61111 non-mergers ←

chunk 32: 63091 lengthening rules

→ 64019 cchvoz

63091 Pronoun to A . AsarvanAmnaH
63097 ap- to I after dvi-, antar, preverbs. dvyantarupasargebhyopaIt
63106 optionally before puruSa. vibhASApuruSe
63111 Lengthen a i u before deleted Dh r. DhralopepUrvasyadIrghoNaH
63112 a A of sah vah to o . sahivahorodavarNasya
63130 before mitra when it means the sage. mitrecarSau
63137 Sometimes other lengthenings are seen. anyeSAmapidRzyate
63138 before c. cau
64001 Replace stem. aGgasya
64002 after consonant. halaH
64003 before nAm. nAmi
64004 but not tisR- catasR- natisRcatasR
64006 nR nRca
64007 Nexttolast of n . nopadhAyAH
64008 before strong that is not the calling. sarvanAmasthAnecAsambuddhau
64010 of s -enders and mahat- when they got num. sAntamahatassaMyogasya
64011 of ap- tRn tRc, svasR naptR neSTR, tvaSTR kSattR hotR, potR prazastR. aptRntRcsvasRnaptRneSTRtvaSTRkSattRhotRpotRprazAstRRNAm
64012 But not in han puSan aryaman before au jas am. inhanpUSAryamNAMzau
64013 Before su too. sauca
64014 Non-rootnoun atu-as-enders . atvasantasyacAdhAtoH
64015 of nasal-enders before kvi or serious kGit. anunAsikasyakvijhaloHkGiti
64016 san lengthens vowel-enders and han gam. ajjhanagamAMsani




(AsarvanA) (!Asa)

A sarvanAmnaH ONPANINI 63091
pronoun to A (before dRz- dRza- dRkSa- vatu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 620

Examples --

tad- + dRz- + su → * ta + A + dRz + su akassa tAdRz + stAd + dRz + s halGyA tAdRz kvinpratyayasyakuH tAdRk "such a"

tad- + vatu + su → .. → tAvAn "that much"

yad- + dRza- + su → .. → yAdRza- "of whatever kind or nature"

tad- + dRkSa- + su → .. → tAdRkSas "such a"

KAZIKA sarvanAmnaH AkArAdezo bhavati dRg-dRza-vatuSu. tAdRk. tAdRzaH. tAvAn. yAdRk. yAdRzaH. yAvAn. dRkSe ceti vaktavyam. tAdRkSaH. yAdRkSaH.

dRz above is not one of the RtvigdadhR, but it has kvin here because tyadAdiSudRzo says so. That's why kvinpratyaya works on tAdRz-.

240 letters. -- 63.bse 352 -- popularity 1




(dvyantarupa) (!dvy)

dvy;antar;upasargebhyo 'pa:: It ONPANINI 63097
ap- to I after dvi-, antar, preverbs.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 621

This rule may be reworded into "the Ipa part of dvIpa- antarIpa- samIpa- means water".

Examples with dvi-, antar, and the preverb sam --

dvi + ap- → * dvi + Ip akassa dvIp RkpUra dvIpa- "island"

antar + ap → * antar + Ip RkpUra antarIpa- "island"

sam + ap → .. → samIpa- "vicinity"

Incidentally -- there is also a rule Ap;jJapy;RdhAm It that turns the root Ap "get, reach" into Ip before san.

KAZIKA dvi antarityetAbhyAM upasargAc ca uttarasya apityetasya IkArAdezo bhavati. dvIpam. antarIpam. upasargAt nIpam. vIpam. samIpam. samApa Itve pratizedho vaktavyaH. samApaM nAma devayajanam. apara Aha ItvamanavarNAd iti vaktavyam. iha mA bhUt, prApam, parApam. ap-zabdaM prati kriya-yog%AbhAvAt upasarga-grahaNaM prAdy-upalakSaN%Artham.

The word dvIpa-, that nowadays may mean "island, continent", originally meant mostly the land between two rivers. This is why it derives from dvi- + ap-, "twowaters".

