71078 /zatR with /num ←

chunk 39: 72009 /iT rules

→ 72087 rules for /yuSmad- /asmad-

72010 After some one-vowel roots there's no iT. ekAca::upadezenudAttAt
72011 uk-enders and zri before kit. zryukaHkiti
72012 san grah, guh, . sanigrahaguhozca
72013 valAdi liT gets iT after all roots but kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru. kRsRbhRvRstudrusruzruvoliTi
72014 niSThA after Idit roots or zvi. zvIditoniSThAyAm
72015 after roots after which other affixes get iT optionally. yasyavibhASA
72022 kaS when meaning painful or impenetrable. kRcchragahanayoHkaSaH
72035 valAdi soft gets iT ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH
72037 After grah, lengthen , unless in a liT. graholiTidIrghaH
72038 optionally after q-enders, vRG and vRJ . vRRtovA
72041 san gets iT optionally . iTsanivA
72044 svR, sUti, sUyati, dhUJ, and the Udit are veT. svaratisUtisUyatidhUJUditovA
72049 san after iv-enders, Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR and jJapi-san. sanIvantardhabhrasjadambhuzrisvRyUrNubharajJapisanAm
72053 after aJcu that means 'honoring'. aJceHpUjAyAm
72056 After udit root optionally uditovA
72061 After a vowel, thal won't get iT if tAs never gets iT. acastAsvatthalyaniTonityam
72062 after a root that has a in the dhAtupATha . upadezetvataH
72063 The two previous rules are optional after non-R. RtobhAradvAjasya
72070 sya after R-enders and han. Rddhanossye
72073 yam ram nam, and A-enders, get sak . yamaramanamAtAMsakca
72075 after kq gq dRG dhRG praccH. kirazcapaJcabhyaH
72076 hard after rud svap zvas prAN jakS. rudAdibhyassArvadhAtuke
72079 hard liG loses nonfinal s. liGassaloponantyasya
72080 After a, yA to iy. atoyeyaH
72081 Merge a with the A of AtAm AthAm into e. AtoGitaH
72082 get muk before zAnac kAnac. Anemuk
72083 to I after As. IdAsaH
72084 Optionally aSTan- to A before vibhakti. aSTanaAvibhaktau
72085 rai- to before consonant . rAyohali
72086 yuSmad- asmad- to that is not a replacement. yuSmadasmadoranAdeze


ekAca:: upadeze 'nudAttAt ONPANINI 72010
After some one-vowel roots there's no iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 741 iT

Some one-vowel roots do not make the valAdi get iT.

According to rule valAdi soft gets iT , all valAdi soft affixes get iT in front after all roots. Yet this rule tells us that this does not happen after certain roots, for instance kSip dRz pac nI. We call those roots aniT roots.

Example. The root car is a normal root (a seT root) and makes rule valAdi soft gets iT work --

car + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD carita-

But this exception here says that rule valAdi soft gets iT will not work after some roots, such as kSip dRz pac nI kR --

kSip + ktakSipta- "was thrown"

dRz + ktadRzta- → .. → dRSTa- "was seen"

pac + ktapacta- coHkuH pakta pacovaH pakva- "was cooked"

nI + ktvAnItvA "after leading"

kR + tumun hardsoft kartum "to do"


zry;ukaH kiti ONPANINI 72011
uk-enders and /zri (are aniT) before kit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 742 iT

So root zri "serve" 01.1044 is aniT before kit affixes, --

zri + ktvA → zritvA "after serving"

and seT before the akit --

zri + tRc ArdhadhAtukasyeD zri + itRc hardsoft zre + itR ecoya zrayitR- "server"


sani graha-guhoz ca ONPANINI 72012
san (doesn't get iT after) grah, guh, (zri and uk-enders).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 743 iT

So, even though bhU grah are seT, we get no iSan here --

bhU + san sanyaGoH bhU + bhU + sa hrasvaH bhu + bhU + sa abhyAsecarca bu + bhU + sa kric bubhUSa "want to be"

grah + san rudavida grah + (k)sa grahijyA gRh + sa sanyaGoH gR + gRh + sa urat ga + gRh + sa kuhozcu ja + gRh + sa sanyataH ji + gRh + sa hoDhaH jigRDh + sa ekAcoba jighRDhsa SaDhoHkassi jighRkSa "want to grab"

As in --

jighRkSa + laT tipjighRkSati "he wants to take"

See also exception iTsanivA below.


kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zruvo liTi ONPANINI 72013
valAdi liT gets iT after all roots but kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 744 iT

Exception to ekAca::u, which would have made the roots get iT or not depending on whether they are seT or aniT.

