhavati iti sAckasya eva dvirvacanaM bhavati. evaM ca pacityatra yena eva acA samudAyaH ekAc, tenA eva tadavayavo 'cchabdaH pazabdazca. tatra pRthagavayavaikAc na dvirucyate, kiM tarhi, samudAyaikAjeva. tathA hi sakRcchAstrapravRttyA sAvayavaH samudAyo 'nugRhyate. papAca ityatra prathamatvaM vyapadezivadbhAvAt. iyAya, Ara ityatra ekActvam api vyapadezibhAvAdeva. dviHprayogazca dvirvacanam idam. AvRttisaGkhyA hi dve iti vidhIyate. tena sa eva zabdo dvirucAryate, na ca zabdAntaraM tasya sthAne vidhIyate.

567 letters. -- 61.bse 2 -- popularity 10




(ajAderdvi) (!ajA)

aj-Ader dvitIyasya ONPANINI 61002
(But double) the second (onevowel part) of a vowelstarter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 522

Exception to ekAcodve. The roots that start with a vowel and have at least two vowels replace their second one-vowel part with two.

Example. The root aTiSa means "be about to wander" and starts with a vowel. When it reduplicates, we change --

a Ti Sa → * a Ti Ti SaaTiTiSa "want to wander"

as in --

aTiSa + laT tip → .. → aTiTiSati "he wants to go walkabout"

See exception nandrA right below.

KAZIKA prathamadvirvacanApavAdo 'yam. ajAder dvitiyasya ekaco dvirvacanam adhikriyate. acAdir yasya dhAtoH tadavayavasya dvitIyasya ekAco dve bhavataH. aTiTiSati. aziziSati. aririSati. arteH smipUGraJjvazAM sani 72074 iti iT kriyate. tasmin kRte guNe ca raparatve ca dvirvacane 'ci 12059 iti sthAnivadbhAvaH prApnoti. tatra pratividhAnaM dvirvacananimitte 'ci iti ucyate. na ca atra dvirvacananimittamiT. kiM tarhi? kAryI. na ca kAryI nimittatvena azrIyate. tathA hi kGinimittayor guNavRddhyoH pratiSedho vidhIyamAnaH zayitA ityatra na bhavati, na hi kAryiNaH zIGo guNaM prati nimittabhAvaH iti. atra kecidajAdeH iti karmadhArayAt paJcamIm icchanti. ac ca asau Adizca ityajAdiH, tasmAtajAderuttarasya ekAco dve bhavataH iti. teSAM dvitIyasya iti vispaSTarthaM draSTAvyam.

The root aTiSa comes from aT + san and means "to be about to wander".

aT + sanaT + iT + san kric aTiSa

361 letters. -- 61.bse 179 -- popularity 2




(nandrAssaMyo) (!nand)

na n;d;rAH saMyogAdayaH ONPANINI 61003
But not the n d r b that start a cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 523

Exception to ajAderdvi. If the second part of a vowel-starter root starts with n d r b plus other consonants, we don't reduplicate that n d r b, but just the rest of the second part.

Examples. The roots undiSa and Urnu have second parts ndi rnu. According to the previous rule we would have replaced ndi with two ndi and rnu with two rnu. But this exception says that we replace one di with two di and one nu with two nu --

u ndi Sa → * u n di di SaundidiSa

U rnu → * U r nu nuUrnunu Natvam UrNunu

As in --

und + san + laT tip sanyaGoH undidiSa + tip → .. → undidiSati "he wants to wetten"

Urnu + Nal liTidhA Urnunu + Nal acoJNiti Urnunau + a ecoya UrnunAva Natvam UrNunAva "he hid"

KAZIKA (laghu) acaH parAH saMyogAdayo nadarA dvir na bhavanti. nuzabdasya dvitvam. UrNunAva. UrNunuvatuH. UrNunuvuH.

The root undiSa means "want to wetten" and comes from und "wetten" + san.

The original rule does not mention b, but it is added by a vArttika, so that we get ubjijisati "wants to press down" from ubj "press down, opress".

637 letters. -- 61.bse 210 -- popularity 3

521 Replace the first onevowel part with two.

1203 /UrNu "cover, hide"




(pUrvobhyAsaH) (@stammer)

pUrvo 'bhyAsaH ONPANINI 61004
stammer is the first (part).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 524

When we replace one thing with two by the above rules, the first copy is called the stammer.

Example:

the stammer of papac is the first pa.

109 letters. -- 61.bse 275 -- popularity 38




(ubheabhya) (@stammere)

ubhe: abhyastam ONPANINI 61005
stammered are both.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 525

When we replace one part of a root with two by the above rules, the new root is a stammered.

Example. When ekAcodve replaces root pac with papac, by making one pa into two pa,

the stammer is the first pa

and the stammered is papac

There are two sorts of stammered --

(1) Those made by this rule (such as papac).

(2) Those mentioned in the next rule, jakSityA (such as jAgR).

KAZIKA dve iti vartamAne ubhegrahaNaM samudAyasaJjApratipattyartham. ye eve vihite te ubhe api samudite abhyastasaMjJe bhavataH. dadati. dadat. dadhatu. ubhegrahaNaM kim? nenijati ityatra abhyastAnAm AdiH iti samudAye udAttatvaM yathA syAt, pratyekaM paryAyeNa vA mA bhUtiti. abhyastapradezAH abhyastAnAm AdiH 6-1-189 ityevam AdayaH.

282 letters. -- 61.bse 281 -- popularity 10




(jakSityAda) (/jA)

jakSityAdayaH SaT ONPANINI 61006
jakSa~ jAgR daridrA cakAsR zAsu dIdhIG vevIG (are stammered).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 526

These seven special roots, called jakSAdi roots, are stammered just because this rule says so, even though they weren't made by reduplicating other roots.

All seven of them are lukclass.

Being a stammered makes rule adabhyastAt work. Examples --

jAgR + laT jhi → * jAgR ( stammered ) + ati''' ikoyaNaci jAgrati "they are awake"

jAgR + laT tip jAgrovi jAgarti "is awake"

zAs + laT jhi → * zAs ( stammered ) + ati''' adabhyastAt zAs + ati'''zAsati "they command"

zAs + laT tipzAsti "he commands"

Being stammered also prohibits the num from nAbhyastAccha. So we say daridratam "(him) that is poor", not daridrantam --

daridratamM brAhmaNamM pazyAmi "I can see that the brahmin is poor"

Even though these seven are stammered, they have no stammer, because they do not come from reduplicating anything else. Therefore, liTidhA does work on them --

jAgR + Nal → .. → jajAgAra "he woke up"

KAZIKA abhyastam iti vartate. jakSa ity ayaM dhAtuH ityAdayazca anye SaT dhAtavaH abhyasta-saMjJA bhavanti. seyaM saptAnAM dhAtUnAm abhyasta-saMjJA vidhIyate. jakSa bhakSahasanyoH ityataH prabhRti vevIG vetinA tulye iti yAvat. jakSati. jAgrati. daridrati. cakAsati. zAsati. dIdhyate, vevyate ityatra abhyastAnAm AdiH ityeSa svaraH prayojanam. dIdhyat iti ca zatari vyatyayena sampAdite n' .AbhyastAc chatuH iti numaH pratiSedhaH.

You might be asking yourself why the rule is not worded as jakSityAdayasH sapta. Thing is, pANini forgot about vevIG. Aliquando bonus dormitat Homerus, as we say in the South.