383 letters. -- 63.bse 379 -- popularity 1




(vibhASApu) (!vibhASApu)

vibhASA puruSe ONPANINI 63106
( ku to kA) optionally before puruSa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 622

Only example --

kupuruSa- "miserable man, coward" → * kApuruSa- "miserable man, coward"

If the ku means ISad, then replacing with kA is compulsory --

ISat puruSa-kupuruSa- → * kApuruSa- "he's a bit of a mensch"

KAZIKA puruSa-zabde uttara-pade vibhASA koH kA ity ayam Adezo bhavati. kApuruSaH, kupuruSaH. aprAptavibhASeyam. ISad-arthe tu pUrvavipratiSedhena nityaM kA bhavati. ISat puruSaH kApuruSaH.

153 letters. -- 63.bse 409 -- popularity none




(DhralopepU) (!Dhr)

Dh;ra-lope pUrvasya dIrgho 'NaH ONPANINI 63111
lengthen a i u before deleted Dh r.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 623

Example when rori deletes r before r --

kapir + ramate rori kapi ramate → * kapI ramate "monkey has fun"

Example when DhoDhelopaH deletes Dh before Dh --

guh + kta hoDhaH guDh + ta jhaSastatho guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gu + Dha → * gUDha- "hidden"

See also long before r .

KAZIKA DhakAra-rephayoH lopaH yasmin sa Dhra-lopaH, tatra pUrvasya aNaH dIrgho bhavati. lIDham. mIDham. upagUDham. mUDhaH. ralope nIraktam. agnIrathaH. indUrathaH. punA raktaM vAsaH. prAtA rAjakrayaH. pUrvagrahaNam anuttarapade 'pi pUrvamAtrasya dIrghArtham. aNaH iti kim? AtRDham. AvRDham.

172 letters. -- 63.bse 423 -- popularity 7

979 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.

1201 /vah !vahati "carries, conveys"




(sahivaho) (!sahi)

sahi;vahor od avarNasya ONPANINI 63112
a A of sah vah to o (before disappeared Dh).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 624

Examples of va sa replaced with vo so --

vah + tRc hoDhaH vaDh + tR jhaSastatho vaDh + dhR STunA vaDh + DhR DhoDhe va + DhR → * voDhR- "carrier, puller"

sah + tumun → .. → soDhum "to endure"

Example of vA replaced with vo --

ud + vah + luG tas → .. → udavADh + DhAm DhoDhe udavA + DhAm → * udavoDhAm "both lifted"

KAZIKA sahi vahi ityetayoH avarNasya okAra Adezo bhavati Dhralope. soDhA. soDhum. soDhavyam. voDhA. voDhum. voDhavyam. avarNasya iti kim? UDhaH. UDhavAn. varNagrahaNaM kim? kRtAyAm api vRddhau yathA syAt. udavoDhAm. udavoDham. tAdapi paraH taparaH, taparatvAd AkArasya grahaNaM na syAt.

The a-varNasya word in the rule means "replace a A". pANini might have used asya instead (as it may have the same meaning by aN;uditsa), but is sort of confusing.

300 letters. -- 63.bse 468 -- popularity 1




(mitrecarSau) (!mit)

mitre ca rSau ONPANINI 63130
( vizva- to long) before mitra when it means the sage.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 625

Only example --

vizva- + mitra- → * vizvAmitra- "the sage vizvAmitra"

But --

vizvamitro nAma mANavakaH "a lad called vizvamitra"

KAZIKA mitre ca uttarapade RSAvabhidheye vizvasya dIrgho bhavati. vizvAmitro nAma RSiH. RSau iti kim? vizvamitro mANavakaH.

94 letters. -- 63.bse 548 -- popularity none




(anyeSAma) (!any)

anyeSAm api dRzyate ONPANINI 63137
Sometimes other lengthenings are seen.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 626

More than a "rule", this is an excuse. This says that in some cases we are going to hear words that have a long vowel where, according to grammar rules, a short belongs, but that they can be considered correct nonetheless if serious grammarians agree that they are correct because they are found in works that are considered serious.