Therefore: a valAdi liT gets no iT after kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru, even though some of those are seT --

kR + liT maskR + macakR + macakRma "we made"

zru + liT mas → .. → zuzruma "we heard"

and gets iT after all other roots, even the aniT roots like kSip --

kSip + liT mahicikSipimahe "we threw"

This rule has dozens of exceptions, most of which affect thal. So thal will get iT always after some roots, never after others, and optionally after others. Eg, thal gets iT optionally after pac --

pac + liT thalpac + thal → .. → papaktha "they say you cooked"

pac + liT thalpac + ithal → .. → pecitha "they say you cooked"

Do not lose sleep trying to learn the iT rules of the liT. You'll seldom need to know them, because non-third person liT is VERY uncommon .

" liT gets no iT ONLY after kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru"

Which is the same thing as saying that liT gets iT after all the other roots, even if they are aniT roots. Whip yourself, for atonement.


zv';Idito niSThAyAm ONPANINI 72014
niSThA (doesn't get iT) after Idit roots or zvi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 745 iT

Exception to ArdhadhAtukasyeD.

Example with the seT roots zvi (Tuo~)zvi "swell" 01.1165 (a yaj-class root)

zvi + kta oditazca zvi + kna vacisvapi zu + na- halaH zUna- "swelled, swollen (esp. morbidly), increased, grown"

Example with the seT root dIp dIp(I) "shine" 04.0045 --

dIp + ktadIpta- "lighted up, shining"


yasya vibhASA ONPANINI 72015
( niSThA doesn't get iT) after roots after which other affixes get iT optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 746 iT

Example --

(1) After the seT root dhU dhU(J) "shake" 09.0020, the affix tumun gets iT optionally (by svaratisUti).

(2) Therefore, kta and ktavatu do not get iT after dhu(J)

vidhUta- "was tossed about"

vidhUtavat- "he tossed about"

Small exception. After tan pat daridrA, the affix san gets iT optionally, by a vArttika to sanIvanta. Yet, this rule does not work on those three --

pat + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD patita "fallen"


kRcchra;gahanayoH kaSaH ONPANINI 72022
kaS (won't get iT before niSThA) when meaning painful or impenetrable.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 747

So no iT here --

kaSTaM vyAkaraNam "grammar is awfully hard"

kaSTAni vanAni "deep jungles"

Or in the curse --

kaSTam "argh!"

But in other senses, we get iT as usual --

kaSitaM suvarNam "tested gold"


ArdhadhAtukasyeD val-AdeH ONPANINI 72035
valAdi soft gets iTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 748 iT

iT is a Titaugment.

Therefore, the soft affixes tum(un) (k)ta (k)tvA sya, which start with the val letters t s, will be replaced with itum ita itva isya after most roots. Like this --

car + tumun → car + ( iT + tumun ) → caritum "to move"

car + kta → car + ( iT + kta) → carita- "moved"

car + ktvA → car + ( iT + ktvA) → car + itvAcaritvA "moved and"

bhU + sya + tip → bhU + ( iT + sya) + ti kric bhU + iSya + ti hardsoft bho + iSya + ti ecoya bhaviSyati "will be"

See also exception ekAca::u.


graho 'liTi dIrghaH ONPANINI 72037
After grah, lengthen ( iT), unless in a liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 749 iT

As in --

grah + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD grah + ita grahijyA gRh + ita → gRhIta- "taken"

grah + ktvA → .. → gRhItvA "grabbed and"

grah + tRc → .. → grahItR- "grabber"

grah + tumun → .. → grahItum "to take"

grah + tavya → .. → grahItavya- "should be taken"

The iT of liT affixes is unaffected --

grah + liT mas ArdhadhAtukasyeD grah + ima → .. → jagRhima "we took"

Careful. This rule lengthens the normal iT from ArdhadhAtukasyeD, but not the ciNvadiT from syasicsIyu --

grah + karmaNi lRT tagrah + sya + ta syasicsIyu grah + isya + ta Tita grahisyate kric grahiSyate "it will be taken"


v'-RRto vA ONPANINI 72038
(Lengthen iT) optionally after RR-enders, vRG and vRJ (unless in a liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 750 iT

Addition to graho 'liTi dIrghaH above. The lenghtening that is compulsory after grah is optional after RR-enders, vRG, vRJ.

