71078 /zatR with /num ←

chunk 39: 72009 /iT rules

→ 72087 rules for /yuSmad- /asmad-

72009 ti;tu; tran ; ta;tha;si; su;sara;ka; sa get no iT titutratathasisusarakaseSuca
72010 After some one-vowel roots there's no iT. ekAca::upadezenudAttAt
72011 uk-enders and zri before kit. zryukaHkiti
72012 san grah, guh, . sanigrahaguhozca
72013 valAdi liT gets iT after all roots but kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru. kRsRbhRvRstudrusruzruvoliTi
72014 niSThA after Idit roots or zvi. zvIditoniSThAyAm
72015 after roots after which other affixes get iT optionally. yasyavibhASA
72022 kaS when meaning painful or impenetrable. kRcchragahanayoHkaSaH
72035 valAdi soft gets iT ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH
72037 After grah, lengthen , unless in a liT. graholiTidIrghaH
72038 optionally after q-enders, vRG and vRJ . vRRtovA
72041 san gets iT optionally . iTsanivA
72044 svR, sUti, sUyati, dhUJ, and the Udit are veT. svaratisUtisUyatidhUJUditovA
72049 san after iv-enders, Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR and jJapi-san. sanIvantardhabhrasjadambhuzrisvRyUrNubharajJapisanAm
72053 after aJcu that means 'honoring'. aJceHpUjAyAm
72056 After udit root optionally uditovA
72061 After a vowel, thal won't get iT if tAs never gets iT. acastAsvatthalyaniTonityam
72062 after a root that has a in the dhAtupATha . upadezetvataH
72063 The two previous rules are optional after non-R. RtobhAradvAjasya
72070 sya after R-enders and han. Rddhanossye
72073 yam ram nam, and A-enders, get sak . yamaramanamAtAMsakca
72075 after kq gq dRG dhRG praccH. kirazcapaJcabhyaH
72076 hard after rud svap zvas prAN jakS. rudAdibhyassArvadhAtuke
72079 hard liG loses nonfinal s. liGassaloponantyasya
72080 yA to iy after a, . atoyeyaH
72081 Merge a with the A of AtAm AthAm into e. AtoGitaH
72082 get muk before zAnac kAnac. Anemuk
72083 Ina after As. IdAsaH
72084 Optionally aSTan- to A before vibhakti. aSTanaAvibhaktau
72085 rai- to before consonant . rAyohali
72086 yuSmad- asmad- to that is not a replacement. yuSmadasmadoranAdeze




(titutrata) (!tit)

ti;tu;tra; ta;tha;si; su;sara;ka; seSu ca ONPANINI 72009
ti;tu; tran ; ta;tha;si; su;sara;ka; sa get no iTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 787

Exception to ArdhadhAtukasyeD -- all these are valAdi soft kRt affixes, but they never get iT.

So, even though pat is a seT root, there is no iT in --

pat + trapattra- "wing; leaf"

See the kAzikA for more examples.

KAZIKA ti tu tra ta tha si su sara ka sa ityeteSu kRtsu iDAgamo na bhavati. ti iti ktiGkticoH sAmanyagrahaNam. ktic tanitA. tanitum. tantiH. ktin dIpitA. dIpitum. dIptiH. tu sitanigamimasisacyavidhAJkruzibhyastun. sacitA. sacitum. saktuH. tra dAmnIzasayuyuja iti STran. patitA. patitum. patram vAhanam. uNAdiSv api sarvadhAtubhyaH STran. tanitA. tanitum. tantram. ta hasimRgriNvA amidamilUpUdhurvibhyastan. hasitA. hasitum. hastaH. lavitA. lavitum. lotaH. pavitA. pavitum. potaH. dhUrvitA. dhUrvitum. dhUrtaH. auNAdikasya eva tazabdasya grahaNam iSyate, na punaH ktasya, hasitam ityeva hi tatra bhavati. tha hanikuSinIramikAzibhyaH kthan. koSitA. koSitum. kuSTham. kAzitA. kAzitum. kASTham. si pluSizuSikuSibhyaH kSiH. koSitA. koSitum. kukSiH. suk ca iSeH. eSitA. eSitum. ikSuH. azeH kSaran. azitA. azitum. akSaram. ka iNbhIkApAzalyatimarcibhyaH kan. zalitA. zalitum. zalkaH. sa vRRtRRvadihanikamikaSibhyaH saH. vaditA. vaditum. vatsaH. titutratatheSvagrahAdInAm iti vaktavyam. grahAdayo grahaprakArAH, yeSAm iT ktini dRzyate. nigRhItiH. upasnihitiH. nikucitiH. nipaThitiH. kRti ityeva, roditi. svapiti.

160 letters. -- 72.bse 444 -- popularity 1




(ekAca::u) (!ekAc)

ekAca:: upadeze 'nudAttAt ONPANINI 72010
After some one-vowel roots there's no iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 788 iT

Some one-vowel roots do not make the valAdi get iT.

According to rule valAdi soft gets iT , all valAdi soft affixes get iT in front after all roots. Yet this rule tells us that this does not happen after certain roots, for instance kSip dRz pac nI. We call those roots aniT roots. The roots that do get iT are called seT roots. A few roots get iT optionally, those are called veT roots.

Example. The root car is a normal root (a seT root) and makes rule valAdi soft gets iT work --

car + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD carita- "he moved"

But this exception here says that rule valAdi soft gets iT will not work after some roots, such as kSip dRz pac nI kR --

kSip + ktakSipta- "was thrown"

dRz + ktadRzta- → .. → dRSTa- "was seen"

pac + ktapacta- coHkuH pakta pacovaH pakva- "was cooked"

nI + ktvAnItvA "after leading"

kR + tumun hardsoft kartum "to do"

The kAzikA of this rule is incredibly long because it explains exactly which roots get the iT and which don't. My advice is, don't waste time on learning that in advance. In practice you get to know that car is seT when you hear carita-, and that /kSip is aniT when you hear kSipta-. If you can't wait, look up the root in the ashtadhyayi dot com dhAtupATha; the devanagari in there shows seT aniT veT.

KAZIKA upadeze ya ekAc dhAturanudAttazca tasmAdiDAgamo na bhavati. prakRtyAzrayo 'yaM pratiSedhaH. ke punarupadeze 'nudAttAH? ye tathA gaNe paThyante, ta eva vispaSTArtham aniTkArikAsu pravibhaktAH pradarzyante. aniTsvarAnto bhavati iti dRzyatAmimAMstu seTaH pravadanti tadvidaH. adantamRRdantamRtAM ca vRGvRJau zviDIGivarNeSvatha zIGzriJAvapi. guNasthamUdantamutAM ca rusnuvau kSuvaM tathorNotimatho yuNukSNavaH.