Example. If one of your students makes up the sentence...

pApaJM carati pUruSaH "a person does evil"

...then you can award him an F with no regrets, because no grammar rule allows the replacing of puruSas with pUruSas.

But if you find the same sentence in bhg chapter 6 verse 36, which is a very serious work...

atha kena prayukto 'yamM pApaJM carati pUruSaH "what compels one to do evil?"

...then pUruSas is just peachy, because pUruSas is found in many old serious works, therefore many grammarians agree it's good.

By a vArttika to this rule, the vowel of zvan- may be lengthened when compounded before danta daMSTra karNa kunda varAha puccha pada --

zunAH karNaH "a dog's ear" supodhA zvan- + karNa + su nalopaHprA zva + karNa + s → * zvAkarNas "a dog's ear"

The word zvApada- is made by this rule when it means "a dog's foot", but I have no idea why it can also mean "a beast of prey".

KAZIKA anyeSAm api dIrgho dRzyate, sa ziSTa-prayogAd anugantavyaH. yasya dIrghatvaM vihitaM, dRzyate ca prayoge, tadanena kartavyam. kezA-kezi. kacA-kaci. jalASAT. nArakaH pUruSaH. zuno danta-daMSTrA-karNa-kunda-varAha-puccha-padeSu. zvAdantaH. zvAdaMSTraH. zvAkarNaH. zvAkundaH. zvAvarAhaH. zvApucchaH. zvApadaH.

924 letters. -- 63.bse 550 -- popularity 5

178 two identical words to mean "in this" (form a @longhorn)

315 In the /veda, (@latter) !sah gets (/Nvi).

317 /kvip too (appears randomly).

641 ([/iT]-less) /san lengthens vowel-enders and !han !gam.




(cau) (!cW)

cau ONPANINI 63138
(Lengthen vowel) before c(u).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 627

This c(u) is the aJc(u) root (aka aJcati or ac''') that became ac(u) by aniditA and then c(u) by acaH.

Examples --

prati + aJc + TAprati + ac + TA acaH prati + c + A → * pratIcA "with the eastern dude"

prati + aJc @f + su → .. → prati + c + GI + su → * pratIcIs halGyA pratIcI "the eastern woman"

KAZIKA cau parataH pUrvapadasya dIrgho bhavati. cau iti aJcatir luptanakArAkAro gRhyate. dadhIcaH pazya. dadhIcA. dadhIce. madhUcaH pazya. madhUcA. madhUce. antaraGgo 'pi yaNAdezo dIrghavidhAnasAmarthyAn na pravartate.

182 letters. -- 63.bse 641 -- popularity 2




(aGgasya) (!aG)

aGgasya ONPANINI 64001
Replace stem.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 628

headline. The following rules, down to 81001 sarvasyadve exclusive, replace only the stem of affixes when those affixes are added.

Example.

Rule nAmi teaches: " lengthen the short that is before nAm".

However, because of this headline, this does not mean that every short is lengthened before every nAm. It just means that the AFFIX nAm lengthens the stem of nAm, that is, lengthens the short vowel of whatever the affix nAm is added to.

Therefore, rule nAmi will lengthen the a of pUta- when the affix nAm is added to the nounbase pUta --

pUta- + nAmpUtAnAm "of clean ones"

But it will not lengthen the a of pUta in the sentence --

jaghAna pUtanAGM kRSNaH "kRSNa killed the demoness pUtanA"

because those nAm letters are not the affix nAm.

576 letters. -- 64.bse 1 -- popularity none




(halaH) (/hU)

halaH ONPANINI 64002
(Lengthen rootfinal stretched a i u,) after consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 629

After stretching roots like jyA hveJ vyA etc, they end in a consonant plus a stretched short vowel, ji hu vi etc. That vowel must then be lengthened, making jI hU vI.

Examples --

jyA + kta grahijyA ji + ta → * jIta- lvAdi jIna- "grown old"

hve + kta vacisvapi hu + ta → * hUta- "called"

( Not same as huta- "poured", from hu + ktvA )

vyA + kta vacisvapi vi + ta → * vIta

A + hve + lyap vacisvapi Ahu + ya → * AhUya "after calling"

so we say hUta-, jIna-, saMvIta-, AhUya.