Examples with RR-enders --

tRR + tRc → .. → taritR- "crosser"

tRR + tRc → .. → taritR- → tarItR- "crosser"

Examples with vRG vRJ --

varitR- "chooser"

varItR- "chooser"

As in

bhikSavo na varItAro varanti khalu grAhakAH

This won't work on liT affixes --



vR is short for "vRG and vRJ",

RRt means RR by tapara,

Those two compound into vRRt (see akassa),

and Gasi means "after" by tasmAdi.


iT sani vA ONPANINI 72041
san gets iT optionally (after RR-enders and vR).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 751 iT

Exception to sanigraha, that says that san is ordinarily iT-less after all R RR. By this exception, the RR enders may get iT or not.

If we apply this rule, we get hardsoft before the iSan --

tRR + san → tRR + iSan hardsoft tar + iSan sanyaGo tatariSa sanyataH titariSa "want to cross"

and optional rule vRRtovA might lengthen the iT --

titariSa vRRtovA titarISa "want to cross"

But if we choose no iT, then ikojhal says that san is kit. So hardsoft does not work, and then RR changes to Ir --

tRR + san ikojhal tRR + ksan RRta::iddhAtoH tir + ksan halica tIrsa sanyaGoH titIrsa kric titIrSa "want to cross"

So we get three options --

titariSati "wants to cross"

titarISati "wants to cross"

titIrSati "wants to cross"

And from vRR --

vivariSate vivarISate vuvUrSate

Exception kirazca makes kRR and gRR be seT compulsorily.


svarati;sUti; sUyati;dhUJ;Udito vA ONPANINI 72044
svR, sUti, sUyati, dhUJ, and the Udit are veT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 752 iT

The Udit roots are those that have U label in the dhAtupATha, such as gup(U).

Ordinarily, these roots make tAs tumun etc get iT --

dhU(J) + tA ArdhadhAtukasyeD dhU + itA hardsoft dho + itA ecoya dhavitA "he will shake"

gup(U) + tum(un) ArdhadhAtukasyeD gup + itum puganta gopitum

But if we take this option --

dhU(J) + tA hardsoft dhotA "he will shake"

gup(U) + tum(un) puganta goptum

See the kAzikA for more examples.


san/Ivanta;rdha;bhrasja;dambhu;zri;svR;yUrNu;bhara;jJapi;sanAm ONPANINI 72049
san (gets iT optionally) after iv-enders, Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR and jJapi-san.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 753

Examples --

yu + san → yu + iSan hardsoft yo + iSa ecoya yaviSa sanyaGoH yayaviSa sanyataH yiyaviSa "want to yoke"

yu + san ikojhal yu + sa(k) ajjhana yU + sa sanyaGoH yuyUsa kric yuyUSa "want to yoke"

See dambha::icca for the examples dhipsati dhIpsati didambhiSati, and see the kAzikA for the other examples.


aJceH pUjAyAm ONPANINI 72053
( ktvA kta ktavatu get iT) after aJcu that means 'honoring'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 754 iT

So, we get aJcitvA aJcita- aJcitavat(u)- compulsorily.

Example --

aJcu + kta → aJcita- "was honored, whorshipped, hospitably received"

as in

aJcitA asya guravaH "his teachers were honored"

This is an exception to yasyavibhASA (that would make the iT optional on kta ktavatu) and to uditovA (that would forbid iT on ktvA).

When the root aJcu does not mean "to honor", this rule won't work. As in ud + aJcu "draw up" --

ud + aJcu + kta → .. → udakta- "was drawn up"

as in

udaktam udakaGM kUpAt "water was drawn up from the well"

This rule sounds a lot like n' .AJceH pUjAyAm, so be careful.

Mnemonic --

adbhiH kUpAd udaktAbhir asmAbhir guravo 'JcitAH "and we drew water from the well and honored our gurus with it"


udito vA ONPANINI 72056
After udit root ( ktvA gets iT) optionallymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 755 iT

After a root that is udit in the dhAtupATha, ktvA can get iT or not.

Example: the seT root tam means to wish, and it is listed as tam tam(u) in 04.0099. So we can say either --

tam(u) + ktvA ArdhadhAtukasyeD tamitvA "after wishing"

, or --

tam(u) + ktvA → tamtvA nazcA taMtvA anusvA tantvA "got tired and"

where this rule prevented ArdhadhAtukasyeD.


acas tAsvat thaly aniTo nityam ONPANINI 72061
After a vowel, thal won't get iT if tAs never gets iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 756 iT

BEGINNERS BEWARE -- you do not need to learn any of the thal rules until next year, because they are needed once in a blue moon.

This is an exception to kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zru, that makes thal get iT after most roots.