786 letters. -- 61.bse 310 -- popularity 10




(liTidhAto) (!liTid)

liTi dhAtor an-abhyAsasya ONPANINI 61008
Before liT, ( reduplicate) stammer-less root.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 527

Roots reduplicate before liT. Unless they are already reduplicated.

Examples --

pac + liT tippac + Nal ata::upa pAc + Nal → * pApAca hrasvaH papAca "he cooked"

kSip + Nal puganta kSep + Nal → * kSekSepa halAdizzeSaH kekSepa hrasvaH kikSepa kuhozcuH cikSepa "threw"

vac + Nal ata::upa vAc + a → * vA + vAc + a liTyabhyAsa uvAca "said"

Even though the jakSAdi are stammered roots, they were never reduplicated, so they are stammerless and this rule does work on them --

jAgR + Nal acoJNiti jAgAr + Nal → * jAjAgAr + a hrasvaH jajAgAra "woke up"

Notice that the root never gets zap za etc before liT affixes. That's because kartarizap, tud'-AdibhyaH zaH etc. only work before hard, and liT replacers are soft .

See also exception kAspratyayA.

KAZIKA liTi parato 'nabhyAsasya dhAtor avayavasya prathamasya ekAco dvitIyasya vA yathAyogaM dve bhavataH. papAca. papATha. prorNunAva. vAcya UrNorNuvadbhAvaH iti vacanAdUrNoteH ijAdeH iti Am na bhavati. liTi iti kim? kartA. hartA. dhAtoH iti kim? sasRvAMso vizRNvire ima indrAya sunvire anabhyAsasya iti kim? kRSNo nonAva vRSabho yadIdam nonUyaternonAva. samAnyA marutaH saMmimikSuH. liTi usantaH. dvirvacana-prakaraNe chandasi v'' .eti vaktavyam. yo jAgAra tamRcaH kAmayante. dAti priyANi iti.

481 letters. -- 61.bse 351 -- popularity 60




(sanyaGoH) (!sany)

san;yaGoH ONPANINI 61009
( reduplicate) before san and yaG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 528

Examples --

pac + san + laT tip → * papakSa + ti sanyataH pipakSa + tipipakSa + zap + ti atoguNe pipakSati "wants to cook"

pac + yaG + laT ta → * pa + pac + yaG + tapapacyate dIrghokitaH pApacyate "cooks a lot, is always cooking"

yudh + san → * yuyutsa

KAZIKA dhAtoranabhyAsasya iti vartate. sanyaGoH iti ca SaSThyantam etat. sanantasya yaGantasya ca anabhyAsasya dhAtoravayavasya prathamasya ekAco dvitIyasya vA yathAyogaM dve bhavataH. pipakSati. pipatiSati. aririSati. undidiSati. yaGantasya pApacyate. aTATyate. yAyajyate. arAryate. prorNonUyate. anabhyAsasya ityeva jugupsiSate. lolUyiSate.

Note. There is no puganta in yuyutsa because after ik-plus-hal, iT-less san is kit .

211 letters. -- 61.bse 372 -- popularity 27




(zlau) (!zlW)

zlau ONPANINI 61010
( reduplicate) before zlummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 529

The zluclass roots get zlu added. Then the zlu reduplicates the root by this rule, and disappears by pratyayasyaluk;zlu;lupaH.

hu + laT tiphu + zlu + tip → * hu + hu + zlu + tip pratyayasyaluk;zlu;lupaH hu hu tip hardsoft hu + ho + ti kuhozcuH juhoti "sacrifices"

bhI + laT jhi → * bibhI + jhibibhI + ati''' ikoyaNaci bibhyati "they fear"

bhI + laT tip hardsoft bhe + ti → * bebhe + ti hrasvaH bibheti "fears"

dA + laT tip → * dA + dA + tip hrasvaH dadAti "gives"

dA + laT jhi → * dadA + jhidadA + ati''' znAbhya dadati "they give"

300 letters. -- 61.bse 391 -- popularity 13




(caGi) (!caG)

caGi ONPANINI 61011
( reduplicate) before caGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 530 luG

The caG affix appears in some luG. Examples --

dru + luG tip Nizridrusru dru + caG + tip luGlaG aT + dru + caG + tipa + dru + caG + t''' → * aT + dudru + caG + t'''adudruvat "ran"

pAci + luG tip → .. → apIpacat "he made (them) cook"

kAmi + luG tip → .. → acIkamat

narti + luG tip → .. → anInRtat

cori + luG tip → .. → acUcurat

nAyi + luG tip → .. → anInayat

The caGi reduplication has some peculiarities --

every vowel except u U reduplicates as i, by sanvalla

The Nic affix disappears by NeraniTi,

the root vowel shortens by NaucaGyu,

and the vowel of the stammer is often long -- I or U by sanvalla sanyataH dIrgholaghoH.

KAZIKA caGi parato 'nabhyAsasya dhAtoravayavasya prathamasya ekAco dvitIyasya vA yathAyogam dve bhavataH. apIpacat. apIpaThat. ATiTat. Azizat. Ardidat. pacAdInAM NyanatAnAm caGi kRte NilopaH, upadhAhrasvatvaM, dvirvacanam ityeSAM kAryANAM pravRttikramaH. tathA ca sanvallaghuni caGpare iti sanvadbhAvo vidhIyamAno hrasvasya sthAnivadbhAvAn na pratiSidhyate. yo hyanAdiSTAdacaH pUrvaH tasya vidhiM prati sthAnivadbhAvo bhavati. na ca asmin kAryANAM krameNAniSTAdacaH pUrvo 'bhyAso bhavati iti. ATiTatiti dvirvacane 'ci 11059 iti sthAnivadbhAvAt dvitIyasya ekAcaH dvirvacanaM bhavati.

418 letters. -- 61.bse 400 -- popularity 6

897 (Optionally @nexttolast) !R !RR to !R (before /Nic plus /caG).

956 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.




(vacisvapi) (!vaci)

vaci;svapi;yajAdInAM kiti ONPANINI 61015
( stretch) vac, svap, yaj-class before kit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 531 stretch

The yaj-class roots are the last nine of the zapclass ,from 01.1157 yaj onwards --

yaj vap vah

vas' veJ vyeJ

hveJ vad zvi "swell"

Examples of vac svap yajjclass stretching before kit --

vac + kta → * ucta coHkuH ukta- "said"

svap + kta → * supta- "asleep, slept"

yaj + kta → * ij- + ta vrazca;bhrasja iS + ta STunA iSTa- "was sacrificed"

yaj + liT masyaj + ma kRsR yaj + ima asaMyogAlliTkit yaj + ima(k) → * ij + ima liTidhA i + ij + ima akassa Ijima "we sacrificed"

Examples of not stretching before Git --

vac + anti'''vacanti "they say"

svap + anti'''svapanti "they sleep"

yaj + caG + masayIyajAma "we sacrificed"

KAZIKA samprasAraNam iti vartate. SyaGaH iti nivRttam. vaci vaca paribhASaNe, bruvo vacir iti ca. svapi JiSvapa zaye. yajAdayaH yaja deva-pUjA-saMgati-karanadAnesu ityataH prabhRti AgaNAntAH. teSAM vacisvapi yajAdInAM kiti pratyaye parataH samprasAraNam bhavati. vaci uktaH. uktavA. svapi suptaH. suptavAn. yaja iSTaH. iSTavAn. vapa uptaH. uptavAn. vaha UDhaH. UDhavAn. vasa uSitaH. uSitavAn. veJutaH. utavAn. vyeJ saMvItaH ( halaH). saMvItavAn. hveJ AhUtavAn. vada uditaH. uditavAn. Tuozvi zUnaH. zUnavAn. dhAtoH svarUpa-grahaNe tatpratyayekAryaM vijJAyate. teneha na bhavati, vAcyate, vAcikaH iti.