KAZIKA iti svarAntA nipuNaM samuccitAstato halantAnapi sannibodhata. dvaye eva dhAtavaH, svarAntAH vyaJjanAntAzca. tatra sarve svarAntAH ekAcaH anudAttAH. avadhiSTa. RRd-antam taritA, tarItA. RtAM ca vRGvRJau nirvaritA, nirvarItA. pravaritA, pravarItA. zviDIGivarNeSvatha zIGzriJAvapi zvayitA. uDDayitA. zayitA. zrayitA. gaNasthamUdantam lavitA. pavitA. utAM ca ursnuvau kSuvaM tathorNotimatho yuNukSNavaH ravitA. prasnavitA. kSavitA. prorNavitA. vAcya UrNorNuvadbhAvo yaGprasiddhiH prayojanam ityatidezAdekActvam UrNoterasti iti udAtta upadizyate. yavitA. navitA. kSNavitA. iti svarAntA nipuNaM samuccitAs tato halantAnapi sannibodhata.

KAZIKA zakistu kAnteSvaniDeka iSyate ghasizca sAntesu vasiH prasAraNI. ghasiH prakRtyantaram asti ghastA. vasiH prasAraNI vastA. prasAraNI iti kim? vasitA vastrANAm. vasa nivAse ityasya yajAditvAt saMprasAraNaM vihitam, na tu vasa AcchAdane ityasya.

KAZIKA sabhistu bhAnteSvatha maithune yabhistatastRtIyo labhireva netare. ArabdhA. yabdhA. labdhA.

KAZIKA yamiryamanteSvaniDeka iSyate ramisca yazca zyani paThyate maniH.

KAZIKA namizcaturtho hanireva paJcamo gamizca SaSThaH pratiSedhavAcinAm. yantA. rantA. mantA. zyani iti kim? manuteH manitA ityeva bhavati. nantA. hantA. gantA.

KAZIKA dihirduhirmehatirohatI vahirnahistu SaStho dahatistathA lihiH.

KAZIKA ime 'niTo 'STAviha muktasaMzayA gaNeSu hAntAH pravibhajya kIrtitAH. degdhA. dogdhA. meDhA. roDhA. voDhA. naddhA. dagdhA. leDhA. muktasaMzayAH iti kim? tantrAntare catvAro 'pare paThyante. sahimuhirihiluhayaH. tatra sahervikalpastakArAdau, muhirapi radhAdau paThyate, tena tau sasaMzayau savikalpau. itarau tu dhAtuSu na paThyete, kaizcidabhyupagamyete iti svarUpeNa eva sasaMzayau.

KAZIKA diziM dRziM daMzimatho mRziM spRziM riziM ruziM krozatimaSTamaM vizim.

KAZIKA lizaM ca zAntAnaniTaH purANagAH paThanti pATheSu dazaiva netarAn. dezTA. draStA. daMSTA. AmraSTA, AmarSTA. spraSTA, sparSTA. RdupadhAnAm udAttopadezAnAM mRjidRzI varjayitvA anudAttasya cardupadhasya anyatarasyAm 61059 iti ramAgamavikalpaH. reSTA. roSTA. kroSTA. praveSTA. leSTA.

KAZIKA rudhiH sarAdhiryudhibandhisAdhayaH krudhakSudhI zudhyatibudhyatI vyadhiH.

KAZIKA ime tu dhAntA daza ye 'niTo matAstataH paraM sidhyatireva netare. roddhA. rAddhA. yoddhA. banddhA. sAddhA. kroddhA. kSoddhA. zoddhA. boddhA. vyaddhA. seddhA. budhyatisidhyatyoH zyanA nirdezAt nyAyyavikaraNayor buddhisidhyoriD bhavatyeva. bodhitA. sidhitA. niSThAyAmApi pratiSedhAbhAvAt budhitam, sidhitam ityeva bhavati. ziSiM piSiM zuSyatipuSyatI tviSiM viSiM zliSiM tuSyatiduSyatI dviSim. imAn. dazaivopadizantyaniDvidhau gaNeSu SAntAn kRSikarSatI tathA. zeSTA. peSTA. zoSTa. poSTA. tveSTA. veSTA. zleSTa. toSTA. doSTA. dveSTA. kraSTa. karSTA. kRSestaudAdikasya bhauvAdikasya ca kRSikarSatI iti nirdezaH.

KAZIKA tapiM tipiM cApimatho vapiM svapiM lipiM lupiM tRpyatidRpyatI sRpim.

KAZIKA svareNa vIcena zapiM chupiM kSipiM pratIhi pAntAn paThitAMstrayodaza. taptA. teptA. AptA. vaptA. svaptA. leptA. loptA. tRpyatidRpyatyoranudAttatvamamAgamArthameva. iT tvanayoH radhAdipAThAd vikalpena bhavati. traptA, tarptA, tarpitA. draptA, darptA, darpitA. tudAdiSu tu yau tRpidRpI tAvudattAveva. sraptA, sarptA. zaptA. choptA. kSeptA.

KAZIKA adiM hadiM skandibhidicchidikSudIn zadiM sadiM svidyatipad yatI khidim.

KAZIKA tudiM nudiM vidyati vinta ityapi pratIhi dAntAn daza paJca cAniTaH. attA. hattA. skantA. bhettA. chettA. kSottA. zattA. sattA. svettA. svidyati iti zyanA nirdezo JiSvidA ityasya grahaNaM mA bhUtiti. udAtta eva ayam. pattA. khettA. tottA. nottA. vettA. vidyati vinta ityapi zyanA znamA ca nirdezo 'nyavikaraNanivRttyarthaH. vettivindatI udAttau eva. veditA vidyAnAm. veditA dhanAnAm.

KAZIKA paciM vaciM viciriciraJjipRcchatIn nijiM siciM mucibhajibhaJjibhRjjAtIn.

KAZIKA tyajiM yajiM yujirujisaJjimajjatIn bhujiM svajiM sRjimRjI viddhyaniTsvarAn. paktA. vaktA. vivektA. rektA. raGktA. praSTA. nirNektA. sektA. moktA. bhaktA. bhaGktA. bhraSTA, bharSTA. tyaktA. yaSTA. yoktA. roktA. saGktA. maGktA. bhoktA. pariSvaktA. sraSTA. mArSTA. mRjirayamUdit paThyate, tato 'sya vikalpena iTA bhavitavyam. mArSTA, marjitA iti, amAgamo 'pyasya na dRzyate? tadiha pAThasya prayojanaM cintyam. kecidasya sthAne vijiM paThanti, sRjiM vijiM viddhyaniTsvarAniti. nijAdiSu yo vijirasau aniDiSyate. tathA ca tantrAntare nijivijiSvaJjivarjam ityuktam. ekAca iti kim? avadhIt. vRddhinivRttyarthamadanto vidhirupadizyate. upadezagrahaNaM kim? iha ca yathA syAt, laviSyati, paciSyati. iha ca mA bhUt, kartA kaTAn, kartum iti.

943 letters. -- 72.bse 489 -- popularity 5

655 Erase !a before @soft.

656 /Ni to (/lopa) before [/iT]-less (@soft).

791 /valAdi /liT gets /iT after all roots but !kR !sR !bhR !vR !stu !dru !sru !zru.

1332 /ekAc is what has exactly one /ac.




