72114 replacements before soft ←

chunk 42: 73050 more about taddhita

→ 73101 some sup-changing rules

73050 Th to ik . ThasyekaH
73052 c j to ku before ghit and Nyat cajoHkughiNNyatoH
73054 h of han before JNit and n. hohanterJNinneSu
73055 after stammer. abhyAsAcca
73057 ji before san and liT. sanliTorjeH
73058 ci to optionally . vibhASAceH
73067 vac to only when meaning speech. vacozabdasaJjJAyAm
73077 iS gam yam to ch before zit. iSugamiyamAJchaH
73078
pA ghrA dhmA to piba jighra dhama,
sthA mnA dAN to tiSTha mana yaccha,
dRz R sR to pazya Rccha dhau,
zad sad to zIya sIda. pAghrAdhmAsthAmnAdANdRzyarttisarttizadasadAmpibajighradhamatiSThamanayacchapazyarcchadhauzIyasIdAH

73079 jJA and jan to jA before zit. jJAjanorjA
73080 Shorten pUclass . pvAdInAMhrasvaH
73082 mid to guNa . miderguNaH
73083 ik to before laG jus. jusica
73084 before hard and soft. sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH
73085 Replace jAgR unless before vi ciN Nal Git. jAgroviciNNalGitsu
73086 Replace nexttolast short ik . pugantalaghUpadhasyaca
73088 bhU sU get no hardsoft before hard tiG. bhUsuvostiGi
73089 Replace last u of a lukclass with au before consonant . utovRddhirlukihali
73092 tRnah gets im . tRNaha::im
73093 gets IT after brU. bruvaIT
73094 optionally after yaGluk. yaGovA
73096 t''' s''' after asti and sic. astisicopRkte
73100 after ad. adassarveSAm




(ThasyekaH) (!Th)

Thasy' .ekaH ONPANINI 73050
Th to ik (at the start of a taddhita).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 815

The affixes Thak and ThaJ always turn into ika(k) and ika(J).

Example --

akSa + Thak → * akSa + ika (k) kitica AkSa + ika yasyetica AkSika- "dicer, gambler"

KAZIKA aGgasya nimittaM yaH ThaH, kazca aGgasya nimittam, pratyayaH, tasya pratyayaThasya ikaH ityayam Adezo bhavati. prAg vahateS Thak AkSikaH. zAlAkikaH. lavaNAT ThaJ 44052 lAvaNikaH. ThagAdiSu yadi varNamAtraM pratyayaH, uccAraNArtho 'kAraH, tadA iha api akAra uccAraNArthaH, varnamAtraM tu sthAnitvena upAdIyate. saGghAtagrahaNe tu pratyaye 'tra api saGghAtagrahaNam eva. tatra kaNeSThaH kaNThaH ityevam AdInAm uNAdInAm uNAdayo bahulam 33001 iti na bhavati. mathitaM paNyam asya mAthitikaH ityatra tu yasyeti ca iti lope kRte isusuktAntAt kaH 73051 iti sthAnivadbhAvAdikasya kAdezaH prApnoti, sannipAtalakSaNo vidhiranimittaM tadvighAtasya iti na bhavati. yasyeti ca iti lopasya sthAnivadbhAvAdvA. pUrvasmAd api hi vidhau sthAnivadbhAvaH.

94 letters. -- 73.bse 260 -- popularity 12




(cajoHkughi) (!caj)

ca;joH ku ghiN;NyatoH ONPANINI 73052
c j to ku before ghit and Nyatmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 816

The ghit meant here are the nounbases made with ghit affixes. The most common such affix is ghaJ, that makes masculine action nouns such as --

pac + ghaJ + su → * pak + ghaJ + s acoJNiti pAk + a + spAkas "(act of) cooking"

tyaj + ghaJ + su → * tyAgaH "abandonment"

raJj + ghaJ + suraj + ghaJ + s ata::upa rAj + a + s → * rAgaH "passion"

Examples with Nyat --

mRj + Nyat → * mRg + ya mRjervRddhiH mArgya- "to be cleansed"

vac + Nyat → * vak + NyatvAkya- n "speech"

Why didn't this rule work in na cAzuzrUSave vAcyam?

vac with Nyat makes -- (1) vAkya- that means "speech", as in viSIdantam idaM vAkyam uvAca madhusUdanaH, and (2) vAcya- that has the regular meaning of Nyat, "it should be said". Because of exception vacozabda, cajoHku works on the former only.