380 letters. -- 61.bse 477 -- popularity 33




(grahijyAva) (!grahi)

grahi;jyA;vayi; vyadhi;vaSTi;vicati; vRzcati;pRcchati;bhRjjatInAM Giti ca ONPANINI 61016
( stretch) grah jyA vay, vyadh vaz vyac, vrazc pracch bhrasj before kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 532 stretch

The nine grahijyA roots are --

grah "grab, take" jyA vay

vyadh "pierce" vaz "command, coerce" vyac

vrazc pracch bhrasj "fry"

These stretch before kit and Git affixes, so their ra ya va become R i u.

Examples of stretching before the kit affixes ktvA and kta --

grah + ktvA → * gRh + tvA ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH gRh + itvA graholiTi gRhItvA "after taking"

jyA + kta → * ji + kta lvAdi ji + na halaH jIna- "grown old"

Examples of stretching before znA jhi za (these are Git because of rule hard apit is Git ) --

grah + laT tipgrah + znA + tip → * gRhnAti Natvam gRhNAti "grabs"

jyA + znA + tip → * jinAti "grows old"

vaz + jhivaz + anti''' → * uzanti "they command"

pracch + za + tip → * pRccha + tippRcchati "asks"

KAZIKA graha upAdAne, jyA vayohAnau, veJo vayiH 24041, vyadha tADane, vaza kAntau, vyac vyAjIkaraNe, ovrazcU chedane, praccha jJIpsAyAm, bhrasja pAke ityeteSAM dhAtUnAM GIti pratyaye parataH cakArAt kati ca saMprasAraNaM bhavati. graha gRhItaH. gRhItavAn. Giti gRhNAti jarIgRhyate. jyA jInaH. jInavAn. lvAdibhya iti niSThAnatvam. Giti jinAti. jejIyate. halaH iti samprasAraNadIrghe kRte pvAdInAM iti hrasvaH kriyate. vayi liTi parataH veJo vayiH AdezaH, tasya GidabhAvAt kidevodAhriyate. UyatuH. UyuH. yadyevaM vayigrahaNam anarthakam, yajAdiSu veJ paThyate? na evaM zakyam. liTi tasya veJaH 61040 iti pratiSedho vakSyate, tatra yathA eva sthAnivadbhAvAd vyervidhiH evaM pratiSedho 'pi prApnoti? na eSa doSaH. liTi vayo yaH 61038 iti yakArasya saMprasAraNapratiSedhAd vayervidhau grahaNaM pratiSedhe cAgrahaNamanumAsyate? satyam etat. eSa eva arthaH sAkSAn nirdezena vyeH spaSTIkriyate. vyadha viddhaH. viddhavAn. Giti vidhyati. vevidhyate. vaza uzitaH. uzitavAn. Giti uSTaH. uzanti. vyaca vicitaH. vicitavAn. Giti vicati. vevicyate. vyaceH kuTAditvamanasi pratipAditam, tena sarvatra aJNiti pratyaye samprasAraNaM bhavati, udvicitA, udvicitum, udvicitavyam iti. vrazceH vRkNaH. vRkNavAn. atha katham atra kutvaM, vrazcabhrasja iti hi Satvena bhavitavyam? niSThAdezaH SatvasvarapratyayavidhIDvidhiSu siddho vaktavyaH. tatra StvaM prati natvasya siddhatvAd jJalAdir niSThA na bhavati. kutve tu kartavye tadasiddham eva iti pravartate kutvam. Giti vRzcati. varIvRzcyate. praccha pRSTaH. pRSTavan. Giti pRcchati. parIpRchyate. praznaH. naGi tu prazne c' Asanna-kAle iti nipAtanAdasaMprasAraNam. bhrasja bhRSTaH. bhRSTavAn. Giti bhRjjati. barIbhRjyate. sakArasya jhalAM jaz jhazIti jaztvena dakAraH, stoH zcunA zcur iti zcutvena jakAraH.

The vay in the list is the replacement of veJ "weave" made by veJovayiH. The y of vay is not subjected to stretching because liTi vayo yaH 61038 says so.

576 letters. -- 61.bse 522 -- popularity 27




(liTyabhyAsa) (!liTy)

liTy abhyAsasy%obhayeSAm ONPANINI 61017
Before liT, ( stretch) stammer of the vacisvapi and the grahijyA.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 533 stretch

This rule is only necessary when the liT is akit, as in --

vac + Nal acoJNiti vAc + Nal liTidhA vA + vAc + a → * u + vAc + auvAca "he said"

yaj + Nal → .. → yA + yAj + Nal → * i + yAj + NaliyAja "he sacrificed"

When the liT replacer is kit, this rule does not get to work, because the root gets stretched by vacisvapi or grahijyA before it reduplicates --

vac + us vacisvapi uc + us liTidhA u + uc + us akassa Ucus "they said"

This rule works before halAdizzeSaH can work --

vyac + Nal ata_up vyAc + a → .. → vya + vyac + Nal → * vivyAca "it extended"

vyadh + Nal → .. → vivyAdha "he pierced"

KAZIKA ubhayeSAM vacyAdInAM grahyAdInAM ca liTi parato 'bhyAsasya samprasAraNaM bhavati. vaci uvAca. uvacitha. svapi suSvApa. suSvapitha. yaja iyAja. iyajitha. Duvap uvApa. uvapitha. grahyAdInAm tatra graher avizeSaH. jagrAha. jagrahitha. jyA jijyau. jijyitha. vayi uvAya. uvayitha. vyadha vivyAdha. vivyadhitha. vaza uvAza. uvazitha. vyaca vivyAca. vivyacitha. vRzcateH satyasati vA yoge na asti vizeSaH. yogArambhe tu sati yadi samprasAraNam akRtvA halAdizeSeNa repho nivartyate, tadA vakArasya samprasAraNaM prApnoti. atha rephasya samprasAraNaM kRtvA uradatvaM raparatvaM ca kriyate, tadAnI muradatvasya sthAnivadbhAvAt na samprasAraNe samprasAraNam iti pratiSedho bhavati ity asti vizeSaH. vavrazca. vavrazcitha. pRcchati bhRjjatyoravizeSaH. akidarthaM ca idam abhyAsasya samprasAraNaM vidhIyate. kiti hi paratvAd dhAtoH samprasAraNe kRte punaH prasaGgavijJAnAd dvirvacanam, UcatuH, UcuH iti. adhikArAdeva ubhayeSAM grahaNe siddhe punarubhayeSAm iti vacanaM halAdiH zeSam api bAdhitvA samprasAraNam eva yathA syAd iti. vivyAdha.

As of 2024, inria conjugation says that /vyac + Nal makes vavyAca. That's a bug.