(zryukaHkiti) (!zr)

zry;ukaH kiti ONPANINI 72011
uk-enders and zri (are aniT) before kit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 789 iT

So the root zri "serve" 01.1044 is aniT before kit affixes, --

zri + ktvA → * zritvA "after serving"

and seT before the akit --

zri + tRc ArdhadhAtukasyeD zri + itRc hardsoft zre + itR ecoya zrayitR- "server"

KAZIKA zri ity etasya uk-antAnAM ca kiti pratyaye parataH iD-Agamo na bhavati. zri zritvA. zritaH. zritavAn. ugantAnAM ca yutvA. yutaH. yutavAn. lUtvA. lUnaH. lUnavAn. vRtvA. vRtaH. vRtavAn. tIrtvA. vIrNaH. tIrNavAn. zryukaH iti kim? viditaH. kiti iti kim? zrayitA. zrayitum. zrayitavyam. kecid atra dvikakAra-nirdezena gakAraprazleSaM varnayanti, bhUSNuH ity evaM yathA syAt. sautratvAc ca nirdezasya zryukaH kiti ity atra cartvasya asiddhatvamanAzritya rorutvaM na kRtam visarjanIyazca kRtaH iti. glAjisthazca ksnuH ity atra sthA A ityAkAraprazleSeNa sthAsnoH siddhatvAn na kiMcidetat. upadeze ityeva, tIrNa ityatra api yathA syAt. itve hi kRte raparatve cana syAt. mA bhUdevam. iT sani veti vikalpe vihite yasya vibhASeti niSThAyAM pratiSedho bhaviSyati? kasya punaH sA vibhASA? RRtaH. yadyevam itve hi kRte na ayam RRkarAnto bhaviSyati? sthAnivadbhAvAd bhaviSyati. analvidhau sthAnivadbhAvaH, alvidhizcAyam? tasmAdanuvartayitavyam upadeze iti. tathA ca sati jAgaritaH, jAgaritavAnityatra api prApnoti, tadartham ekAcaH ityanuvartayitavyam. UrNotes tu vAcya UrNorNuvadbhAvo yaGprasiddhiH prayojanam. Amazca pratiSedhArtham ekAcazceDupagrahAt. prorNutaH. prorNutavAn.

117 letters. -- 72B.bse 1 -- popularity 3

799 !svR, !sUti, !sUyati, !dhUJ, and the /Udit are /veT.




(sanigraha) (!sani)

sani graha-guhoz ca ONPANINI 72012
san (doesn't get iT after) grah, guh, (zri and uk-enders).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 790 iT

So, even though bhU grah are seT, we get no iSan here --

bhU + san sanyaGoH bhU + bhU + sa hrasvaH bhu + bhU + sa abhyAsecarca bu + bhU + sa kric bubhUSa "want to be"

grah + san rudavida grah + (k)sa grahijyA gRh + sa sanyaGoH gR + gRh + sa urat ga + gRh + sa kuhozcu ja + gRh + sa sanyataH ji + gRh + sa hoDhaH jigRDh + sa ekAcoba jighRDhsa SaDhoHkassi jighRkSa "want to grab"

As in --

jighRkSa + laT tipjighRkSati "he wants to take"

See also exception iTsanivA below.

KAZIKA graha guha ityetayoH ugantAnAM ca sani pratyaye parataH iDAgamo na bhavati. jighRkSati. jughukSati. ugantAnAM ca rurUSati. lulUSati. sanIvantardhabhrasjadambhuzrisvRyUurNubharajJapi sanAm 72049 iti vikalpavidhAnAt zrayatiratra na anukRsyate. graher nityaM prAptaH. guheH UditvAd vikalpaH.

236 letters. -- 72B.bse 68 -- popularity 2




(kRsRbhRvR) (!kRs)

kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zruvo liTi ONPANINI 72013
valAdi liT gets iT after all roots but kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 791 iT

Exception to ekAca::u, which would have made the roots get iT or not depending on whether they are seT or aniT.

Therefore: a valAdi liT gets no iT after kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru, even though some of those are seT --

kR + liT maskR + macakR + macakRma "we made"

zru + liT mas → .. → zuzruma "we heard"

and gets iT after all other roots, even the aniT roots like kSip --

kSip + liT mahicikSipimahe "we threw"

This rule has dozens of exceptions, most of which affect thal. So thal will get iT always after some roots, never after others, and optionally after others. eg, thal gets iT optionally after pac --

pac + liT thalpac + thal → .. → papaktha "they say you cooked"

pac + liT thalpac + ithal → .. → pecitha "they say you cooked"

Do not lose sleep trying to learn the iT rules of the liT. You'll seldom need to know them, because non-third person liT is VERY uncommon .

KAZIKA kR sR bhR vR stu dru sru zru ityeteSAM liTi pratyaye iDAgamo na bhavati. kR cakRva, cakRma. sR sasRva, sasRma. bhR babhRva, babhRma. vRJ vavRva, vavRma. vRG vavRvahe, vavRmahe. stu tuSTuva, tuSTuma. dru dudruva, dudruma. sru susruva, susruma. zru zuzruva, zuzruma. siddhe satyArambho niyamarthaH , krAdaya eva liTi aniTaH, tato 'nye seTaH iti. bibhidiva, bibhidima. luluviva, luluvima. anudAttopadezAnAm atra prakRtyAzrayaH pratiSedhaH, vRJvRGostu prtyayAzrayaH, tadubhayasya apyayaM niyamaH. vRJo hi thali vavartha iti nipAtanAd vyavasthA. studrusruzruvAM tu Rto bhAradvAjasya ityasmAdapi niyamAt ya iT prApnoti so 'pi neSyate. tuSTotha. dudrotha susrotha. zuzrotha. kRJo 'suTkasya iti vaktavyam. sasuTkasya iDagamo yathA syAt. saJcaskariva, saJcaskarima. Rto bhAradvAjasya ity etad apy asuTkasya eva iSyate, saJcaskaritha.

646 letters. -- 72B.bse 106 -- popularity 10




(zvIditoni) (!zvI)

zv';Idito niSThAyAm ONPANINI 72014
niSThA (don't get iT) after Idit roots or zvi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 792 iT

Exception to ArdhadhAtukasyeD.

Example with the seT roots zvi (Tuo~)zvi "swell" 01.1165 (a yaj-class root)

zvi + kta oditazca zvi + kna vacisvapi zu + na- halaH zUna- "swelled, swollen (esp. morbidly), increased, grown"

Example with the seT root dIp dIp(I) "shine" 04.0045 --

dIp + ktadIpta- "lighted up, shining"

KAZIKA zvayater Iditaz ca niSThAyAm iDAgamo na bhavati. zUnaH. zUnavAn. IditaH olajI lagnaH. lagnavAn. ovijI udvignaH. udvignavAn. oditazceti niSthAtakArasya nakAraH. dIpI dIptaH. dIptavAn. DIGastvoditAM madhye pATho jJApako niSThAyAm aniT-tvasya. sa hi natvArthaH, natvaM ca niSthAto 'nantarasya vidhIyate. uDDInaH. uDDInavAn. niSThAyAm ityadhikAraH ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH iti yAvat.

199 letters. -- 72B.bse 166 -- popularity 1




(yasyavibhA) (!yasya)

yasya vibhASA ONPANINI 72015
( niSThA doesn't get iT) after roots after which other affixes get iT optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 793 iT

Example --

(1) After the seT root dhU dhU(J) "shake" 09.0020, the affix tumun gets iT optionally (by svaratisUti).