Examples. Root nI ends in a vowel never makes tAs get iT (we say netA for "he shal lead, never nayitA). Therefore, thal doesn't get iT after nI, even though kRsR says it should --

nI + liT sipnI + thal hardsoft ne + tha liTidhA ne + ne + tha hrasvaH ninetha "thou led"

Because of RtobhAradvAjasya below, this rule is optional if the root does not end in R. So we can still say --

nI + liT sipnI + thal kRsR nI + ithal hardsoft ne + itha liTidhA ne + ne + itha hrasvaH ni + ne + itha ecoya ni + nay + ithaninayitha "thou led"

When the root ends in R this rule is compulsory --

sasmartha "you remembered"


upadeze 'tvataH ONPANINI 72062
( thal gets no iT) after a root that has a in the dhAtupATha (and never makes tAs get iT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 757 iT

Example. pac has a inside, and its luT is paktAsmi "I shall cook". So, this rule allows thal to not be affected by kRsR --

pac + liT sippac + thal liTidhA papac + tha coHkuH papaktha "thou cooked"

Because of RtobhAradvAjasya below, this rule is always optional. So we can still make kRsR work --

pac + liT sippac + thal kRsR pac + ithal liTidhA papac + itha thalicaseTi pecitha "thou cooked"

The root has to have a in its dhAtupATha form. So, this rule will not work on kRS when puganta makes it into karS --

kRS + liT sipkRs + thal kRsR kRS + ithal → .. → cakarSitha "thou pulled"


Rto bhAradvAjasya ONPANINI 72063
The two previous rules are optional after non-R.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 758 iT

See the two previous rules, acastAsva and upadezetvataH, for examples.


Rd;dhanoH sye ONPANINI 72070
sya (gets iT) after R-enders and han.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 759 iT

Example after R-ender --

kR + lRT tipkR + sya + ti hardsoft kar + sya + ti → kariSyati "he will make"

Example after han --

han + lRT miphan + sya + mi → han + iSya + mi atodIrghoyaJi haniSyAmi "I will kill"


yama;rama;nam;AtAM sak ca ONPANINI 72073
yam ram nam, and A-enders, get sak (before flat luG, and the sic gets iT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 760 iT

Verbs with s(ak) + iSic are called " siS-aorist" or "six-aorist" ("aor [6]" in inria, see aorist types ). They are just an iSic aorist that adds s after the root.

Examples with nam and with yA, an A-ender root --

nam + luG jhi → .. → anam + iSic + us → anams + iS + us nazcA anaMsiSus "they bowed"

yA + luG jhi → yAs + iSic + jhi → .. → ayAsiSus "they went"

As always, iTa::ITi works before It''' Is''' --

nam + luG tip → .. → anams + iS + It''' iTa::ITi anams + ItanaMsIt "he bowed"

yA + luG sip → .. → ayAs + iS + Is''' iTa::ITi ayAs + IsayAsIs "you went"


kirazca paJcabhyaH ONPANINI 72075
( san gets iT) after kRR gRR dRG dhRG praccH.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 761 iT

All examples --

kRR + san + laT tip → kR + iSan + ti → .. → cikariSati "wants to scatter"






rudAdibhyaH sArvadhAtuke ONPANINI 72076
( val) hard (gets iT) after rud svap zvas prAN jakS.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 762 iT

These are lukclass roots.

rud + tip → rud + ( tip + iT ) Adyantau rud + itip puganta roditi "wails"

svap + tip → svap + itipsvapiti "sleeps"

zvasiti "breathes, pants, hisses"

prANiti "breathes"

jakSiti "eats"

svap + tRcsvaptR- "sleeper"

rud + jhirud + anti'''rudanti "they cry"

svap + jhisvap + anti'''svapanti "they sleep"


liGaH sa-lopo 'n-antyasya ONPANINI 72079
hard liG loses nonfinal s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 763

Example with flat --

dviS + @hard liG t''' yAsuTpa dviS + yAst → dviS + yAt'''dviSyAt "he'd hate"

Example with flat tip after a --

bhU + @hard liG t''' kartarizap bhava + t''' yAsuTpa bhava + yAst atoyeyaH bhava + iyst → bhava + iyt lopovyo bhava + it AdguNaH bhavet "he'd be"

Examples with bent ta --

dviS + @hard liG ta liGassI dviS + sIyta → dviS + Iyta lopovyo dviSIta "he'd hate"

plu + @hard liG taplava + ta liGassI plava + sIyta → plava + Iyta AdguNaH plaveyta lopovyo plaveta "he'd jump"

Back to rules that make the hard bent liG .


ato yeyaH ONPANINI 72080
After a, yA (of hard yAsuT) to iy.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 764