415 letters. -- 61.bse 562 -- popularity 3

536 The !y of !vay (does not @stretch).

538 /veJ (does not stretch before /liT)




(svapisyami) (!svap)

svapi;syami;vyeJAM yaGi ONPANINI 61019
( stretch) svap syam vyeJ before yaG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 534

Only examples --

svap + yaG → * sup + ya sanyaGoH susupya guNoyaGlukoH sosupya kric soSupya "sleep like a log"

syam + yaG → * sim + ya → .. → sesimya "shout like crazy"

vyeJ + yaG → * vi + ya akRtsArva vI + ya sanyaGoH vIvIya guNoyaGlukoH vevIya "do lots of hiding"

KAZIKA JiSvapa zaye, syamu, svana, dhvana zabde, vyeJ saMvaraNe ityeteSAM dhAtUnAM yaGi parataH samprasAraNaM bhavati. soSupyate. sesimyate. vevIyate. yaGi iti kim? svapnak.

132 letters. -- 61.bse 603 -- popularity 1




(nasamprasA) (!nasam)

na samprasAraNe samprasAraNam ONPANINI 61037
No stretching before stretched.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 535 stretch

talkaround -- If some rule asks us to stretch, say, yuvan or vya, that have several yaN, only the last yaN will be stretched.

Example. When rule zva;yuva tells us to stretch yuvan-, the va is stretched into u, but the yu stays --

yuvan + TA → * yu + un + A akassa yUn + AyUnA "with the young man"

207 letters. -- 61.bse 610 -- popularity 1

533 Before /liT, (@stretch) @stammer of the !!vacisvapi and the !!grahijyA.




(liTivayo) (!liTiv)

liTi vayo yaH ONPANINI 61038
The y of vay (does not stretch).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 536

vay is the optional substitute of veJ made by veJo vayiH before liT. The previous rule would stretch its y, but because of this exception, the y stays, and we say uvAya, Uyatus, Uyus "wove" --

veJ + Nal veJovayiH vay + Nal ata_upa vAy + Nal liTidhA vA + vAy + a liTyabhyAsa uvAya "he wove"

veJ + liT jhiveJ + us veJovayiH vay + us grahijyA uy + us liTidhA u + uy + us akassa Uyus "they wove"

KAZIKA na samprasAraNam iti anuvartate. liTi parato vayo yakArasya samprasAraNaM na bhavati. uvAya, UyatuH, UyuH. liD-grahaNam uttar%Artham.

222 letters. -- 61.bse 636 -- popularity 3

3 next pages for chris




(vazcAsyAnya) (!vaz)

vaz c' .Asy' .AnyatarasyAM kiti ONPANINI 61039
This (y) to v before kit ( liT) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 537

So instead of the Uyatus Uyus made by the previous rule, we may also say Uvatus Uvus.

This rule won't work before akit liT, so we say uvAya "he wove", uvAyitha "thou wovedest" compulsorily.

KAZIKA asya vayo yakArasya kiti liTi parato vakArAdezo bhavati anyatarasyAm. UvatuH, UvuH. UyatuH, UyuH. kiti iti kim? uvAya. uvayitha.

147 letters. -- 61.bse 652 -- popularity 1

202 /veJ to !vay (optionally before /liT).




(veJaH) (!veJa)

veJaH ONPANINI 61040
veJ (does not stretch before liT)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 538

veJ before liT turns into vA by Adeca_u. This exception prevents liTyabhyAsa and vacisvapi, and therefore this vA reduplicates as if it were dA making dadau dadatus dadus --

veJ + Nal Adeca_u vA + Nal → .. → vavau "he wove"

vavatus

vavus

See dadau, dadatus, dadus in the hedgehog for details of the rules that worked here.

KAZIKA liTi ityanuvartate. veJ tantusantAne ityasya dhAtoH liti parataH samprasAraNaM na bhavati. vavau, vavatuH, vavuH. kiti yajAditvAt dhAtoH prAptam akityapi liTyabhyAsasya ubhayeSAm 61017 ityabhyAsasya, ataH ubhayaM pratiSidhyate.

241 letters. -- 61.bse 661 -- popularity 2

202 /veJ to !vay (optionally before /liT).




(lyapica) (!ly)

lyapi ca ONPANINI 61041
( veJ gets no stretching) before lyapmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 539

Exception to vacisvapi. lyap is kit because it replaced ktvA.

Example --

pra + veJ + lyap Adeca_u pravAya "after starting to weave"

KAZIKA veJaH ity anuvartate. lyapi ca parto veJaH samprasAraNaM na bhavati. pravAya. upavAya. pRthagyogakaraNam uttar%Artham.

94 letters. -- 61.bse 674 -- popularity 1




(jyazca) (!jy)

jyaz ca ONPANINI 61042
jyA (won't stretch before lyap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 540

jyA is the root 09.0034 jyA jInAti "grow old", that would be ordinarily stretched by grahijyA, because lyap is kit.

Example --

pra + jyA + lyap Adeca_u prajyAya "after starting to grow old"

KAZIKA lyapi ityeva. jyA vayohAnau ityasya dhAtoH lyapi parataH samprasAraNaM na bhavati. prajyAya. upajyAya.

133 letters. -- 61.bse 686 -- popularity none




(vyazca) (!vya)

vyaz ca ONPANINI 61043
vyA (is not stretched before lyap)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 541

Exception to vacisvapi, that would have stretched vyeJ "hide" because lyap is kit.

Example --

pra + vye + lyap Adeca_u pra + vyA + lyap → * pravyAya "after starting to hide"

KAZIKA lyapi ity eva. vyeJ saMvaraNe ity etasya dhAtoH lyapi parataH samprasAraNaM na bhavati. pravyAya. upavyAya. yoga-vibhAgaH uttar%ArthaH.

120 letters. -- 61.bse 700 -- popularity 1




(vibhASApa) (!vibhASApa)

vibhASA pareH ONPANINI 61044
(vyA stretches) optionally after pari (before lyap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 542

So ordinarily vacisvapi, because of previous rule, will not stretch the vyA that comes from vyeJ --

pari + vyA + lyap Adeca_u parivyAya "after wrapping"

But if we take this option --

pari + vyA + lyap vacisvapi pari + vi + ya halaH parivIya "after wrapping"

KAZIKA lyapi ca vyaz ca iti anuvartate. parer uttarasya vyeJ ity etasya dhAtoH lyapi parataH vibhASA samprasAraNaM na bhavati. parivIya yUpam, parivyAya. samprasAraNe kRte parapUrvatve ca hrasvasya iti tuka prApnoti, sa halaH 64002 iti dIrghatvena paratvAd bAdhyate.

173 letters. -- 61.bse 710 -- popularity 1




(Adeca::u) (!Adec)

Ad eca upadeze '-ziti ONPANINI 61045
dhAtupATha ec to A unless before zit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 543

The roots that end in an ec in the dhAtupATha, like gai and so, replace it with A before all affixes except the zit affixes.

Examples --

gai + tumun → * gAtum "to sing"

gai + kta → * gA + kta ghumAsthAgA gIta- "sung, song"

Counterexamples before zit --

gai + zap + tip ecoya gAyati "he sings"

gai + zatRgAyat- "singing"

In other words, the root is actually gA, but it is listed as gai in the dhAtupATha just to show tat gA + zap adds up to gAya.