(2) Therefore, kta and ktavatu do not get iT after dhu(J)

vidhUta- "was tossed about"

vidhUtavat- "he tossed about"

Small exception. After tan pat daridrA, the affix san gets iT optionally, by a vArttika to sanIvanta. Yet, this rule does not work on those three --

pat + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD patita "fallen"

KAZIKA yasya dhAtoH vibhASA kvacid iD-uktaH, tasya niSThAyAM parataH iD-Agamo na bhavati. vakSyati svaratisUtisUyatidhUJUdito vA. vidhUtaH. vidhUtavAn. guhU gUDhaH. gUDhavAn. udito vA vRdhu vRddhaH. vRddhavAn. tanipatidaridrANAm upasaGkhyAnam iti pater vibhASiteTkasya api dvitIyAzritAtItapatita 21024 ti nipAtanAtiDAgamaH.

296 letters. -- 72B.bse 198 -- popularity 3

648 !n of /aJcu stays when it means worshipping

789 [/uk]-enders and !zri (are /aniT) before /kit.

801 (/ktvA /kta /ktavatu get /iT) after /aJcu that means 'honoring'.




(kRcchragaha) (!kRc)

kRcchra;gahanayoH kaSaH ONPANINI 72022
kaS (won't get iT before niSThA) when meaning painful or impenetrable.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 794

The root kaS 01.0781 "hurt" is seT, so kta should get iT after it. But because of this exception, there is no iT here --

kaSTaM vyAkaraNam "grammar is awfully hard"

kaSTAni vanAni "deep jungles"

Or in the curse --

kaSTam "argh!"

But in other senses, kaS gets iT as usual --

kaSitaM suvarNam "tested gold"

KAZIKA kRcchra gahana ityetayorarthayoH kaSer dhAtoH niSThAyAm iDAgamo na bhavati. kaSTo 'gniH. kaSTaM vyAkaraNam. tato 'pi kaSTatarANi sAmAni. kRcchraM duHkham, tatkAraNam apyagnyAdikaM kRcchram ityucyate. gahane kaSTAni vanAni. kaSTAH parvatAH. kRcchragahanayoH iti kim? kaSitaM suvarNam.

223 letters. -- 72B.bse 305 -- popularity none




(/iT) (/iT)

ArdhadhAtukasyeD val-AdeH ONPANINI 72035
valAdi soft gets iTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 795 iT

iT is a titaugment.

Therefore, the soft affixes tum(un) (k)ta (k)tvA sya, which start with the val letters t s, will be replaced with itum ita itva isya after most roots. Like this --

car + tumun → * car + ( iT + tumun ) → caritum "to move"

car + kta → * car + ( iT + kta) → carita- "moved"

car + ktvA → * car + ( iT + ktvA) → car + itvAcaritvA "moved and"

bhU + sya + tip → * bhU + ( iT + sya) + ti kric bhU + iSya + ti hardsoft bho + iSya + ti ecoya bhaviSyati "will be"

See also exception ekAca::u.

306 letters. -- 72B.bse 320 -- popularity 63




(graholiTi) (!graho)

graho 'liTi dIrghaH ONPANINI 72037
After grah, lengthen ( iT), unless in a liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 796 iT

As in --

grah + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD grah + ita grahijyA gRh + ita → * gRhIta- "taken"

grah + ktvA → .. → gRhItvA "grabbed and"

grah + tRc → .. → grahItR- "grabber"

grah + tumun → .. → grahItum "to take"

grah + tavya → .. → grahItavya- "should be taken"

The iT of liT affixes is unaffected --

grah + liT mas ArdhadhAtukasyeD grah + ima → .. → jagRhima "we took"

Careful. This rule lengthens the normal iT from ArdhadhAtukasyeD, but not the ciNvadiT from syasicsIyu --

grah + karmaNi lRT tagrah + sya + ta syasicsIyu grah + isya + ta Tita grahisyate kric grahiSyate "it will be taken"

KAZIKA grahaH uttarasya iTaH aliTi dIrgho bhavati. grahItA. grahItum. grahItavyam. aliTi iti kim? jagRhiva. jagRhim. prakRtasyeTo dIrghatvamidam, ciNvadiTo na bhavati. grAhitA. hrAhiSyate.

350 letters. -- 72B.bse 345 -- popularity 5

70 (/ktvA) and /san (are /kit) after {rud vid muS} /grah /svap !pracch.

797 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

1197 /grah "take, grab, accept"




(vRRtovA) (!vq)

v'-RRto vA ONPANINI 72038
(Lengthen iT) optionally after RR-enders, vRG and vRJ (unless in a liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 797 iT

Addition to graho 'liTi dIrghaH above. The lenghtening that is compulsory after grah is optional after RR-enders, vRG, vRJ.

Examples with RR-enders --

tRR + tRc → .. → taritR- "crosser"

tRR + tRc → .. → taritR- → * tarItR- "crosser"

Examples with vRG "serve" 09.0045 vRJ "choose" 05.0008 --

varitR- "chooser"

varItR- "chooser"

As in

bhikSavo na varItAro varanti khalu grAhakAH

As we got aliTi from the trickle, this rule won't work on liT affixes, so no lengthening allowed here --

vR + thal → .. → vavaritha "you chose"

tRR + thal → .. → teritha "you crossed"

KAZIKA vR iti vRG-vRJoH sAmAnyena grahaNam. tasmAd uttarasya RRkAr%Antebhyaz ca iTo vA dIrgho bhavati. varitA, varItA. prAvaritA, prAvarItA. RRkArAntebhyaH taritA, tarItA. AstaritA, AstarItA. vRRtaH iti kim? karSyati. hariSyati. aliTi ity eva, vavaritha. teritha.

As a curiosity, the vRRtas word in the rule means "after RR-enders, vRG and vRJ". It comes from --

vR + RRt + Gasi akassa vRRtas

Here --

vR means "vRG and vRJ",

RRt means RR (by tapara),

RR means RR-enders by yenavidhi,

and Gasi means "after" by tasmAd ity uttarasya.

I don't think I ever saw akassa work on RR anywhere else.

615 letters. -- 72B.bse 366 -- popularity 4

74 Same after !R !q.

798 /san gets /iT optionally (after {q}-enders and !vR).

808 (/san gets /iT) after {kq gq dRG dhRG praccH}.




(iTsanivA) (!iTs)

iT sani vA ONPANINI 72041
san gets iT optionally (after RR-enders and vR).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 798 iT

Rule sanigraha says that san is ordinarily iT-less after all uk-enders. By this exception, iT is optional after all RR ender roots (such as tRR) and after the root vR.

When we choose to add iT, rule ikojhal can no longer work, so the iSan is not kit and triggers hardsoft --

tRR + san → * tRR + iSan hardsoft tar + iSan sanyaGo tatariSa sanyataH titariSa "want to cross"

also, optional rule vRRtovA applies --

titariSa vRRtovA titarISa "want to cross"

If we choose to not add iT we get --

tRR + san ikojhal tRR + ksan RRta::iddhAtoH tir + ksan halica tIrsa sanyaGoH titIrsa kric titIrSa "want to cross"

So there are three options for tRR + san + laT tip --

titariSati "wants to cross"

titarISati "wants to cross"

titIrSati "wants to cross"

And three for vRR --

vivariSate

vivarISate

vuvUrSate

This rule has an exception: after kRR gRR, san gets iT compulsorily. See kirazca below.