In the rule itself, why did ghit become ghiT? Isn't there an exception that prevents wordfinal tu from getting STunA?

Good. Your memory is improving. That exception is toHSi, and works before S, but not before Tu.

680 letters. -- 73.bse 286 -- popularity 7

45 Replace with the @most-alike.

928 /cu (that is @wordfinal or before @serious) to /ku.




(hohanterJNi) (!hoh)

ho hanter JNin@;neSu ONPANINI 73054
h of han (to gh) before JNit and n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 817

Examples before the JNit affixes Nic and ghaJ --

han + Nic + laT tip → * ghan + Nic + ti hanasto ghat + Nic + ti ata_upa ghAt + Nic + ti kartarizap ghAt + i + zap + tip hardsoft ghAte + tip ecoya ghAtayati "makes (them) kill"

han + ghaJ (allowed by bhAve) → * ghan + ghaJ ata::upa ghAn + a hanasto ghAta- "a hit, a stroke, a killing"

Examples with h before n. The h of han is right before n when the a disappears by either gamahana or alloponaH --

han + laT jhihan + anti''' gamahana hn + anti → * ghnanti "they kill"

vRtrahan- + zas alloponaH vRtrahn- + zas → * vRtraghnas "soldiers"

In the last example, rule ekAjutta did not work because hn is not an ekAc. But when this rule does not work, ekAjutta might work --

vRtrahan- + jas ekAjutta vRtrahaNas "soldiers"

See also next rule, abhyAsAcca.

KAZIKA hanteH ha-kArasya kavarg'-Adezo bhavati Jiti Niti pratyaye parataH nakAre ca. ghAtayati. ghAtakaH. sAbhughAtI. ghAtaMghAtam. ghAto vartate. nakAre ghnanti. ghnantu. aghnan. haH iti kim? alo 'ntyasya mA bhUt. hanteH iti kim? prahAraH. prahArakaH. JNitpratyayo hanter vizeSaNam, nakAro hakArasya, nakAre 'nantarasya hantihakArasya iti. taccAnantarya zrutikRtaM sannipAtakRtam AzrIyate. sthAnivadbhAvazAstrakRtaM tu yadanAnantaryaM tadavighAtakam, vacanasAmarthyAt. yadyapi sarvair eva JNinnair hantihakAro viziSyate tathApi yena nAvyavadhAnaM tena vyavahite 'pi vacanaprAmANyAtiti JNiti dhAtvavayavena vyavahite 'pi sati bhavati. iha tu na bhavati, hananam icchati hananIyati, hananIyater Nvul hananIyakaH iti.

498 letters. -- 73.bse 318 -- popularity 9

621 /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs before /akartari get /ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, /han, /grah, and /dRz.

1172 /han means "kill".

1173 /han before /tiG

1174 rootnoun /han-

1637 conjugation of /han




(abhyAsAcca) (!abhyAsA)

abhyAsAc ca ONPANINI 73055
(han to gh) after stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 818

As in --

han + liT tiphan + Nal ata::upa hAn + a liTidhA hAhAna hrasvaH hahAna kuhozcuH jahAna → * jaghAna "he killed"

han + liT jhihan + us → .. → jahanus ( like above ) gamahana jahnus → * jaghnus "they killed"

has + NaljahAsa "he laughed"

130 letters. -- 73.bse 352 -- popularity 2

817 !h of !han (to !gh) before /JNit and !n.

1519 examples of reduplication before /san




(sanliTorjeH) (!sanl)

san;liTor jeH ONPANINI 73057
ji (to gi) before san and liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 819

Example with ji before san --

ji + san + zatR + Am → * gi + sa + at + Am sanyaGoH jigi + sa + at + Am ajjhana jigIsa + at + Am → .. → jigIsatAm kric jigISatAm "for those that want to win"

As in --

nItir asmi jigISatAm "for those that want to win, I'm strategy"

Example with ji before a liT --

ji + liTji + Nal → * gi + Nal acoJNiti gai + a liTidhA gai + gai + a hrasvaH gi + gai + a kuhozcuH ji + gai + a ecoya jigAya "he won"

KAZIKA sani liTi ca pratyaye jeH aGgasya yo 'bhyAsaH tasmAd uttarasya kavargĀ“Adezo bhavati. jigISati. jigAya. san-liToH iti kim? jejIyate. jinAteH samprasAraNe kRte yadyapi jirbhavati, tathApi lAkSaNikatvAt tasya grahaNaM na bhavati, jijyatuH, jijyuH ityeva bhavati.