KAZIKA dhAtoH iti vartate. ejanto yo dhAturupadeze tasya akArAdezo bhavati, ziti tu pratyaye na bhavati. glai glAtA. glAtum. glAtavyam. zo nizAtA. nizAtum. nizAtavyam. ecaH iti kim? kartA. hartA. upadeze iti kim? cetA. stotA. aziti iti kim? glAyati. mlAyati. kathaM jagle, mamle? na evaM vijJAyate, zakAra id yasya so 'yaM zititi, kiM tarhi, za eva it zit. tatra yasmin vidhistadAdAvalgrahaNe iti zidAdau pratyaye pratiSedhaH. ez zakArAnto bhavati. aziti iti prasajyapratiSedho 'yam, tena etadAttvam anaimittikaM prAgeva pratyayotpatter bhavati iti, suglaH, sumlaH iti Atazcopasarge 31136 iti kapratyayaH, suglAnaH, sumlAnaH iti Ato yuc ity evam Adi siddham bhavatIti. AkArAdhikArastvayaM nityaM samyateH 61057 iti yAvat.

This rule does not work before ez. By zit, pANini meant "affixes that have label z at the start", not just "affixes that have label z".

408 letters. -- 61.bse 731 -- popularity 14




(sRjidRzo) (!sR)

sRji;dRzor jhaly am akiti ONPANINI 61058
sRj dRz get a(m) before akit seriousmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 544

The label m in a(m) makes it into a mitaugment. Therefore, saying that sRj dRz get a(m) is the same thing as saying that we add a after their last vowel. So their R turns into Ra, and then, by ikoyaNaci, into ra. Examples --

dRz + tumun → * dRaz + tum ikoyaNaci draz + tum vrazcabhrasja draS + tum STunA draSTum "to see"

dRz + tRc → * dRaz + tR → .. → draSTR- "seer"

dRz + luG tip luGlaG adRz + tipadRz + sic + tip → * adRaz + s + tip ikoyaNaci adraz + s + tipadraz + s + t''' sicivRddhiH adrAz + s + tadrAz + s + It''' SaDhoHkassi adrAkSIt "saw"

Before kit, we get neither this rule nor puganta --

dRz- + ktadRSTa-

and before akit non- serious, we get puganta as usual --

dRz + lyuT yuvoranAkau dRz + lanaT puganta darzana- "seeing"

KAZIKA sRja visarge, dRzir prekSaNe ityetayoH dhAtvoH jJalAdAvakiti pratyaye parataH am Agamo bhavati. sraSTA. sraSTum. sraSTavyam. draSTA. draSTum. draSTavyam. laghUpadhaguNApavAdo 'yam amAgamaH. asrAkSIt. adrAkSIt. sici vRddhiH ami kRte bhavati, pUrvaM tu bAdhyate. jJali iti kim? sarjanam. darzanam. akiti iti kim? sRSTaH. dRSTaH. dhAtoH svarUpagrahaNe tatprataye kAryavijJAnAdiha na bhavati, rajjusRDbhyAm, devadRgbhyAm iti.

dRz + kvip does not get a in devadRgbhyAm "with two god-seers". That's because this rule mentions sRj and dRz explicitly, and rules that mention particular roots work only before verb affixes, not before noun affixes .

607 letters. -- 61.bse 760 -- popularity 5

73 @Bent @soft /liG and /sic before @bent, (when [/iT]-less, are /kit after [/ik]-plus-[/hal] roots).

254 But not /dRz.

1105 /luT replacements.




(dhAtvAdeSSa) (@sa)

dhAtvAdeH SaH saH ONPANINI 61064
Rootstarter S to s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 545

In other words: when the dhAtupATha shows a root that starts with S, the real root starts with s. Such a root is said to be a sa-root. The dhAtupATha lists these roots S just to let us know that rule upasargAt works on them.

Examples. The roots sah "endure" and sic' "sprinkle" are Sa-roots, because the dhAtupATha lists them as Sah 01.0988 and Sic 06.0170. But they actually start with s, not S --

Sah + laT ta → * sah + ta → .. → sahate "endures"

Sic + laT tip → * sic' + tip → .. → sic + za + ti zemucAdInAm siJcati "sprinkles"

abhi + Sic + laT tip → * abhi + sic' + tip → .. → abhi + sic + za + ti zemucAdInAm abhisiJcati upasargAt abhiSiJcati "consecrates as king"

KAZIKA dhAtorAdeH SakArasya sthAne sakArAdezo bhavati. Saha sahate. Sica siJcati. dhAtugrahaNaM kim? soDaza. SoDan. SaNDaH. SaDikaH. AdeH iti kim? kaSati. laSati. kRSati. Adeza pratyayayoH ity atra SatvavyavasthArtham SAdayo dhAtavaH kecidupadiSTAH. ke punas te? ye tathA paThyante. athavA lakSaNaM kriyate, ajdantyaparAH sAdayaH SopadezAH smisvidisvadisvaJjisvapitayazca, sRpisRjistRstyAsekSRvarjam. subdhAtuSThivuSvaSkatInAM satvapratiSedho vaktavyaH. SoDIyati. SaNDIyati. SThIvati. SvaSkate. SThivu ityasya dvitIyasthakAraSThakArazca iSyate. tena teSThIvyate, TeSThIvyate iti ca abhyAsarUpaM dvidhA bhavati.

436 letters. -- 61.bse 793 -- popularity 6

1037 (!s) of /zAs /vas' /ghas (to !S after /kric).

1038 After the @stammer of a [@Sa-root] that is before !San, only !stu and [/Ni]-enders get /kric.

1044 !syand to !S after /anu /vi /pari /abhi /ni (optionally), if meaning nonliving beings

1670 /Satvam means replacing !s with !S




(NonaH) (/No)

No naH ONPANINI 61065
(Rootstarter) N to n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 546

The Nopadeza roots ("the ones taught with Na") are those that start with N in the dhAtupATha, such as nI "lead" (this nI appears listed as NI(G) in the dhAtupATha).

This rule teaches that we must always replace the initial N of a root with n. Example --

NI(G) + kta → * nI + tanIta- "was led"

In other words: this rule says that no roots actually start with N, an that those that appear to start with N in the dhAtupATha, actually start with n. They are listed with N just to tell us that rule upasargAdasamAse 'pi Nopadezasya works on them.

All of the n-starter roots are Nopadeza except nRtI~ nandi nardi nakka nATi nAthR nAdhR.

So we say parinRtyati "dances around" but pariNayati "leads around".

KAZIKA dhAtor AdeH ity anuvartate. dhAtor Ader NakArasya nakAra Adezo bhavati. NIJ nayati. Nama namati. Naha nahyati. dhAtvAdeH ity eva, aNati. sub-dhAtor ayam api neSyate, NakAram icchati NakArIyati. upasargAdasamAse 'pi Nopadezasya ity atra Natva-vidher vyavasthArthaM NAdayo dhAtavaH kecid upadiSyante. ke punas te? ye tathA paThyante. athavA lakSaNaM kriyate, sarve NAdayo NopadezAH, nRtI-nandi-nardi-nakka-nATi-nAthR-nAdhR-varjam.