KAZIKA vRRtasH sani vA iDAgamo bhavati. vuvUrSate, vivariSate, vivarISate. prAvuvUrSati, prAvivariSati, prAvivarISati. RRkArAntebhyaH titIrSati, titariSati, titarISati. AtistIrSate, AtistariSate, AtistarISate| sanigrahaguhozca 72012 iti iTpratiSedhe prApte pakSe iDAgamo vidhIyate. iTazca vRRtovA 72038 iti pakSe dIrghaH| cikIrSati, jihIrSati ity atra upadezAdhikArAt lAkSaNikatvAc ca iDAgamo na bhavati|

598 letters. -- 72B.bse 428 -- popularity 3

789 [/uk]-enders and !zri (are /aniT) before /kit.




(svaratisU) (/Ud)

svarati;sUti; sUyati;dhUJ;Udito vA ONPANINI 72044
svR, sUti, sUyati, dhUJ, and the Udit are veT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 799 iT

These roots can make their valAdi affixes get iT --

dhU(J) + tA ArdhadhAtukasyeD dhU + itA hardsoft dho + itA ecoya dhavitA "he will shake"

gup(U) + tum(un) ArdhadhAtukasyeD gup + itum puganta gopitum "to protect"

Or not --

dhU(J) + tA hardsoft dhotA "he will shake"

gup(U) + tum(un) puganta goptum "to protect"

The word Udit here means the roots that have U label in the dhAtupATha, such as gup(U) 01.0461 "hide, protect, rule".

See the kAzikA for more examples.

KAZIKA svarati sUti sUyati dhUJ ity etebhyaH, Udidbhyaz ca uttarasya valAderArdhadhAtukasya vA iDAgamo bhavati. svartA, svaritA. sUti prasotA, prasavitA. sUyati sotA, savitA. dhUJ dhotA, dhavitA. UdhidbhyaH khalvapi gAhU vigADhA, vigAhitA. gupU goptA, gopitA. vA iti vartamane punar vAgrahaNaM liGsicor nivRttyartham. sUtisUyatyor vikaraNanirdezaH SU preraNe ityasya nivRttyarthaH. dhUJiti sAnubandhakasya nirdeso dhU vidhUnane ityasay nivRtty arthaH. savitA, dhuvitA ityeva nityam etayor bhavati. svarateretasmAd vikalpAt RddhanoH sye ityetad bhavati vipratiSedhena. svariSyati. kiti tu pratyaye zryukaH kiti iti nityaH pratiSedho bhavati pUrvavipratiSedhena. svRtvA. sUtvA. dhUtvA.

270 letters. -- 72B.bse 482 -- popularity 1

793 (/niSThA doesn't get /iT) after roots after which other affixes get /iT optionally.




(sanIvanta) (!sanI)

san/Ivanta;rdha;bhrasja;dambhu;zri;svR;yUrNu;bhara;jJapi;sanAm ONPANINI 72049
san (gets iT optionally) after iv-enders, Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR and jJapi-san.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 800

Examples --

yu + san → * yu + iSan hardsoft yo + iSa ecoya yaviSa sanyaGoH yayaviSa sanyataH yiyaviSa "want to yoke"

yu + san ikojhal yu + sa(k) ajjhana yU + sa sanyaGoH yuyUsa kric yuyUSa "want to yoke"

See dambha::icca for the examples dhipsati dhIpsati didambhiSati, and see the kAzikA for the other examples.

KAZIKA ivantAnAM dhAtUnAm, Rdhu bhrasja dambhu zri svR yu UrNu bhara jJapi san ity eteSAM ca sani vA iD-Agamo bhavati. ivantAnAm dideviSati, dudyUSati. siseviSati, susyUSati. Rdhu ardidhiSati, Irtsati. bhrasja bibhrajjiSati, bibhrakSati, bibharjjiSati, bibharkSati. dambhu didambhiSati, dhipsati, dhIpsati. zri ucchizrayiSati, ucchizrISati. svR sisvariSati, susvUrSati. yu yiyaviSati, yuyUSati. UrNu prorNunaviSati, prorNunaviSati, prorNunUSati. bhara iti bhRJityetasya bhauvAdikasya grahaNam, zapA nirdezAt. vibhariSati, bubhUrSati. jJapi jijJapayiSati, jJIpsaTi. san sisaniSati, siSAsati. kecidatra bharajJapisanitanipatidaridrANAm iti paThanti. tani titaniSati, titaMsati, titAMsati. pati pipatiSati, pitsati. daridrA didaridriSati, didaridrAsati. sani iti kim? devitA. bhraSTA.

181 letters. -- 72B.bse 511 -- popularity 2

793 (/niSThA doesn't get /iT) after roots after which other affixes get /iT optionally.




(aJceHpUjA) (!aJ)

aJceH pUjAyAm ONPANINI 72053
( ktvA kta ktavatu get iT) after aJcu that means 'honoring'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 801 iT

So, we get aJcitvA aJcita- aJcitavat(u)- compulsorily.

Example --

aJcu + kta → * aJcita- "was honored, whorshipped, hospitably received"

as in

aJcitA asya guravaH "his teachers were honored"

This is an exception to yasyavibhASA (that would make the iT optional on kta ktavatu) and to uditovA (that would forbid iT on ktvA).

When the root aJcu does not mean "to honor", this rule won't work. As in ud + aJcu "draw up" --

ud + aJcu + kta → .. → udakta- "was drawn up"

as in

udaktam udakaGM kUpAt "water was drawn up from the well"

This rule sounds a lot like n' .AJceH pUjAyAm, so be careful.

KAZIKA aJceH pUjAyAm arthe ktvA-niSThayoH iDAgamo bhavati. aJcitvA jAnu juhoti. aJcitA asya guravaH. udito veti ktvA-pratyaye vikalpaH prAptaH, niSThAyAm yasya vibhASeti pratiSedhaH prAptaH, tadartham idaM prArabdham. pUjAyAm iti kim? udaktam udakaM kUpAt. uddhRtam ity arthaH.

Mnemonic --

adbhiH kUpAd udaktAbhir asmAbhir guravo 'JcitAH "and we drew water from the well and honored our gurus with it"

533 letters. -- 72B.bse 536 -- popularity 1




(uditovA) (!udi)

udito vA ONPANINI 72056
After udit root ( ktvA gets iT) optionallymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 802 iT

After a root that is udit in the dhAtupATha, ktvA can get iT or not.

Example: the seT root tam means to wish, and it is listed as tam tam(u) in 04.0099. So we can say either --

tam(u) + ktvA ArdhadhAtukasyeD tamitvA "after wishing"

, or --

tam(u) + ktvA → * tamtvA nazcA taMtvA anusvA tantvA "got tired and"

where this rule prevented ArdhadhAtukasyeD.

KAZIKA udito dhAtoH ktvA-pratyaye parato vA iD-Agamo bhavati. zamu zamitvA, zAntvA. tamu tamitvA, tAntvA. damu damitvA, dAntvA.