Why do we bother to say "before san and liT"?

This won't work before yaG --

jejIyate "keeps winning"

Will this work on the ji made by stretching jyA?

No; only the ji that means "win" is affected --

jyA + liT jhi grahijyA ji + jhi liTidhA ji + ji + jhi → .. → jijyus "they became old"

What rules turned jigIsa + at into jigIsat?

kartarizap and atoguNe.

May I chant this rule as sal~liTorjeH, with torli?

Yes, you may.

514 letters. -- 73.bse 360 -- popularity 2

1046 /GasosAm are the @sixth case affixes, /Gas /os /Am.




(vibhASAceH) (!vibhASAc)

vibhASA ceH ONPANINI 73058
ci to ( ku) optionally (after stammer of san liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 820

With san --

cicISati → * cikISati "he wants to pile up"

With liT --

cikAya → * cicAya "he piled up"

Why do we bother to say " of san liT "?

Won't work with yaG --

cecIyate "keeps piling up, hoards"

KAZIKA cinoteH aGgasya sanliTor abhyAsAd uttarasya vibhASA ka-varg'-Adezo bhavati. cicISati cikISati. cikAya, cicAya. sanliToH ity eva, cecIyate.

135 letters. -- 73.bse 406 -- popularity 1

299 The /veda optionally replaces @bent /liT with /kAnac




(vacozabda) (!vaco)

vaco '-zabda-saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 73067
vac to (k before Nyat) only when meaning speech.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 821

Exception to cajoHku.

My translation can be reworded into --

" vAkyam means 'words', but vAcyam means 'it should be said' "

Only example --

vac + Nyat → * vAcya- "that should be said"

Conterexample --

vac + Nyat cajoHku vAkya- "speech"

As in --

viSIdantam idaM vAkyam uvAca madhusUdanaH "kRSNa said these words to arjuna"

na cAzuzrUSave vAcyam "and it should not be told to one that does not want to hear"

KAZIKA cinoteH aGgasya san;liTor abhyAsAd uttarasya vibhASA kavarg'-Adezo bhavati. cicISati cikISati. cikAya, cicAya. sanliToH ity eva, cecIyate.

299 letters. -- 73.bse 422 -- popularity 2




(iSugami) (/icc)

iSu;gami;yamAM chaH ONPANINI 73077
iS gam yam to ch before zit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 822

There are exactly three examples --

gam + zap → * gach + zap checa gacch + zapgaccha

iS + za → * ich + za checa iccha

yam + zap → * yach + zap checa yaccha

Example sentences --

gRhaGM gacchati "goes home"

bhoktum icchati "wants to eat, is hungry"

157 letters. -- 73.bse 506 -- popularity 9

56 Except stem-changes made by an affix replaced with !lu.

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

838 Lengthen "!a" before @hard !v !m.

1013 /stu to !zcu near !zcu.




(pAghrAdhmAsthA) (/paz)

pA;ghrA;dhmA; sthA;mnA;dAN; dRzy;artti;sartti; zada;sadAm piba;jighra;dhama; tiSTha;mana;yaccha; pazyarccha;dhau; zIya;sIdAH ONPANINI 73078
(Before zit,) pA ghrA dhmA to piba jighra dhama, sthA mnA dAN to tiSTha mana yaccha, dRz R sR to pazya Rccha dhau, zad sad to zIya sIda.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 823

As in --

dRz + zap + laT tip → * pazya + a + ti atoguNe pazyati "sees"

sthA + zap + loT sip → * tiSTha + a + si atoguNe tiSTha + si serhyapicca tiSTha + hi atoheH tiSTha "wait!"