534 letters. -- 61.bse 850 -- popularity 3

1052 Even if /aT' /ku /pu /AG /M come in between.

1277 /AG "coming"




(lopovyorva) (!lopo)

lopo v;yor vali ONPANINI 61066
v y to lopa before val.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 547

Examples --

knUy + kta → * knUta- "already wet"

knUy + Nic + laT tipknUy + puk + Nic + tip → * knU + p + Nic + tip → .. → knopayati "wettens"

But that y stays before val letters, such as a of zap or y of yak --

knUy + zap + te'''knUyate "it is wet"

knUy + yak + te'''knUyyate "moisture happens"

KAZIKA dhAtor iti prakRtaM yat tad dhAtvAdeH iti punar dhAtugrahaNAn nivRttam. tena dhAtoradhAtozca vakArayakArayoH vali parato lopo bhavati. div didivAn,didivAMsau,didivAMsaH. UyI - Utam. knUyI - knUtam. godhAyA Dhrak 41129. gaudheraH. paceran. yajeran. vakArasya - jIve radAnuk (da. u. 1.163) - jIradAnuH. sriveH - AsremANam. uNAdayo bahulam (33001) iti bahulavacanAc cchvoH zUDanunAsike ca iti UTh na bhavati. vali iti kim? Uyyate. knUyyate. pUrvaM lopagrahaNaM kim? verapRktalopAt pUrvaM vali lopo yathA syAt. kaNDUyateH kvip - kaNDUH. lolUyateH - lolUH. vrazcAdInAm upadezasAmarthyAt vali lopo na bhavati. vRzcati. vavrazca ity atra api hi samprasAraNa-halAdiHzeSayor bahiraGgatvAt prApnoti.

192 letters. -- 61.bse 948 -- popularity 11




(verapRkta) (!ver)

ver apRktasya ONPANINI 61067
One-letter vi-affixes lose v.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 548

These are some of the affected vi affixes --

kvip kvin Nvi cvi

In these affixes the v is not a label, and all the other letters are labels.

So, these four lose v by this rule.

Example --

indrasya + ji + kvip supodhA indra + ji + (k)v(ip) hrasvasyapitikRtituk indrajitv → * indrajit- "defeater of indra"

This rule does not affect the v of the vi-affixes (k)vi(n) and (k)vi (two uNAdi affixes), because those are two-letter affixes --

dR + kvindarvi- "wooden, a ladle"

jAgR + kvijAgRvi- "watchful, awake, kindled"

KAZIKA lopaH iti vartate. ver iti kvib-Adayo vizeSAnanubandhAnutsRjya sAmAnyena gRhyante. ver apRktasya lopo bhavati. brahmabhrUNavRtreSu kvip 62087. brahma-hA. mrUNahA. spRzo 'nudake kvin 62058. ghRtaspRk. tailaspRk. bhajo NviH. ardhabhAk. pAdabhAk. turIyabhAk. apRktasya iti kim? vRdRbhyAM kvin darviH. kR;gR;zR;sR;jAgRbhyaH kvi. jAgRviH.

348 letters. -- 61.bse 987 -- popularity 11




(halGyAbbhyodI) (!halG)

hal;Gy;Abbhyo dIrghAt su;ti;sy;apRktaM hal ONPANINI 61068
su s''' t''' (to lopa) after hal or long GI Ap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 549

Examples of su to lopa after hal --

suhRd- + su → * suhRd beforepause suhRt "friend"

rAjan- + su sarvanAmasthAnecA rAjAns → * rAjAn nalopaHprA rAjA "king"

Examples of su to lopa after GI Ap --

kukkuTI- + su → * kukkuTI "chicken"

sItA- + su → * sItA "pn"

In this situation the su does not become lopa, because zrI-, a rootnoun, has no GI and does not end in a consonant --

zrI- @f + suzrIs "glory"

Examples of t''' s''' to lopa after hal ---

dviS + laG tipaT + dveS + t'''adveSt → * adveS jhalAJjazonte adveD beforepause adveT "he hated"

dviS + laG sipaT + dveS + s'''adveSs → * adveS jhalAJjazonte adveD beforepause adveT "you hated"

Why does the rule say " long"? Because otherwise this rule would work when gostri has shortened the GI or Ap. But the rule must not work there --

ati + khaTvA + su gostriyor atikhaTva + suatikhaTvas "one that no longer needs a bed"

KAZIKA lopa iti vartate. tadiha laukikena arthavat karmasAdhanaM draSTavyam. lupyate iti lopaH. halantAd, GyantAdAbantAc ca dIrghAt paraM su ti si ityetadapRktaM hal lupyate. halantAt sulopaH rAjA. takSA. ukhAsrat. parNadhvat. Gy-antAt kumArI. gaurI. zArGgaravI. AbantAt khaTvA. bahurAjA. kArISagandhyA. halantAdeva tilopaH silopazca. tatra tilopastAvat abibhar bhavAt. bhRJo laGi tipi zlau bhRJAmitityabhyAsasya ittvam. ajAgar bhabAn. silopaHabhino 'tra acchino 'tra. dasya rephaH. halGyAbbhyaH iti kim? grAmaNIH. senanIH. dIrghAtiti kim? niSkauzAmbiH. atikhaTvaH. sutisi iti kim? abhaitsIt. tipA sahacaritasya sizabdasya grahaNAt sico grahaNaM na asti. apRktam iti kim? bhinatti. chinatti. hali iti kim? bibheda. ciccheda. atha kimarthaM halantAt sutisinAM lopo vidhIyate, saMyogAntalopena eva siddham? na sidhyati. rAjA, takSA ity atra saMyogAnta-lopasya asiddhatvAn@ nalopo na syAt. ukhAsrat, parNadhvat ity atra apadantatvAd dattvaM ca na syAt. abhino 'tra ityatra ato ror aplutAd apluta ity ut-tvaM na syAt. abibhar bhavAn ity atra tu rAt sasya iti niyamAl lopa eva na syAt. saMyogAntasya lope hi nalop'-Adir na sidhyati. rAt tu te na eva lopaH syAd @dhalas tasmAd vidhIyate.

536 letters. -- 61B.bse 1 -- popularity 75




(eGhrasvAtsa) (!eGh)

eG;hrasvAt sambuddheH ONPANINI 61069
After eG and short, (erase) calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 550

Examples after eG --

sItA- + @calling sambuddhauca sIte + s → * sIte "hey sItA"

kapi- + @calling hrasvasyaguNaH kape + s → * kape "hey monkey"

guru- + @calling hrasvasyaguNaH guro + s → * guro "hey teacher"

Examples after short --

rAma- + @callingrAma "hey rAma"

nadI- + @calling ambArtha nadi + s → * nadi "hey river goddess"

vadhU- + @calling ambArtha vadhu + s → * vadhu "hey young lady"

Counterexample. subhrU- is not a nadI, but an uvaG, so it has long U (which is neither eG nor short) before the calling --

subhrU- + @callingsubhrUs "hey cutie"

Poets will sometimes say subhru, however, which sux. Even kAlidasa has --

yadi tu tava samAgame tathaivamM prasarati subhru tataH kRtI bhaveyam "if the night could pass so slowly when I'm with you, cutie, I'd be happy"

See also rules that delete the calling .

KAZIKA lopaH iti vartate, haliti ca. apRktam iti na adhikriyate, tathA ca pUrvasUtre punarapRktagrahaNaM kRtam. eGantAt prAtipadikAt hrasvantAc ca paro hal lupyate sa cet sambuddher bhavati. eGantAt he agne. he vAyo. hrasvAntAt he devadatta. he nadi. he vadhu. he kuNDa. kuNDazabdAt ato 'm iti am. ami pUrvaH iti pUrvatve krte lahmAtrasya makArasya lopaH. he kataratityatra Didayam adDAdezaH, tatra Tilope sati hrasvAbhAvAn na asti sambuddhilopaH. eGgrahaNam kriyate sambuddhiguNabalIyastvAt.