229 letters. -- 72B.bse 569 -- popularity 2

793 (/niSThA doesn't get /iT) after roots after which other affixes get /iT optionally.

801 (/ktvA /kta /ktavatu get /iT) after /aJcu that means 'honoring'.




(acastAsva) (!acas)

acas tAsvat thaly aniTo nityam ONPANINI 72061
After a vowel, thal won't get iT if tAs never gets iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 803 iT

BEGINNERS BEWARE -- you do not need to learn any of the thal rules until next year, because they are needed once in a blue moon.

This is an exception to kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zru, that makes thal get iT after most roots.

Examples. Root nI ends in a vowel never makes tAs get iT (we say netA for "he shal lead, never nayitA). Therefore, thal doesn't get iT after nI, even though kRsR says it should --

nI + liT sipnI + thal hardsoft ne + tha liTidhA ne + ne + tha hrasvaH ninetha "thou led"

Because of RtobhAradvAjasya below, this rule is optional if the root does not end in R. So we can still say --

nI + liT sipnI + thal kRsR nI + ithal hardsoft ne + itha liTidhA ne + ne + itha hrasvaH ni + ne + itha ecoya ni + nay + ithaninayitha "thou led"

When the root ends in R this rule is compulsory --

sasmartha "you remembered"

KAZIKA tAsau ye nityAniTo dhAtavaH ajantAH, tebhyastAsAviva thali iDAgamo na bhavati. yAtA yayAtha. cetA cicetha. netA ninetha. hotA juhotha. acaH iti kim? bhettA bibheditha. tAsvatiti kim? lUtvA lulavitha. thali iti kim? yAtA yayiva. yayima. aniDgrahaNaM nityam ityanena vizeSaNArtham. nityagrahaNaM kim? vidhotA, vidhavitA vidudhavitha. tAsi vibhASiteT, thali nityam iDAgamo bhavati. tAsvatiti vatinirdezaH kimarthaH? tAsau tatasthali pratiSedhArthaH. yo hi tAsAvasan, asattvAc ca nityAniT, tasya thali pratiSedho na bhavati. jaghasitha. uvayitha. uttarasUtre 'pi tAsvaditi vartate. adAdezo hi ghasiH, veJAdezazca vayistAsau na asti.

559 letters. -- 72B.bse 589 -- popularity 2




(upadeze) (!upade)

upadeze 'tvataH ONPANINI 72062
( thal gets no iT) after a root that has a in the dhAtupATha (and never makes tAs get iT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 804 iT

Example. pac has a inside, and its luT is paktAsmi "I shall cook". So, this rule allows thal to not be affected by kRsR --

pac + liT sippac + thal liTidhA papac + tha coHkuH papaktha "thou cooked"

Because of RtobhAradvAjasya below, this rule is always optional. So we can still make kRsR work --

pac + liT sippac + thal kRsR pac + ithal liTidhA papac + itha thalicaseTi pecitha "thou cooked"

The root has to have a in its dhAtupATha form. So, this rule will not work on kRS when puganta makes it into karS --

kRS + liT sipkRs + thal kRsR kRS + ithal → .. → cakarSitha "thou pulledest"

KAZIKA upadeze yo dhAturakAravAn tAsau nityAniT tasmAt tAsAviva thali iDAgamo na bhavati. paktA papaktha. yaSTA iyaSTha. zaktA zazaktha. upadeze iti kim? karSTA cakarSitha. atvataH iti kim? bhettA vibheditha. taparakaraNaM kim? rAddhA rarAdhitha. tAsvatityeva, jighRkSati. jagrahitha. nityam aniTaH ityeva, aGktA, aJjitA AnaJjitha.

395 letters. -- 72B.bse 630 -- popularity 2




(RtobhAra) (!Rtob)

Rto bhAradvAjasya ONPANINI 72063
The two previous rules are optional after non-R.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 805 iT

See the two previous rules, acastAsvat and upadezetvataH, for examples.

KAZIKA RkArAntAd ghAtoH bhAradvAjasya acAryasya matena tAsAviva nityAniTasthali iDAgamo na bhavati. smartA sasmartha. dhvartA dadhvartha. siddhe satyArambho niyamArthaH, Rta eva bhAradvAjasya, nAnyeSAM dhAtUnAm. yayitha. vavitha. pecitha. zekitha. tadayam arthAt pUrvayoH yogayorvikalpaH. taparakaraNam RkArAntasya nivRttyartham. tathA hi sati vidhyartham etat syAt.

59 letters. -- 72B.bse 661 -- popularity 3

791 /valAdi /liT gets /iT after all roots but !kR !sR !bhR !vR !stu !dru !sru !zru.




(Rddhanossye) (!Rdd)

Rd;dhanoH sye ONPANINI 72070
sya (gets iT) after R-enders and han.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 806 iT

Example after R-ender --

kR + lRT tipkR + sya + ti hardsoft kar + sya + ti → * kariSyati "he will make"

Example after han --

han + lRT miphan + sya + mi → * han + iSya + mi atodIrghoyaJi haniSyAmi "I will kill"

KAZIKA RkArAntAnAM dhAtUnAM hantezca sye iDAgamo bhavati. kariSyati. hariSyati. hanisyati. svarater veTtvAtRddhanoH sye ityetad bhavati vipratiSedhena. svariSyati. taparakaraNaM vispaSTArtham.

119 letters. -- 72B.bse 706 -- popularity 4

347 /lRT to /sat optionally.

799 !svR, !sUti, !sUyati, !dhUJ, and the /Udit are /veT.




(yamarama) (@sis)

yama;rama;nam;AtAM sak ca ONPANINI 72073
yam ram nam, and A-enders, get sak (before flat luG, and the sic gets iT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 807 iT

Verbs with s(ak) + iSic are called " sis-aorist" or "six-aorist" ("aor [6]" in inria, see aorist types ). They are just an iSic aorist that adds s after the root.

Examples with nam and with yA, an A-ender root --

nam + luG jhi → .. → anam + iSic + us → * anams + iS + us nazcA anaMsiSus "they bowed"

yA + luG jhi → * yAs + iSic + jhi → .. → ayAsiSus "they went"

As always, iTa::ITi works before It''' Is''' --

nam + luG tip → .. → anams + iS + It''' iTa::ITi anams + ItanaMsIt "he bowed"

yA + luG sip → .. → ayAs + iS + Is''' iTa::ITi ayAs + IsayAsIs "you went"

KAZIKA yama rama nama ityeSAm aGgAnAm AkArAntAnAM ca sagAgamo bhavati parasmaipade sici, iDAgamazca. yam ayaMsIt, ayaMsiSTAm ayaMsiSTAM, ayaMsiSuH. ram araMsIt, araMsiSTAm, araMsiSuH. nam anaMsIt, anaMsiSTAm anaMsiSuH. akArAntAnAm ayAsIt, ayAsiSTAm, ayAsiSuH. yamAdInAM halantalakSaNA vRddhiH prAptA sA neTi pratiSidhyate. parasmaipadeSu ityeva, ayaMsta. araMsta. anaMsta.