The root veJ "weave" is not affected by this rule, because when it is stretched it becomes u, and this u does not follow a consonant --

veJ + kta vacisvapi uta- "woven"

KAZIKA aGgAvayavAd dhalo yaduttaraM samprasAraNam tadantasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati. hUtaH. jInaH. saMvItaH. halaH iti kim? utaH. utavAn. aGgAvayavAtiti kim? nirutam. tadantasya iti kim? viddhaH. vicitaH. aNaH ityeva, tRtIyaH. tRtIyA iti vA nipAtanAd atra dIrghAbhAvaH. aGga-grahaNam Avartayitavyam halvizeSaNArtham, aGga-kArya-pratipatty-arthaM ca.

401 letters. -- 64.bse 50 -- popularity 6

545 (!vyA @stretches) optionally after /pari (before /lyap).

792 /niSThA (don't get /iT) after /Idit roots or !zvi.




(nAmi) (!nAm)

nAmi ONPANINI 64003
( lengthen) before nAm.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 630

Examples --

vRkSa- + Am hrasvanadyA vRkSa + nAm → * vRkSA + nAm Natvam vRkSANAm "of trees"

azva- + nAm → * azvAnAm "of horses"

kapi- + nAm → * kapInAm "of horses"

guru- + nAm → * gurUnAm Natvam gurUNAm "of teachers"

pitR- + nAm → * pitRRnAm Natvam pitRRNAm "of ancestors"

See exception natisRcatasR right below.

187 letters. -- 64.bse 122 -- popularity 8

55 /luk /zlu /lup replace a whole affix (and are invisible).

628 Replace @stem.

749 /tri- to !traya (before /Am).

828 @Feminine /tri- /catur- to !tisR !catasR

939 (@Stammer of) !nij !vij !viS to /guNa before /zlu.

1055 After !r !R !RR !S, same-@word !n to !N.




(natisRca) (!nat)

na tisR;catasR ONPANINI 64004
but not tisR- catasR-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 631

Exception to nAmi. tisR- catasR- don't lengthen before nAm.

tri- f + Am tricaturo tisR + AmtisR + nAm → * tisRnAm Natvam tisRNAm f "of three"

catur- f + Am → .. → catasRNAm f "of four"

112 letters. -- 64.bse 130 -- popularity 4




(nRca) (!nR)

nR ca ONPANINI 64006
nR (lengthens optionally before nAm)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 632

Only example --

nR + Am hrasvana nR + nAm → * nRRnAm Natvam nRRNAm "of men"

If we don't take the option --

nR + Am → .. → nRNAm "of men"

71 letters. -- 64.bse 150 -- popularity 1

40 "@Optionally" means "or not".




(nopadhAyAH) (!nopadhAy)

n%opadhAyAH ONPANINI 64007
nexttolast of n (-ender- stem lengthens before nAm).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 633

We can have nAm after n only if SaTcaturbhyazca made the nAm. Therefore there are exactly five examples --

paJcan- + Am SaTcaturbhyazca paJcan + nAm → * paJcAn + nAm svAdiSva paJcAn (word) + nAm nalopaHprA paJcAnAm "of five"

saptAnAm "of seven"

aSTAnAm "of eight"

navAnAm "of nine"

dazAnAm "of ten"

The other n-enders get no nAm --

rAjan- + AmrAjanAm "of kings"

carman- + AmcarmanAm Natvam carmaNAm "of skins"

KAZIKA nAntasya aGgasya upadhAyAH nAmi parato dIrgho bhavati. paJcAnAm. saptAnAm. navAnAm. dazAnAm. naH iti kim? caturNAm. nAmIty eva, carmaNAm.

267 letters. -- 64.bse 169 -- popularity 1




(sarvanAma) (/rAjAn)

sarva-nAma-sthAne c%Asambuddhau ONPANINI 64008
( nexttolast of n stem lengthens) before strong that is not the calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 634

I nicknamed this rule as the " rAjAnam rule", after the first example below. That's way better than calling it "sarva rule".