534 letters. -- 61B.bse 186 -- popularity 17




(hrasvasyapi) (!hrasvasyap)

hrasvasya piti kRti tuk ONPANINI 61071
short gets tuk before pit kRt.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 551

In more words, the kRt affixes with p label, such as lyap kyap kvip, make the roots that end in a short get t.

Examples with lyap --

ni + kR + lyap → * ni + kR + t + yanikRtya "humiliates and"

pra + stu' + ktvApra + stu' + lyap → * prastutya "after praising in verse"

adhi + iG + lyapadhI + lyap → * adhI + t + yaadhItya "after studying"

Examples with kyap --

iN' + kyap → * itya- "which has to be gone to"

stu + kyap → * stutya- "praiseworthy"

Examples with kvip --

agnim + ci + kvip → * agnicit- "fire-pileupper, arranger of the (sacrificial) fire"

indram + ji + kvip → * indrajit- "the one who defeated indra"

pustakam + bhR + kvip → * pustakabhRt- "book-carrier (name of sarasvatI)"

The kvip enders do not get any feminine affix. The kyap-enders get ajAdyataSTAp.

KAZIKA piti kRti parato hrasvAntasya dhAtoH tugAgamo bhavati. agnicit. somasut. prakRtya. prahRtya. upastutya. hrasvasya iti kim? AlUya. grAmaNIH. piti iti kim? kRtam. hRtam. kRti iti kim? paTutaraH. paTutamaH. grAmaNi brAhmaNa-kulam ity atra hrasvasya bahir-aGgasya asiddhatvAt tug na bhavati.

taddhita affixes do not trigger this rule --

paTu- "sharp" + tarappaTutara- "sharper"

This rule got to work on adhI above because Satva;tuko says that tuk rules, like this one, are blind to the changes made by akassa etc. Therefore this rule "thought" that adhI ends with short i, and added the t.

762 letters. -- 61B.bse 212 -- popularity 15




(saMhitAyAm) (!saMh)

saMhitAyAm ONPANINI 61072
Not before pause.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 552

headline. The next rules (down to 61157) won't work before a pause.

Example. Rule ikoyaNaci below teaches "I to y before vowels". But because of this headline, this ikoyaNaci rule won't work on the I that is before a pause that in turn is before a vowel. So, when we join the words devI and uvAca to make a sentence, we have two options --

either we make no pause between the words and ikoyaNaci works --

devyuvAca "The Queen said."

or we make a pause and the ikoyaNaci does not work, even though I is before a vowel --

devI uvAca "The Queen. (pause). Said."

ikoyaNaci will work compulsorily when adding affixes --

kukkuTI- + au ikoyaNaci kukkuTyau

because pausing midword is ungrammatical.

KAZIKA adhikAro 'yam anudAttaM padam ekavarjam 61158 iti yAvat. prAgetasmat sUtrAdita uttaraM yad vakSyAmaH saMhitAyAm ityevaM tad veditavyam. vakSyati iko yaN aci, dadhyatra. madhvatra. saMhitAyAm iti kim? dadhi atra. madhu atra.

519 letters. -- 61B.bse 264 -- popularity 2

160 What is not before a @pause is in /saMhitA.




(checa) (!che)

che ca ONPANINI 61073
( short gets tuk when in saMhitA) before ch.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 553

We can reword this rule into --

" ch to cch after short "

Examples --

gam + laT tipgam + zap + tip iSugami gachati → * gatchati stozzcu gacchati "goes"

chid + us liTidhA cichidus → * citchidus stozzcu cicchidus "they cut"

sas + chinatti etattado sa + chinatti → * sat chinatti stozzcu sac chinatti "he cuts"

atra + chAtraH → * atrat chAtraH stozzcu atrac chAtraH "The student is here"

You may spell the last two as sa cchinatti and atra cchatraH if you like. But inria will expect you to type sacchinatti, atracchatraH.

KAZIKA hrasvasya tukiti vartate. chakAre parataH saMhitAyAM viSaye hrasvasya tugAgamo bhavati. icchati. yacchati. hrasva eva atra AgamI, na tu tadantaH. tena cicchadatuH, cicchiduH ity atra tukabhyAsasya grahaNena na gRhyate iti halAdiHzeSeNa na nivartyate, nAvayavAvayavaH samudAyAvayavo bhavati iti.

This rule may be said to be completely useless nowadays.

* In times of pANini, there was a difference in sound between mA chaitsIH and mA cchaitsIH.

* But nowadays (and most likely since the middle ages) everybody says only cch, never ch, no matter if the spelling looks like ch or cch. The sound of the letter ch (and of cch) is quite like the Bengali ch, which takes as much time to say as any two-consonant cluster.

However, you have to know the rule in order to get the right spellings. gacchati must be spelled with cch nowadays; the medieval custom of sayin gacchati and spelling gachati is no longer allowed.

My students are reminded that even though spellings such as hiraNyagarbho bhagavAn eSa chandasi suSTutaH are common in the epics, they still will get punished in the written test if they don't spell eSa cchandasi.

1001 letters. -- 61B.bse 409 -- popularity 9

638 Replace !cch with !z and !v with !UTh before @nasal, ( !kvi, and @serious /kGit).

899 {RR}-enders, /Rcch and !R to (/guNa before /liT).

974 !ch !z !vrazc !bhrasj !sRj !mRj !yaj !rAj !bhrAj to !S (before @serious and when @wordfinal).

1069 Delete [@fake h] of the @stammer.

1180 /pracch "ask"

1215 /iS "want"

1350 @headline rules




(AGmAGozca) (!AGm)

AG;mAGoz ca ONPANINI 61074
AG mAG compulsorily (get tuk before ch).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 554

This rule teaches that the sound ch must be changed into the sound cch whenever it is after AG or mAG --

AG + chid + laT tip → * Ac + chid + tip → .. → Acchinatti "he steals"

mAG + chidaH → .. → mA cchidaH "don't cut!"

This is an exception to padAntAdvA, that says that after a wordfinal long vowel, the change is optional.

Most people make no difference between ch and cch and replace ALL ch with cch, so this rule is useless for them, and may be thought of as a spelling rule --

" after AG mAG, always spell the sound cch as cch"

KAZIKA tukiti anuvartate, che iti ca. AGo Gita ISadAdiSu caturSvartheSu vartamAnasya, mAGazca pratiSedhavacanasya chakAre paratastugAgamo bhavati. padAntAd veti vikalpe prApte nityaM tugAgamo bhavati. ISadarthe ISacchAyA AcchAyA. kriyAyoge AcchAdayati. maryAdAbhividhyoH A cchAyAyAH AccAyam. mAGaH khalvapi mA cchaitsIt. mA cchidat. GidviziSTagrahaNaM kim? AchAyA, AcchAyA. pramAchandaH, pramAcchandaH.

388 letters. -- 61B.bse 487 -- popularity none




(dIrghAt) (!dIrghAt)

dIrghAt ONPANINI 61075
non- wordfinal long (compulsorily gets tuk before ch).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 555

Examples --

hrIcchati

mlecchati

Think of this rule as a spelling rule: " If the sound cch follows any vowel inside a word, spell it as cch ".

KAZIKA che tukiti vartate. dIrghAt paro yaH chakAraH tasmin pUrvasya tasya eva dIrghasya tugAgamo bhavati. hrIcchati. mlecchati. apacAcchAyate. vicAcchAyate.

The kAzikA shows the examples apacAcchAyate and vicAcchAyate, which look like yaG verbs to me, but no idea of what they mean. wafti.