All examples --

pApibati "drinks"

ghrA + laT tipghrA + zap + tip → * jighra + zap + ti atoguNe jighrati "he smells"

dhmAdhamati "blows"

sthAtiSThati "stands"

mnAmanati "thinks" (same as manyate "thinks")

dANyacchati "gives"

dRzpazyati "sees"

RRcchati "goes, rises"

sR + laT tipsR + zap + tip → * dhau + zap + tip ecoya dhAvati "runs"

zada + laT tazIya + zap + ta atoguNe zIya + ta Tita zIyate "decays"

sadasIdati "sits"

Only the zapclass pA that means "drink" is affected by this rule; the lukclass pA meaning "protect" stays unchanged --

pA ( drink ) + laT tippA + zap + tip → * piba + zap + tip atoguNe pibati "drinks"

pA ( protect ) + laT tippAti "protects"

The dAN is the zapclass root ad 01.1079 dA dAN dAne (to give). The yacchati in pattramM puSpamM phalanM toyaM yo me bhaktyA prayacchati is supposed to come from this root, as opposed to another yacchati, from root yam, that means "holds, bears, supports".

The zada of this rule means the two zadL roots at ad 01.0991 and 06.0164, that are zapclass and zaclass respectively.

Why is the sR root called sarti in the sUtra?

If it were called sR, the replacement would be compulsory. The fact that sarti has been used hints that sarti is correct in the ordinary sR meaning of "go, move", and that sR is replaced with dhau only when there is speed.

1000 letters. -- 73.bse 522 -- popularity 9

993 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

1117 /dru "run"

1141 /sthA "stop, stay, stand"

1159 /sad "sit"

1160 /dRz "see"

1167 /pAti "protects" /pibati "drinks".

1305 [@Doer affix]es.




(jJAjanorjA) (!jJAj)

jJA;janor jA ONPANINI 73079
jJA and jan to jA before zit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 824

These roots are 09.0043 jJA avabodhane and 04.0044 jan janI~ prAdurbhAve.

Examples --

jJA + laT tipjJA + znA + ti → * jAnAti "knows"

jan + laT tajan + te'''jan + zyan + te → * jAyate "appears"

as in romaharSaz ca jAyate "and I get the goosebumps"

167 letters. -- 73B.bse 1 -- popularity 2

103 (@Bent) after !jJA when meaning 'denying'.

1135 /jJA "know"




(pvAdInAMhra) (@pu)

pv..-AdInAM hrasvaH ONPANINI 73080
shorten puclass (before zit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 825

Examples --

pU + laT tippU + znA + tip → * punAti "cleans"

lU + tip → .. → lunAti "reaps"

pRR + laT tippRR + znA + tip → * pr + nA + ti Natvam pRNAti "fills"

The puclass roots are --

pUJ lUJ stRRJ kRRJ

vRRJ dhUJ zRR pRR

vRR bhRR mRR jRR

jhRR ghRR nRR dhvRR

kRR RR gRR jyA

rI lI vlI plI

183 letters. -- 73B.bse 23 -- popularity 4

941 After @lUclass (!t of /niSThA and /ktin to !n).

1520 /gRhNA, /punA, /jinA, /puSNA, /krINA




(miderguNaH) (!mi)

mider guNaH ONPANINI 73082
mid to guNa (before zit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 826

Example --

mid + laTmid + zyan + tip → * medyati "grows fat"

KAZIKA mider aGgasya iko guNo bhavati ziti pratyaye parataH. medyati, medyataH, medyanti. ziti ityeva, midyate.

Shouldn't we be replacing the last letter of mid, by alontyasya?

No, as alontyasya has the exception ikoguNavRddhI.

132 letters. -- 73B.bse 58 -- popularity 2




(jusica) (!ju)

jusi ca ONPANINI 73083
ik to ( guNa) before laG jus.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 827

This jus is the replacement of laG jhi made by sijabhyasta after a stammered.

This rule is necessary because jhi is Git by hard apit is Git , so it won't make hardsoft work.

Examples with the stammered juhu and bibhI --

ajuhu + laG jhi → * ajuho + us ecoya ajuhavus "they poured"

abibhI + laG jhi → * abibhe + us ecoya abibhayus "they feared"

This rule works only on the laG jus coming from sijabhya, and not on the liG jus made by jherjus --

juhu- + liG jhi jherjus juhu + jusjuhu + yus'''juhuyus "they would pour"

KAZIKA jusi ca pratyaye parataH igantasya aGgasya guNo bhavati. ajuhavuH. abibhayuH. abibharuH. atha cinuyuH, sunuyuH ityatra kasmAn na bhavati? atra hi dve Gittve, sArvadhAtukAzrayam, yAsuDAzrayaM ca. tatra na aprApte sArvadhAtukAzrayaGittvanimitte pratiSedhe jusi guNaH ArabhyamANaH tam eva bAdhate. yAsuDAzrayaGittvanimittaM tu na bAdhate, tatra hi prApte ca aprApte ca Arabhyate iti.