Examples with n-ender nounbases --

rAjan- + am → * rAjAn- + amrAjAnam "king"

rAjan- + su → * rAjAn- + s → .. → rAjA "king"

yogin- + su → * yogIn + s halGyA yogIn nalopaHprA yogI "yogi"

Examples with vowel-ender nounbases that got n added at the end by rule nonfunny before zi --

phala- n + jasphala- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH phalan + zi → * phalAni "fruits, results"

dadhIni "kinds of curds"

madhUni "kinds of honey"

The calling is strong but does not trigger this rule --

rAjan- + @calling su halGyA rAjan "hey king; Your Highness"

yogin- + @calling su halGyA yogin "hey yogi; Your Holiness"

In these two examples, nalopaHprA did not work because of the exception naGisa.

See also the exception inhan.

KAZIKA sarvanAmasthAne ca parato 'sambuddhau nopadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati. rAjA, rAjAnau, rAjAnaH. rAjAnam, rAjAnau. sAmAni tiSThanti. sAmAni pazya. sarvanAmasthAne iti kim? rAjani. sAmani. asambuddhau iti kim? he rAjan. he takSan.

559 letters. -- 64.bse 210 -- popularity 19




(sAntamaha) (!sAn)

sAnta;mahataH saMyogasya ONPANINI 64010
(Lengthen last vowel) of s -enders and mahat- when they got num.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 635 num

Lengthen last vowel of s -enders and mahat-, when they got num, before a strong that is not the calling.

Examples. mahat- "big" and zreyas- "better" get num from ugidacA before all strong (because they are udit). So this rule works too --

mahat- m + su ugidacA mahant- + s → * mahAnt + s halGyA mahAnt saMyogAnta mahAn "big"

zreyas- m + su ugidacA zreyanss → * zreyAnss halGyA zreyAns saMyogAnta zreyAn "best"

Before zi, neuter s-enders and neuter mahat- get their num from napuMsakasyajhalacaH, then this rule lengthens the last vowel --

manas- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH manansi → * manAnsi nazcA manAMsi "minds"

cakSus- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH cakSUnsi nazcA cakSUMsi kric cakSUMSi "eyes"

mahat- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH mahant + i → * mahAnti "big"

Before the calling, this rule does not work, and the last vowel stays short --

zreyas- m + @calling su ugidacA zreyanss halGyA zreyan "hey best man"

mahat- m + @calling su ugidacA mahant- + s halGyA mahant saMyogAnta mahan "hey big man"

KAZIKA sakArAntasya saMyogasya yo nakAraH mahatazca tasya upadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati sarvanAmasthAne parataH asambuddhau. zreyAn, zreyAMsau, zreyAMsaH. zreyAMsi. payAMsi. yazAMsi. mahataH svalvapi mahAn, mahAntau, mahAntaH. asambuddhau iti kim? he zreyan. he mahan.

595 letters. -- 64.bse 259 -- popularity 10




(aptRntRcsva) (!apt)

ap;tRn;tRc; svasR;naptR;neSTR; tvaSTR;kSattR;hotR; potR;prazAstRRNAm ONPANINI 64011
(Before strong except calling, lengthen nexttolast) of ap- tRn tRc, svasR naptR neSTR, tvaSTR kSattR hotR, potR prazastR.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 636

Example after ap- --

ap- + jas → * Apas "the waters"

After a tRc-ender --

netR- + am RtoGi netar + am → * netAram "leader"

After svasR- --

svasR- + jas RtoGi svasar + jas → * svasAras "sisters"

(Here Rnne did not work because svasR- is a svasrAdi.)