344 letters. -- 72B.bse 738 -- popularity 3

408 (/jhi to /jus) after /sic, @stammered, /vid.




(kirazcapa) (!kir)

kirazca paJcabhyaH ONPANINI 72075
( san gets iT) after kRR gRR dRG dhRG praccH.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 808 iT

All examples --

kRR + san + laT tip → * kR + iSan + ti → .. → cikariSati "wants to scatter"

gRRjigariSati

dRGdidariSate

dhRGdidhariSate

praccHpipracchiSati

KAZIKA kirAdibhyaH paJcabhyaH sani iDAgamo bhavati. kRR cikariSati. gRR jigariSati. dRG didariSate. dhRG didhariSate. praccH pitracchiSati. paJcabhyaH iti kim? sisRkSati. kiratigiratyoH iT sani veti vikalpaH prAptaH, vRRto veti ca. asyeTo dIrghatvaM na icchanti.

113 letters. -- 72B.bse 770 -- popularity 2

70 (/ktvA) and /san (are /kit) after {rud vid muS} /grah /svap !pracch.




(rudAdibhya) (!rud)

rudAdibhyaH sArvadhAtuke ONPANINI 72076
( val) hard (gets iT) after rud svap zvas prAN jakS.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 809 iT

These are the lukclass roots from 02.0062 to 02.0066.

rud + laT tip → * rud + ( tip + iT ) Adyantau rud + itip puganta roditi "cries"

rud + loT siprud + hi''' → * rud + ihi puganta rodihi "cry!"

svap + laT tip → * svap + itisvapiti "sleeps"

zvasiti "breathes, pants, hisses"

prANiti "breathes"

jakSiti "eats"

This rule won't work on a soft --

svap + tRcsvaptR- "sleeper"

Nor on a yac-starter --

rud + jhirud + anti'''rudanti "they cry"

KAZIKA rudAdibhyaH uttarasya valAdeH sArvadhAtukasya iD-Agamo bhavati. rud roditi. svap svapiti. zvas zvasiti. an prANiti. jakS jakSiti. paJcabhyaH ity eva, jAgarti. sArvadhAtuke iti kim? svaptA. valAdeH ity eva, rudanti.

273 letters. -- 72B.bse 807 -- popularity 3

680 ({iT}less) /hi''' to !dhi after /hu and @serious.

877 (Consonant /pit) gets /IT after /brU.




(liGassalo) (!liGa)

liGaH sa-lopo 'n-antyasya ONPANINI 72079
hard liG loses nonfinal s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 810

Example with flat --

dviS + @hard liG t''' yAsuTpa dviS + yAst → * dviS + yAt'''dviSyAt "he'd hate"

Example with flat tip after a --

bhU + @hard liG t''' kartarizap bhava + t''' yAsuTpa bhava + yAst atoyeyaH bhava + iyst → * bhava + iyt lopovyo bhava + it AdguNaH bhavet "he'd be"

Examples with bent ta --

dviS + @hard liG ta liGassI dviS + sIyta → * dviS + Iyta lopovyo dviSIta "he'd hate"

plu + @hard liG taplava + ta liGassI plava + sIyta → * plava + Iyta AdguNaH plaveyta lopovyo plaveta "he'd jump"

Back to bent hard liG rules .

301 letters. -- 72C.bse 1 -- popularity 9

404 (/liG) /jha to /ran.

405 /liG /iT' to /a'.

407 (/liG) /jhi to {(j)us}.

575 (Delete !A !a) before /us /jus.

1112 Formation of @flat @hard /liG.




(atoyeyaH) (/ey)

ato yeyaH ONPANINI 72080
yA (of hard yAsuT) to iy after a, .mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 811

The flat affixes of the hard liG ordinarily get yA added in front by yAsuTpa and liGassa.

dviS + @hard liG tipdviS + t'''dviS + yAt yAsuT dviSyAt "he would hate"

But by this exception, when they follow a, they get iy in front instead of yA --

paca + @hard liG tippaca + t''' → * paca + iyt lopovyo paca + it AdguNaH pacet "he would cook"

Notice that the a will always combine with the i of the affix by AdguNaH. And the y disappears by lopovyo before all affixes except the ones that start with vowels, am''' and (j)us --

paca + @hard liG mippaca + am''' → * paca + iyam AdguNaH paceyam "I'd cook"

paca + @hard liG jhi jherjus paca + (j)us → * paca + iyus AdguNaH paceyus "they'd cook"

KAZIKA akArAntAtaGgAduttarasya yA ity etasya sArvadhAtukasya iy ity ayam Adezo bhavati, pacet, pacetAm, paceyuH iti. atra usy apadAntAt iti pararUpaM bAdhitam. ataH iti kim? cinuyAt. sunuyAt. taparakaraNam kim? yAyAt. sArvadhAtuka ityeva, cikIrSyAt. nanu ca ato lopaH ity anenAtra bhavitavyam, pacetityatra api hi tarhi ato dIrgho yaJi iti dIrghatvena bhavitavyam, tadanena avazyaM vidhyantaraM bAdhitavyam, sa yathaiva dIrghasya bAdhakaH evam ato lopasya api bAdhakaH syAt? syAdetadevaM yadi dIrghaH sArvadhAtuke vidhIyate. atha tu tiGi vidhIyate, tadA yena nAprAptinyAyena dIrghasyaiva bAdhakaH syAn na punarato lopasya. yeyaH ityavibhaktiko nirdezaH. yaH iti vA SaSThInirdeze yalopasya asiddhatvamanAzritya AdguNaH kRtaH, sautratvAn nirdezasya iti. kecid atra ato yAsiyaH iti sUtraM pathanti. teSAM sakArAntaH sthAnI, SaSThIsamAsazca.

464 letters. -- 72C.bse 62 -- popularity 3

1113 formation of the @flat @hard /liG after !a




(AtoGitaH) (!AtoG)

Ato GitaH ONPANINI 72081
Merge a with the A of AtAm AthAm into e.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 812

Examples --

vand + zap + laG AthAm luGlaG avanda + AthAm → * avandethAm "both of you praised"

plu + zap + laT AtAmplava + AtAm Tita plava + Ate''' → * plavete "both jump"

dRz + yak + laT AthAm Tita dRzya + Athe''' → * dRzyethe "you two are being seen"

KAZIKA AkArasya Gidavayavasya akArAntAdaGgAduttarasya sArvadhAtukasya iyityayam Adezo bhavati. pacete pacethe. pacetAm. pacethAm. yajete. yajethe. yajetAm. yajethAm. sArvadhAtukam apid ity atra na GitIva Gidvatityevam aGgIkriyate, api tu Gita iva Gidvatiti. pUrvasUtra eva uccukuTiSati iti prasiddhaye tathAGgIkaraNam. yadi gAGkuTAdi sUtre Gita iva Gidvad bhavati ity evam aGgIkriyate, tadA anudAttaGita Atmanepadam ity AtmanepadaM prApnoti iti. AtaH iti kim? pacanti. yajanti. pacante. yajante. GitaH iti kim? pacAvahai. pacAmahai. ataH ityeva -- cinvAte. sunvAte. taparakaraNam kim? mimAte. mimAthe.