Why does this affect the ik only? The word ikas is not in the trickle.

See ikoguNavRddhI.

441 letters. -- 73B.bse 75 -- popularity 2




(@hardsoft) (@hards)

sArvadhAtuk'-ArdhadhAtukayoH ONPANINI 73084
( ik to guNa) before hard and soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 828

In the classroom we ended up nicknaming this rule as "the hardsoft rule", as its true name is sort of clumsy.

All root affixes turn any ik that is just before them into guNa. Even the long ik.

Examples before the soft affixes tumun u thal --

nI + tumun → * netum "to lead"

nI + liT sipnI + thal → * ne + thal liTidhA ninetha "I'm told you led"

nI + liT sipnI + thalnI + ithal → * ne + ithal liTidhA nine + itha ecoya ninayitha "I'm told you led"

kR + u + tip → * karu- + tip → * karoti "makes, does"

Where is the r of karu coming from? this rule just replaced R with guNa.

Plase read replacing with guNa

Examples before the hards tip and zap --

iN' + laT tipeti "goes"

karu- + tip → * kar + o + tipkaroti "makes"

nI + zap + tip → * ne + zap + tip ecoya nay + zap + tipnayati "leads"

bhU + zap + jhi → * bho + zap + jhibho + zap + anti''' → .. → bhavanti "they are"

tRR + zap + sip → * tar + zap + siptarasi "you cross"

If you see that this rule did not work it means that some exception came in the way.

The exception will be kGitica almost always --

In nIta- (from nI + kta) this rule did not work. That's because kta is kit.

Same in cakRma (from kR + ma). That's because ma is kit (rule asaMyogAlliTkit says so).

I must confess that I have an awful tendency to type "because of puganta" when I mean "because of hardsoft". So please check puganta rule, just in case I mistyped the link that brought you here.

973 letters. -- 73B.bse 151 -- popularity 106




(jAgrovici) (!jA)

jAgro '-vi;ciN;Nal;Gitsu ONPANINI 73085
Replace jAgR (with guNa) unless before vi ciN Nal Git.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 829

Exception to hardsoft above, and to all other rules that replace with guNa and vRddhi ( puganta, acoJNiti, etc). The root jAgR becomes jAgar before most affixes, kGit or not kGit. For instance, in --

jAgR + Nic + laT tip → * jAgar + i + zap + tipjAgarayati "makes (him) wake up"

rule acoJNiti did not work.

However, before vi, ciN, Nal, and Git affixes, the ordinary rules still apply, so R is not replaced with ar in these --

jAgR + ciN acoJNiti jAgAr + i luGlaG ajAgAri "he was woken up"

jAgR + Nal acoJNiti jAgAr + Nal liTidhA jajAgAra "he woke up"

nor here, as tas is Git because hard apit is Git --

jAgR + laT tasjAgRtas "both wake up"

KAZIKA jAgu ityetasya aGgasya guNo bhavati aviciNNalGitsu parataH. jAgarayati. jAgarakaH. sAdhujAgarI. jAgaraMjAgaram. jAgaro vartate. jAgaritaH. jAgaritavAn. vRRddhiviSaye pratiSedhaviSaye ca yathA syAtiti jAgarterayaM guNaH Arabhyate. tasmin kRte yA ata upadhAyAH 72116 vRddhiH prApnoti sA na bhavati. yadi hi syAtanarthaka eva guNaH syAt, ciNNalozca pratiSedhavacanam anarthakam. aviciNNalGitsu iti kim? jRRzRRstRrjAgRbhyaH kvin jAgRviH. ciN ajAgAri. Nal jajAgAra. Git jAgRtaH. jAgRthaH. vi iti kecidikAram uccAraNArthaM varNayanti, kvasAvapi vakArAdau guNo na bhavati. jajAgRvAn. ajAgaruH, ahaM jajAgara ityatra pratiSedhaH prApnoti? na, apratiSedhAt. aviciNNalGitsu iti paryudAso 'yam, athavA jAgraH iti praptirasAvAnantaryAd viciNNalGitsu pratiSidhyate. yA tu jusi ca 73083, sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH 73084 iti ca prAptiH , sA na pratiSidhyate.