Counterexample before a weak --

ap- + zasapas "the waters"

Counterexample before strong calling --

kSattR- + @calling RtoGi kSattar- + @calling halGyA kSattar "hey charioteer"

as in --

droNasya vacanaM zrutvA dhRtarASTro 'bravId idam | samyag Aha guruH kSattar upAvartaya pANDavAn ||

KAZIKA ab ity etasya, tRn-antasya, tRj-antasya, svasR naptR neSTR tvaStR kSattR hotR potR pazAstR ity eteSAM cAGgAnAm upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati sarvanAmasthAne parato 'sambuddhau. ap ApaH. bahvAmpi taDAgAni iti kecid icchanti, tatra samAsAnto vidhir anityaH iti samAsAnto na kriyate. nityam api ca numam akRtva dIrghatvam iSyate. tRn kartArau kaTAn. vaditArau janApavAdAn. kartAraH. tRc kartArau kaTasya. kartAraH. hartArau bhArasya. hartAraH. svasR svasA, svasArau, svasAraH. naptR naptA, naptArau, naptAraH. neSTR neSTA, neSTArau, neSTAraH. tvaSTR tvaSTA, tvaSTArau, tvaSTAraH. kSattR kSattA, kSattArau, kSattAraH. hotR hotA, hotArau, hotAraH. potR potA, potArau, potAraH. prazAstR prazAstA, prazAstArau, prazAstAraH. naptrAdinAM grahaNamavyutpattipakSe vidhyartham. vyutpattipakSe niyamArtham, evam bhUtAnAm anyeSAM saMjJAzabdAnAM dIrgho mA bhUd iti. pitarau, pitaraH. mAtarau, mAtaraH. asambuddhau iti kim? he kartaH. he svasaH.

364 letters. -- 64.bse 333 -- popularity 3

1055 After !r !R !RR !S, same-@word !n to !N.




(inhanpUSA) (!inh)

in;han;pUS';.AryamNAM zau ONPANINI 64012
But not in han puSan aryaman before au jas am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 637

Translating this rule in;han;pUS';.AryamNAM zau and the following rule sauca together, they teach --

" Rule rAjAnam won't work on in han puSan aryaman before au jas am. "

Therefore, the i of in-enders does not lengthen before strong au jas am --

yogin- m + au → * yoginau

yogin- m + jas → * yoginas

yogin- m + am → * yoginam

Neither does the last a of puSan- and aryaman-, which are names of the Sun --

aryaman + am → * aryamanamaryamaNam

as in

aryamaNaM varuNaM somam azvinA ( Rgveda 1.89.3)

Same with the rootnoun han- --

vRtrahan- m + am → * vRtrahanam ekAjutta vRtrahaNam "soldier; the god indra"

KAZIKA in han pUSan aryaman ity evam antAnAm aGgAnAM zau parata upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati. bahudaNDIni. bahucchatrINi. bahuvRtrahANi. bahubhrUNahAni. bahupUSANi. bahvaryamANi. siddhe satyArambho niyamArthaH, inhanpUSAryamNAm upadhAyaH zAveva dIrgho bhavati na anyatra. daNDinau. chatriNau. vRtrahaNau. pUSaNau. aryamaNau. dIrghavidhirya ihenprabhRtInAM taM viniyamya suTIti suvidvAn. zau niyamaM punareva vidadhyAt bhrUNahanIti tathAsya na duSyet. zAsmi nivartya suTItyavizeSe zau niyamaM kuru vApyasamIkSya. dIrghavidherupadhAniyamAnme hanta yi dIrghavidhau ca na doSaH. suTy api vA prakRte 'navakAzaH zau niyamo 'prakRtapratiSedhe. yasya hi zau niyamaH suTi naitattena na tatra bhavedviniyamyam. hanteH anunAsikasya kvijhaloH kGitIti dIrghatvaM yat tadapi niyamena bAdhyate vRtrahaNi, bhrUNahani iti. katham? yogavibhAgaH kriyate. inhanpUSAryamNAm sarvanAmasthAne eva dIrgho bhavati, na anyatra iti. tataH zau iti dvitIyo niyamaH. zau eva sarvanAmasthAne dIrgho bhavati na anyatra iti. sarvasya upadhAlakSaNasya dIrghasya niyamena nivRttiH kriyate. yas tu na upadhAlakSaNaH sa bhavatyeva. vRtrahAyate. bhrUNahAyate. atha va anuvartamAne 'pi sarvanAmasthAnagrahaNe sAmarthyAdayam avizeSeNa niyamaH. zizabdo hi sarvanAmasthA'M napuMsakasya, na ca tasya anyat sarvanAmasthAnam asti ityavizeSeNa niyamaH. tatra tu napuMsakasya ityetan na azrIyate. tena anapuMsakasya api dIrgho na bhavati. sarvanAmasthAnasaMjJAvidhAne tu napuMsakasya vyApAro 'sti iti tatra niyamaH kriyamaNo napuMsakasya syAt.