If you are curious, this rule literally translates, when we add the trickle, into

"(after a,) A of Git affix to (iy)".

which I reworded into --

"Merge a with the A of AtAm AthAm into e".

Both wordings work the same, mine is more friendly to my students.

Verifying that both wordings work the same way is left as an exercise for the student interested on these matters.

441 letters. -- 72C.bse 435 -- popularity 4

813 ({a}-enders) get /muk before /zAnac /kAnac.

1374 @bent /tiG




(Anemuk) (!Ane)

Ane muk ONPANINI 72082
(a-enders) get muk before zAnac kAnac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 813

Examples with plava, krama-, hanya-, yotsya- getting m after their a --

plu + zAnacplava + zAnac → * plavam- + AnaplavamAna- "that jump"

kram + zap + zAnackrama + Ana → * kramamAna- Natvam kramamANa- "that advances by steps"

han + yak + zAnac → * hanyamAna- "that is being attacked"

yudh + lRT lRTassadvA yudh + zAnacyudh + sya + Ana puganta yodh + sya + Ana kharica yot + sya + Ana → * yotsyamAna- "that is going to fight"

Counterexamples. No m after non-a --

dviS + zAnacdviSAna Natvam dviSANa- "that hates"

hu + zAnacjuhu + Ana huznuvossA juhvAna- "that sacrifices"

zIG + zAnac zIGassArvadhAtukeguNaH ze + Ana ecoya zayAna- "that sleeps"

bhuj + znam + zAnacbhunj + Ana nazcA bhuMjAna anusvA bhuJjAna- "that eats"

The kAnac affix is an optional vedic replacement of liT, that makes cameos in the epics once in a blue moon. Don't waste much attention on it. See kAnac for examples.

KAZIKA Ane parato 'GgasyAtaH mugAgamo bhavati. pacamAnaH. yajamAnaH. akAramAtrabhakto 'yaM mukadupadeza-grahaNena gRhyate iti ad-upadezAd iti la-sArvadhAtukAnudatta-tvaM bhavati. yady evam Ato Gita ity ayam api cidhiH prApnoti? tapara-nirdezAn na bhaviSyati. muki sati adhyardha-mAtro bhavati. la-sArvadhAtukAnudAtta-tvam api tarhi na prApnoti? na eSa doSaH. upadeza-grahaNaM tatra kriyate. tena upadezAdUrdhaM satyapi kAlabhede bhavitavyam. tathA ca pacavaH, pacAmaH ity atra api bhavati.

565 letters. -- 72C.bse 497 -- popularity 3

42 /Tit /kit go at start end.

333 (/zatR comes) after !suJ when connection with a sacrifice is meant.




(IdAsaH) (!IdA)

Id AsaH ONPANINI 72083
( zAnac to) (z)Ina(c) after As.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 814

Only example --

As + zAnac → * As + InaAsIna- "that sits"

As in --

gaur AsInaH "Sitting Bull"

KAZIKA AsaH uttarasya Anazabdasya IkArAdezo bhavati. AsIno yajate. atra paJcamyAH parasya SaSThI kalpyate.

Weird thing. The rule before this one had Ane meaning "before zAnac", which tricled here with the meaning Anasya "replace zAnac".

163 letters. -- 72C.bse 520 -- popularity 2

1232 special nounbases




(aSTanaA) (!aSTana)

aSTana:: A vibhaktau ONPANINI 72084
Optionally aSTan- to A before vibhakti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 815

Examples --

aSTan- + sup' → * aSTaA + su akassa aSTAsu "in eight"

aSTan- + jas → * aSTaA- + jas akassa aSTA- + jas aSTAbhya::auz aSTA- + au vRddhireci aSTau "eight"

If we don't take this option, aSTan- works just like paJcan- --

aSTan- + sup' nalopaHprA aSTasu

aSTan- + jas SaDbhyoluk aSTan

KAZIKA aSTano vibhaktau parataH AkArAdezo bhavati. aSTAbhiH. aSTAbhyaH. aSTAnAm. aSTAsu. vibhaktau iti kim? aSTatvam. aSTatA. A iti vyaktinirdezo 'yam. AkRtinirdeze tu nakArasthane 'nunAsikAkAraH syAt. vikalpena ayam AkAro bhavati, etaj jJApitam aSTano dIrghAd iti dIrghagrahaNAt, aSTAbhya auz iti ca kRtAtvasya nirdezAt. tena aSTabhiH, aSTabhyaH ityapi bhavati. tadantavidhizca atra iSyate. priyAH aSTau yeSAm te priyASTAnaH. priyASTau.

151 letters. -- 72C.bse 595 -- popularity 3




(rAyohali) (!rAy)

rAyo hali ONPANINI 72085
rai- to (A) before consonant ( vibhakti).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 816

As in --

rai- + su → * rAs "riches"

rai- + bhis → * rAbhis "with riches"

This rule works only on rai-, which is the only commonly used nounbase that ends in ai. So, if you make up other nounbases that end in ai, such as jedai-, this rule won't work on them --

na vareNyAni jedaibhisH sAhasAny unmadAdayaH

"excitements, adventures... such things Jedi knights must not crave"

KAZIKA rai ityetasya halAdau vibhaktau parataH AkArAdezo bhavati. rAbhyAm. rAbhiH. hali iti kim? rAyau. rAyaH. vibhaktau iti kim? raitvam. raitA. mRjer vRddhiH ity ataH prAg vibhaktyadhikAraH.

274 letters. -- 72C.bse 625 -- popularity 1




(yuSmadasmadtoAbeforeac) (!yuS)

yuSmad;asmador an-Adeze ONPANINI 72086
yuSmad- asmad- to (A before a consonant sup) that is not a replacement.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 817

After after yuSmad- asmad-, rules yuSmad;asmadbhyAMGasoz ff replace most consonant sup with az am ns abhyam at Aka, and leave only bhyAm, bhis and sup' unreplaced. So this rule replaces those three.

All examples --

yuSmad- + bhyAm yuvAvaudvivacane yuva + bhyAm → * yuvA + bhyAmyuvAbhyAm "with the two of you"

asmad- + bhyAm → .. → avAbhyAm "with the two of us"

yuSmad- + bhis → * yuSma + A + bhis akassa yuSmAbhis "with y'all"

asmAbhis "with us"

yuSmAsu "about y'all"

asmAsu "about us"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- tables .

KAZIKA yuSmad asmad ity etayoH an-Adeze vibhaktau parataH AkAr'-Adezo bhavati. yuSmAbhiH. asmAbhiH. yuSmAsu. asmAsu. anAdeze iti kim? yuSmat. asmat. hali ity adhikArAd apy atra na syAt. uttaratra tu an-Adeza-grahaNena prayojanam yo 'cIti, tad ihaiva kriyate.

360 letters. -- 72C.bse 657 -- popularity 7

818 (/yuSmad- /asmad- to !A) before @second.

821 Otherwise (/yuSmad- /asmad-) to /lopa.

1125 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @third.

1126 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @fourth.

1127 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @fifth.

1129 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @seventh.
















71078 /zatR with /num ←

chunk 39: 72009 /iT rules

→ 72087 rules for /yuSmad- /asmad-