441 letters. -- 73B.bse 233 -- popularity 2




(pugantala) (!pug)

pug-anta;lagh%Upadhasya ca ONPANINI 73086
Replace nexttolast short ik (with guNa before hard and soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 830

Replace the nexttolast i u R L of a root with e o ar al before all root affixes.

Examples --

zuc + zap + tip → * zocati "is sad, is depressed"

siv + zap + te''' → * sevate "serves"

dviS + mip → * dveSmi "I hate"

dviS + tip → * dveS + ti STunA dveSTi "hates"

vRt + zap + te''' → * vartate "spins, turns out"

kLp + zap + te''' → * kalpate "it befits; it is prepared, ready"

This rule won't work before kGit affixes (see kGitica) --

kSip + ktakSipta- "was thrown"

kSip + ktvAkSiptvA "threw and, after throwing"

akSip + yak + taakSipyata "it was thrown"

cikSip + us asaMyogAlliTkit cikSip + (k)uscikSipus "they threw"

kSip + za + tip sArvadhAtukamapit kSip + (z)a(G) + tipkSipati "throws"

You only translated the second part of the rule, namely laghUpadhasya. What does that puganta word mean?

It means that a handful of roots (the puk-enders, such as knUp and vlIp) get guNa replacement of their nexttolast long ik. See puk for examples.

You said that this affects short vowels, but pANini said laghu, light vowels. Is that a mistranslation?

No. He said light but meant short. In the dveSmi example above, i is short but not light, and the rule does work. The rule might as well have been pugantahrasvopadhasyaca.

853 letters. -- 73C.bse 1 -- popularity 76




(bhUsuvosti) (!bhUs)

bhU;suvos tiGi ONPANINI 73088
bhU sU get no hardsoft before hard tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 831

Examples with bhU --

bhU + luG tip luGlaG abhU + tipabhU + t'''abhUt "he was"

bhU + luG mip → .. → abhU + am''' bhuvovuglu abhUvam "I was"

This rule will not work before affixes such as zap, that are hard but not tiG --

bhU + laT tipbhU + zap + tip hardsoft bho + zap + tip ecoya bhavati "there is"

The sU root mentioned here is the lukclass 02.0025 "create living beings", that is bendy. Examples --

sU + loT iT'sU + ai''' aciznu suvai "I shall give birth"

suvAvahai

suvAmahai

The lukclass root sU 02.0036, same meaning but flatty, is unaffected by this rule --

sU + loT mipsU + Ani''' hardsoft so + Ani ecoya savAni "I shall give birth"

KAZIKA bhU sU ity etayoH tiGi sArvadhAtuke guNo na bhavati. abhUt. abhUH. abhUvam. suvai, suvAvahai, suvAmahai. sUter lug-vikaranasya idaM grahaNam. suvatisUyayor vikaraNena tiGo vyavadhAnam. vikaraNasyaiva Git-tvAd guNAbhAvaH siddhaH. tiGi iti kim? bhavati. sArvadhAtuke ity eva, vyatibhaviSISTa. atha bobhavIti iti yaGluki guNapratiSedhaH kasmAn@ na bhavati? jJApakAt, yadayaM bobhUtu iti guNAbhAvArthe nipAtanaM karoti.

410 letters. -- 73C.bse 134 -- popularity 1

209 /sic (to /luk) before @flat after !gAti /sthA /ghu !pA !bhU.




(utovRddhi) (!uto)

uto vRddhir luki hali ONPANINI 73089
Replace last u of a lukclass with au before consonant ( pit hard).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 832

Two such roots are stu "praise" and yu "bind, tie, attach". Examples --

stu + laT tipstauti "praises"

yu + laT tipyauti "binds"

With UrNu this rule is optional, so we may say either prorNauti or prorNoti.