Rules yAsuTpa and liGassa teach that when the flat tiG affixes replace hard liG, they get yA added in front. So, after zRNu --

zRNu + @hard liG tip itazca zRNu + t yAsuTpa zRNu + yAt'''zRNuyAt "he'd hear"

zRNu + @hard liG mip tasthastha zRNu + am yAsuTpa zRNu + yAm'''zRNuyAm "I'd hear"

zRNu + @hard liG jhi jherjus zRNu + us yAsuTpa zRNu + yus'''zRNuyus "they'd hear"

This exception, "yA to iy after a", says that after what ends in a (like paca, kSipa, cintaya), the affixes get iy in front, not the usual yA --

paca + t → paca + iyt AdguNaH pacet "he'd cook"

paca + am → paca + iyam AdguNaH paceyam "I'd cook"

paca + us → paca + iyus AdguNaH paceyus "they'd cook"


Ato GitaH ONPANINI 72081
Merge a with the A of AtAm AthAm into e.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 765

Example --

vand + zap + laG AthAm luGlaG avanda + AthAm → avandethAm "both of you praised"

plu + zap + laT AtAmplava + AtAm Tita plava + Ate''' → plavete "both jump"

dRz + yak + laT AthAm Tita dRzya + Athe''' → dRzyethe "you two are being seen"


Ane muk ONPANINI 72082
(a-enders) get muk before zAnac kAnac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 766

Examples with plava, krama-, hanya-, yotsya- getting m after their a --

plu + zAnacplava + zAnac → plavam- + AnaplavamAna- "that jump"

kram + zap + zAnackrama + Ana → kramamAna- Natvam kramamANa- "that advances by steps"

han + yak + zAnac → hanyamAna- "that is being attacked"

yudh + lRT lRTassadvA yudh + zAnacyudh + sya + Ana puganta yodh + sya + Ana kharica yot + sya + Ana → yotsyamAna- "that is going to fight"

Counterexamples. No m after non-a --

dviS + zAnacdviSAna Natvam dviSANa- "that hates"

hu + zAnacjuhu + Ana huznuvossA juhvAna- "that sacrifices"

zIG + zAnac zIGassArvadhAtukeguNaH ze + Ana ecoya zayAna- "that sleeps"

bhuj + znam + zAnacbhunj + Ana nazcA bhuMjAna anusvA bhuJjAna- "that eats"


Id AsaH ONPANINI 72083
( zAnac) to I after As.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 767

Only example --

As + zAnac → As + InaAsIna- "that sits"

As in --

gaur AsInaH "Sitting Bull"


aSTana:: A vibhaktau ONPANINI 72084
Optionally aSTan- to A before vibhakti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 768

Examples --

aSTan- + sup' → aSTaA + su akassa aSTAsu "in eight"

aSTan- + jas → aSTaA- + jas akassa aSTA- + jas aSTAbhya::auz aSTA- + au vRddhireci aSTau "eight"

If we don't take this option, aSTan- works just like paJcan- --

aSTan- + sup' nalopaHprA aSTasu

aSTan- + jas SaDbhyoluk aSTan


rAyo hali ONPANINI 72085
rai- to (A) before consonant ( vibhakti).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 769

As in --

rai- + su → rAs "riches"

rai- + bhis → rAbhis "with riches"

This rule works only on rai-, which is the only commonly used nounbase that ends in ai. So, if you make up other nounbases that end in ai, such as jedai-, this rule won't work on them --

na vareNyAni jedaibhisH sAhasAny unmadAdayaH

"excitements, adventures... such things Jedi knights must not crave"

rai + jas ecoya rAyas "riches"

rai + tva + su atom raitvam "richeshood, state of being a treasure"


yuSmad;asmador an-Adeze ONPANINI 72086
yuSmad- asmad- to (A before a consonant sup) that is not a replacement.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 770

After after yuSmad- asmad-, rules yuSmad;asmadbhyAMGasoz ff replace most consonant sup with az am ns abhyam at Aka, and leave only bhyAm, bhis and sup' unreplaced. So this rule replaces those three.

All examples --

yuSmad- + bhyAm yuvAvaudvivacane yuva + bhyAm → yuvA + bhyAmyuvAbhyAm "with the two of you"

asmad- + bhyAm → .. → avAbhyAm "with the two of us"

yuSmad- + bhis → yuSma + A + bhis akassa yuSmAbhis "with y'all"

asmAbhis "with us"

yuSmAsu "about y'all"

asmAsu "about us"

Back to yuSmad asmad tables .

71078 /zatR with /num ←

chunk 39: 72009 /iT rules

→ 72087 rules for /yuSmad- /asmad-