213 letters. -- 61B.bse 511 -- popularity 3

61 @Fifth in a rule may mean "after it".

80 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

81 But only if it's a @vowel.




(padAntAdvA) (!padAntA)

pad%AntAd vA ONPANINI 61076
wordfinal ( long gets tuk before ch) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 556

What this rule is teaching us is that in pANini times, there were two different pronunciations of this example; some people used one and other people the other --

sA cchinatti "she cuts"

sA chinatti "she cuts"

Nowadays everybody pronounces ch and cch as cch, so this rule is useless, or is just a spelling rule --

" after a wordfinal long, spell the sound cch either as ch or as cch, you choose "

KAZIKA dIrghAt che tukiti vartate. padAntAd dIrghAt paro yaH chakAraH tasmin pUrvasya tasya eva dIrghasya pUrveNa nityaM prApto vA tug-Agamo bhavati. kuTIcchAyA, kuTIchAyA. kuvalIcchAyA, kuvalIchAyA. vizvajanAdInAM chadasi vA tugAgamo bhavati iti vaktavyam. vizvajanacchatram, vizvajanachatram. nacchAyAM karavo 'param. na chAyAM karavo 'param.

306 letters. -- 61B.bse 538 -- popularity 4

80 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

81 But only if it's a @vowel.

554 /AG /mAG compulsorily (get /tuk before !ch).

564 /kric /tuk rules ignore the effect of @merge rules.




(ikoyaNa) (!ikoy)

iko yaN aci ONPANINI 61077
ik to yaN before ac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 557 sandhi

Before vowel, we replace i u R L, and their long versions, with y v r l respectively.

Examples with i I to y --

dadhi + atra → * dadhy atra "here's the curds"

kukkuTI + atra → * kukkuTy atra "here's the hen"

Examples with u U to v --

madhu + atra → * madhv atra "there's honey here"

vadhU- + jas → * vadhvas "young women"

Example with R to r --

pitR- + TA → * pitrA "with father"

There is an example of RR to r in rule zRRdRRprAM hrasvo vA --

zRRdRRpRR- + Am → * zRRdRRprAm "replace zRR dRR pRR with"

See also the exceptions akassa, ikosava, RtyakaH.

KAZIKA aci parataH iko yaN-Adezo bhavati. dadhyatra. madhvatra. kartrartham. lAkRtiH. ikaH pluta-pUrvasya savarna-dIrgha-bAdhanArthaM yaN-Adezo vaktavyaH. bho3i indram. bho3yindram. aci iti ca ayam adhikAraH saMprasAraNAc ceti yAvat.

379 letters. -- 61B.bse 551 -- popularity 68




(ecoyavA) (!eco)

eco 'y;av;Ay;AvaH ONPANINI 61078
ec to ay av Ay Av (before vowel).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 558 sandhi

The ec letters are e o ai au. Because of rule respectively, this rule means --

" Replace

e with ay

o with av

ai with Ay

au with Av.

before all vowels ".

Examples.

ne + zap + tip → * nay + zap + tipnayati "leads"

plo + zap + ta → * plav + zap + ta Tita_A plavate "jumps"

saha nau avatusaha nAvavatu "may he protect both of us together"

When the ec is a wordfinal e o, and the next word starts with a, this rule will not work because of the exception eGaHpa q.v.

When the ec is wordfinal and eGaHpa does not apply, the y v can either stay unchanged --

tasmai + avadam → * tasmAyavadam

nau + avatu → * nAvavatu

or be replaced with a hiatus by the optional rule lopazzA --

tasmai + avadam → * tasmAyavadam lopazzA tasmA_avadam

nau + avatu → * nAvavatu lopazzA nA_avatu

In spite of that, you will find no optionality in written books. As far as I know, in writing, rule lopazzA never works on Av -

nau + avatu → * nAvavatu "may He protect us"

and always works on ay av Ay --

te + ime → * tay + ime lopazzA ta_ime "those same ones"

gAm + tasmai + adadat → * gAnM tasmAy adadat lopazzA gAnM tasmA adadat "gave him a cow"

Warning. You WILL hear arjunayuvAca, even though it is always spelled arjuna_uvAca.

KAZIKA ecaH sthAne aci parataH ay av Ay Av ity ete AdezAH yathAsaGkhyam bhavanti. cayanam. lavanam. cAyakaH. lAvakaH. kayete. yayete. vAyAvavaruNaddhi.

838 letters. -- 61B.bse 597 -- popularity 89




(vAntoyipra) (!vAnt)

vAnto yi pratyaye ONPANINI 61079
(o au to) av Av before y affix.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 559

Addition to ecoya, which replaces e ai o au before vowels. The o and the au will also be replaced before affixes that start with y.

Example before Nyat, a kRt affix --

yu + Nyat acoJNiti yau + ya → * yAvya- "that should be excluded"

Example before Nya, a taddhita. The taddhita do not trigger ( acoJNiti, but do trigger taddhiteSva --

kuru- + Nya taddhiteSva kauru- + ya orguNaH kauro- + ya → * kauravya- "descendant of kuru"

See also orguNaH, gargAdi.

310 letters. -- 61B.bse 688 -- popularity 6

283 (@Latter [@preverb]-less) /bhU, when meaning state, gets (/kyap) only.

290 !yu, /vap, !rap, !lap, !trap, !cam, and /AG plus !su (get /Nyat).

560 (!o !au) of @root (to !av !Av before !y -affix) only if that affix made the !o !au.

605 (Two-vowel) {yat}-enders (accent the first), except after /nau-.




(dhAtostanni) (!dhA)

dhAtos tan-nimittasyaiva ONPANINI 61080
(o au) of root (to av Av before y -affix) only if that affix made the o au.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 560

Exception to vAntoyi above. If the o au belongs to a root, we replace it with av Av only before the y-affix that made the o au, like here --

lU + yat hardsoft lo + yat → * lavya- "could be reaped"

but not before other y-affixes, like this yamAna here --

lU + yamAna + iJ taddhiteSva lau + yamAna + i yasyetica lauyamAni- "son of lUyamAna"

Here the U turned into au because of the iJ affix (see taddhiteSva), and not because of the yamAna affix. So we get no Av change before yamAna.

329 letters. -- 61B.bse 700 -- popularity 2

289 (/Nyat comes) after {U u} when meaning necessity.

290 !yu, /vap, !rap, !lap, !trap, !cam, and /AG plus !su (get /Nyat).




(kSayyajayyau) (!kSa)

kSayya;jayyau zaky%Arthe ONPANINI 61081
kSayya- and jayya- only mean "-ible".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 561

These are built from kSi + yat and ji + yat. Only examples --

kSi + yat hardsoft kSeya- → * kSayya- "destructible"

ji + yatjeya- → * jayya- "conquerable"

When the meaning of yat is not "can be", this rule does not work --

kSi + yat hardsoft kSeya- "should be destroyed"

ji + yatjeya- "should be defeated"

KAZIKA kSi ji ityetayor dhAtvoH yati ratyaye parataH zakyArthe gamyamAne ekArasya ayAdezo nipAtyate. zakyaH kSetum kSayyaH. zakyo jetum jayyaH. zakyArthe iti kim? kSeyaM pApam. jeyo vRSalaH.

198 letters. -- 61B.bse 745 -- popularity none
















vibhakti ←

chunk 29: 61001 reduplication

→ 61084 merge rules