In spite of this rule, the mbh has puSANam here --

pUSANam abhyadravata zaGMkaraH prahasann iva

puroDAzamM bhakSayato dazanAn vai vyazAtayat

( 07173048 ), arguably metri causa.

560 letters. -- 64.bse 357 -- popularity 3




(sauca) (!sW)

sau ca ONPANINI 64013
Before su too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 638

I translated this rule and the previous rule ( inhan) together. See inhan.

KAZIKA sAv asambuddhau parataH inhan-pUS%AryamNAm upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati. daNDI. vRtrahA. pUSA. aryamA. asambuddhau iti kim? he daNDin. he pUSan. he aryaman.

58 letters. -- 64.bse 463 -- popularity 1




(atvasanta) (!atv)

atv;as-antasya c/AdhAtoH ONPANINI 64014
Non- rootnoun atu-as-enders (lengthen their nexttolast before non- calling strong su).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 639

The atu-enders are the nounbases that end in at and have label u. For instance, all ktavatu and matup are atu-enders --

dRSTavat- m + su → * dRSTavAt + s ugidacA dRSTavAnts halGyA dRSTavAnt saMyogAnta dRSTavAn m "he saw"

gomat- m + su → * gomAt + s → .. → gomAn "cattleowner"

This rule affects all as-enders regardless of labels, but only before non- calling strong su --

triziras m + su → * trizirAs + s halGyA trizirAs "three-headed, tricephalous, Threeheads (nickname)"

apsaras- f + su → * apsarAs + s halGyA apsarAs "naiad"

The calling su is strong, but does not trigger this rule --

he goman

he bhagavan

he triziraH

he apsaraH

or if you don't want to pause after he --

he 'psaraH

This rule won't work when the su is not strong --

gomat- n + su svamorna gomat "cattle ranch"

ziras- n + su svamorna ziras "head"

Also won't work when the at-ender is not udit. For instance, sat- "true, real, truth" has no labels --

sat- m + su halGyA sat "true"

and hasat- from has + zatR is Rdit, but not udit --

has + zatR m + su → .. → hasat(R) + su ugidacA hasants halGyA hasant saMyogAnta hasan "that laughs, laughing"

Also won't work on rootnoun-enders. For instance the root gras "eat" makes the rootnoun gras- "eater", that ends in as. piNDagras- and other compounds of gras- are unaffected by this rule --

piNDa + gras mf + su halGyA piNDagras "piNDa-eater, crow, ancestor"

he piNDagraH "hey freeloader"

KAZIKA avu as ity evam antasya adhAtor upadhAyAH sAv asambuddhau parataH dIrgho bhavati. Davatu bhavAn. ktavatu kRtavAn. matup gomAn. yavamAn. atra kRte dIrghe num-AgamaH kartavyaH. yadi hi paratvAn@ nityatvAc ca num syat, dIrghasya nimittam atUpadhA vihanyeta. as-antasya supayAH. suyazAH. suzrotAH. adhAtoH iti kim? piNDaM grasate iti piNDagraH. carma vaste iti carmavaH. anarthako 'py as-zabdo gRhyate, aninasmaGgrahaNAnyarthavatA ca anarthakena ca tadantavidhiM prayojayanti iti. anta-grahaNam upadeza-prayogaikadezasya apy atvantasya parigrah%Artham, anyathA matupo grahaNam na syAd, upadeze rUpa-nirgraha-hetau nAyam atvantaH iti. asambuddhau ity eva, he goman. supayaH.