KAZIKA sArvadhAtuke piti iti vartate. ukArAntasya aGgasya vRddhir bhavati luki sati halAdau piti sArvadhAtuke. yauti. yauSi. yaumi. nauti. nauSi. naumi. stauti. stauSi. staumi. utaH iti kim? eti. eSi. emi. luki iti kim? sunoti. sunoSi. sunomi. hali iti kim? yavAni. ravANi. piti ityeva, yutaH. rutaH. api stuyAd rAjAnam ityatra hi Gicca pinna bhavati iti pittvapratiSedhAd vRddherabhAvaH. na abhyastasya ityetadiha anuvartate, yoyoti, roroti ityevam Adyartham.

151 letters. -- 73C.bse 157 -- popularity 2

836 /t''' /s''' (get /IT) after /asti and /sic.

1139 /stu' "praise"




(tRNaha::im) (!tRN)

tRNaha:: im ONPANINI 73092
tRnah gets im (before consonant hard pit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 833

The tRNah in the rule means tRnah, which is the result of combining tRh + znam, before it gets Natvam. The i(m) is a mitaugment. So, before consonant hard pit, this tRnah turns into tRNeh like this --

tRh + znamtRnah → * tRnah + imtRna + i + m AdguNaH tRneh Natvam tRNeh

Examples --

tRh + laT miptRh + znam + miptRnah + mip → * tRneh + mi Natvam tRNehmi "I crush, bruise"

tRh + laT sip → .. → tRnah + sip → * tRneh + sip SaDhoHkassi tRnekSi Natvam tRNekSi "you crush"

tRh + laT tip → .. → tRnah + tip → * tRneh + tip hoDhaH tRneDhti jhaSastatho tRneDhdhi STunA tRneDhDhi DhoDhelopaH tRneDhi Natvam tRNeDhi "he crushes"

tRh + laG sip → .. → atRnehs halGyA atRneh hoDhaH atRneDh jhalAJjazonte atRneD Natvam atRNeD beforepause atRNeT "you crushed"

Why do we say "before hal"? Don't all hard pit start with consonants?

am''' and Ani''' don't.

tRh + laG miptRh + am''' → .. → atRNaham "I crushed"

tRh + loT mip → .. → tRNahAni "let me crush"

Why "before pit"?

tRh + laT jhi znam tRnah + jhi znasora tRnh + jhitRnh + anti''' Natvam tRNhanti "they crush"

tRh + laT tastRnah + tas znasora tRnhtas hoDhaH tRnDhtas jhaSastatho tRnDhdhas STunA tRnDhDhas DhoDhelopaH tRnDhas Natvam tRNDhas "both crush"

If the rule means tRnah why does it say tRNah?

Just try to say tRnaha::im aloud... that's a tonguewister, doncha think?

KAZIKA tRNaha ity etasyAGgasya im-Agamo bhavati hali piti sArvadhAtuke. tRNeDhi. tRNekSi. tRNehmi. atRNeT. varNAzraye 'py atra pratyayalakSaNam iSyate. hali iti kim? tRNahAni. piti ityeva, tRNDhaH. tRNaha iti AgataznaMko gRhyate, znami kRte imAgamo yathA syAtiti.

786 letters. -- 73C.bse 184 -- popularity 2




(bruvaIT) (!bruva)

bruva:: IT ONPANINI 73093
(Consonant pit) gets IT after brU.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 834

Careful. This titaugment I(T) has long I, unlike the i(T) of svapiti, made by rudAdibhya.

As in --

brU + laT tip → * brU + Itip hardsoft bro + Iti ecoya bravIti "says"

brU + laG tipbrU + t''' → * brU + It hardsoft bro + It luGlaG abro + It ecoya abravIt "said"

Similarly bravISi, bravImi, abravam.

Why no zap after brU?

Please click brU. It is boxed.

Wait, shouldn't abravam be abruvam?

abruvam "I said" appears a lot in the epics, way more than abravam. Yet, so far I can only tell you that abravam is kosher. I don't know yet if abruvam is, sorry.

What's the luG of brU?

See bruvovaciH.

KAZIKA brU ity etasmAd uttarasya halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya IDAgamo bhavati. bravIti. bravISi. bravImi. abravIt. hali ityeva, bravANi. piti ityeva, brUtaH.

397 letters. -- 73C.bse 237 -- popularity 6

705 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

836 /t''' /s''' (get /IT) after /asti and /sic.