937 letters. -- 64.bse 633 -- popularity 9

20 @Cluster means group of [@consonant]s.

92 [@root]s are !bhU etc.

130 But @wimpy before /yac.

777 Replace {R}-enders, !uzanas-, !purudaMsas- and !anehas- (with !an before non-@calling /su).

1153 /ugit is what has an /uk as @label.

1448 @padding letters just make jargon easier to say.




(anunAsi) (!anunAsika)

anunAsikasya kvi;jhaloH kGiti ONPANINI 64015
(Lengthen nexttolast) of nasal-enders before kvi or serious kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 640

Examples before kta, ktin, that are serious kit --

zam + kta → * zAm + ta nazcA zAMta anusvA zAnta- "calmed down"

zam + ktin f + su → .. → zAntis "peace of mind"

Example before kvip, one of the kvi affixes --

pra + zam + kvip + su → * prazAm + kvip + su verapRktasya prazAm + su halGyA prazAm monodhAtoH prazAn "calm"

This prazAn word is an exception to rule naz chavy a-prazAn, so we say --

prazAn tarati "he crosses calmly"

This rule won't work before ktic, because of exception naktici way below.

KAZIKA anunAsikAntasya aGgasya upadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati kvipratyaye parato jhalAdau ca kGiti. prazAn. pratAn. jhalAdau kiti zAntaH. zAntavAn. zAntvA. zAntiH. Giti khalvapi zaMzAntaH. tantAntaH. yaGlugantAdayaM tas. anunAsikasya iti kim? odanapak. pakvaH. pakvavAn. kvijhaloH iti kim? gamyate. ramyate. kGiti iti kim? gantA. rantA.

321 letters. -- 64.bse 760 -- popularity 4

637 But not !in !han !puSan !aryaman before /au /jas /am.




(ajjhanaga) (!ajj)

aj;jhana;gamAM sani ONPANINI 64016
( iT-less) san lengthens vowel-enders and han gam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 641 iT

Examples with the vowelender roots plu zru mR --

plu + san → * plU + sa → .. → puplUSa "want to jump"

(no hardsoft before this san because iT-less san is kit after ik )

zru + san → * zrU + sa → .. → zuzrUSa "want to hear"

mR + san → * mRR + sa → .. → mumUrSa "want to die, be about to die"

Example with han --

han + sanjighAMsa

Example with gam (that's the gam(i) that replaces iG "study" by iGazca) --

adhi + iG + san + laT ta iGazca adhi + gam + sa + ta → * adhi + gAm + sa + ta → .. → adhijigAMsate "he wants to study"

Even though pANini does not bother to say so, this rule does not affect the very common gam root that means "go". So no A here --

saJjigaMsate vatso mAtre "the calf wants to meet his mom"

KAZIKA ajantAnAm aGgAnaM hani-gamyoz ca sani jhal-Adau pare dIrgho bhavati. ajantAnAm vivISati. tuSTUSati. cikIrSati. jihIrSati. han jighAMsati. gam adhijigAMsate. gamer iG-Adezasya iti vaktavyam. iha mA bhUt saJjigaMsate vatso mAtra iti. svargaM lokaM samajigAMsatiti chandasi yad aniGAdezasya api dIrgha-tvaM dRzyate, tad anyeSAm api dRzyate ity anena bhavati. atha vA iha aj-grahaNaM na kartavyam. sani dIrgho bhavati ity etAvad eva sUtraM kartavyam. tatrAcA gRhyamANasya vizeSaNe sati siddham ajantasya dIrghatvam? tat kriyate pravRtti-bhedena gamer api vizeSaNArtham, aj-antasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati, aj-Adezasya gamer iti. tato na vaktavyam idaM gamer iG-Adezasya iti.

470 letters. -- 64.bse 785 -- popularity 5

800 /san (gets /iT optionally) after {iv}-enders, {Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR} and {jJapi-san}.

860 /ji (to !gi) before /san and /liT.
















61111 non-mergers ←

chunk 32: 63091 lengthening rules

→ 64019 cchvoz