1425 coloncolon symbol




(yaGovA) (!yaG)

yaGo vA ONPANINI 73094
( consonant pit hard gets IT) optionally after yaGluk.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 835 yaGluk

As in --

lAlap + tip → * lAlapIti "prates senselessly"

roru + tip hardsoft roro + tip → * roro + Iti ecoya roravIti "roars loudly"

KAZIKA yaGaH uttarasya halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya IDAgamo bhavati vA. zAkuniko lAlapIti. dundubhir vAvadIti. tridhA baddho vRSabho roravIti maho devo martyAM A viveza. na ca bhavati. varvarti, carkarti cakram. halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya yaGantAdabhAvaH iti yaGlugantasya udAharaNam.

Why do you translate "after yaGluk" when the original has "after yaG"?

Just for clarity. When the yaG is not luked, kartarizap works, and zap starts with a vowel, so this rule won't work.

But, even if the yaG is luked we should get zap anyway. You said that all the sanAdyanta roots get zap.

I was wrong when I said that. There is a vArttika that says that yaGluks are lukclass .

Hm. Someone had to write that vArttika. How did they figure out that pANini took it for granted that yaGluks are lukclass?

Because otherwise this rule would have been yaGlukovA.

Isn't that circular reasoning? Are you mocking me?

Unfortunately, no and no. That's how Indian Logic works. I swear.

605 letters. -- 73C.bse 265 -- popularity 5

901 /ik of @stammer to /guNa before /yaG or /yaGluk

903 (@stammer) that ends in !a of (/yaG /yaGluk) root that ends in !m gets {n(uk)}.




(astisico) (/It')

asti;sico 'pRkte ONPANINI 73096
t''' s''' (get IT) after asti and sic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 836 luG

"Gets IT" means that an I is added in front. So this rule turns t''' s''' into It''' Is'''.

Examples after root as --

as + laG tip AD-aj-AdInAm AT + as + tip akassa As + tipAs + t''' → * As + ItAsIt "there was"

as + laG sip → .. → AsIs "there was you"

Examples after sic --

dRz + luG tip → .. → adrAk- + sic + t''' → * adrAk + s + It''' kric adrAkSIt "he saw"

dRz + luG sip → .. → adrAkSIs "you saw"

mAG + bhI + luG sip → .. → mA bhaiSIs "don't be afraid"

Uh. I'm confused. Where is the I of avAdIt coming from? That one follows no sic.

Actually, it did follow a sic when it got the I, see --

vad + luG tip → .. → avad + sic + t'''avad + iSic + t vada;vraja avAd + iS + tavAd + iS + It''' iTa::ITi avAd + It

And abravIt?

That's a laG, not a luG. The I is from bruva::IT.

Why doesn't the mahAbhArata have that bhaiSIs in mA bhais tvaM vipula-zroNi "don't be afraid, tootsie!"?

The short explanation: that's ArSam. The long explanation: the mahAbhArata long predates pANini, so we should ask "why?" when the mahAbhArata follows the rules, not when it doesn't.

The rule, literally, says -- "One-letter affix (gets IT) after asti sic". Shouldn't Nal trigger this rule? It has one letter.

No. The word hali trickles here from utovRddhirlukihali. So the literal translation is actually "(Consonant) one-letter affix (gets IT) after asti sic". That discards Nal.

925 letters. -- 73C.bse 301 -- popularity 17




(adassarve) (!adass)

adaH sarveSAm ONPANINI 73100
( t''' s''' get aT) after ad.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 837 laG

Only examples --

ad + laG tip AD-aj-AdInAm Ad + tipAd + t''' → * Adat "he ate"

ad + laG sip AD-aj-AdInAm Ad + sipAd + s''' → * Adas "you ate"

KAZIKA ada bhakSaNe, asmAduttarasya apRktasya sArvadhAtukasya aDAgamo bhavati sarveSAm AcAryANAM matena. Adat. AdaH. apRktasya ityeva, atti. atsi.

Will this work in the luG?

No.

Why npot? What's the luG of ad?

aghasat, aghasas, aghasam (see luGsanorghasL).

KAZIKA ada bhakSaNe, asmAduttarasya apRktasya sArvadhAtukasya aDAgamo bhavati sarveSAm AcAryANAM matena. Adat. AdaH. apRktasya ity eva, atti. atsi.

151 letters. -- 73C.bse 330 -- popularity 1
















72114 replacements before soft ←

chunk 42: 73050 more about taddhita

→ 73101 some sup-changing rules