61111 non-mergers ←

chunk 32: 63091 lengthening rules

→ 64019 cchvoz

63091 Pronoun to A . AsarvanAmnaH
63097 ap- to I after dvi-, antar, preverbs. dvyantarupasargebhyopaIt
63106 optionally before puruSa. vibhASApuruSe
63111 Lengthen a i u before deleted Dh r. DhralopepUrvasyadIrghoNaH
63112 a A of sah vah to o . sahivahorodavarNasya
63137 Sometimes other lengthenings are seen. anyeSAmapidRzyate
63138 before c. cau
64001 Replace stem. aGgasya
64002 after consonant. halaH
64003 before nAm. nAmi
64004 but not tisR- catasR- natisRcatasR
64006 nR nRca
64007 Nexttolast of n . nopadhAyAH
64008 before strong that is not the calling. sarvanAmasthAnecAsambuddhau
64010 of s -enders and mahat- when they got num. sAntamahatassaMyogasya
64011 of ap- tRn tRc, svasR naptR neSTR, tvaSTR kSattR hotR, potR prazastR. aptRntRcsvasRnaptRneSTRtvaSTRkSattRhotRpotRprazAstRRNAm
64012 Rule rAjAnam won't work on in han puSan aryaman before au jas am. inhanpUSAryamNAMzau
64013 Before su too. sauca
64014 Non-rootnoun atu-as-enders . atvasantasyacAdhAtoH
64015 of nasal-enders before kvi or serious kGit. anunAsikasyakvijhaloHkGiti
64016 san lengthens vowel and han gam. ajjhanagamAMsani

(AsarvanA) (!Asa)

A sarvanAmnaH ONPANINI 63091
pronoun to A (before dRz- dRza- dRkSa- vatu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 586

Examples --

tad- + dRz- + su → * ta + A + dRz + su akassa tAdRz + stAd + dRz + s halGyA tAdRz kvinpratyayasyakuH tAdRk "such a"

tad- + vatu + su → .. → tAvAn "that much"

yad- + dRza- + su → .. → yAdRza- "of whatever kind or nature"

tad- + dRkSa- + su → .. → tAdRkSas "such a"

KAZIKA sarvanAmnaH AkArAdezo bhavati dRg-dRza-vatuSu. tAdRk. tAdRzaH. tAvAn. yAdRk. yAdRzaH. yAvAn. dRkSe ceti vaktavyam. tAdRkSaH. yAdRkSaH.

You said that rule kvinpratyayasyakuH works on dRz-. How can be this dRz a kvin? For sure rule Rtvig;dadhRk is not kwinning it.

No, but look at rule tyadAdiSudRzo right below that. It says that when dRz root is in one of these compounds it gets kvin.

That dRkSa does not come from the trickle.

True, it comes from a vArttika.

388 letters. -- 63.bse 299 -- popularity 1

(dvyantarupa) (!dvy)

dvy;antar;upasargebhyo 'pa:: It ONPANINI 63097
ap- to I after dvi-, antar, preverbs.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 587

This rule may be reworded into "the Ipa part of dvIpa- antarIpa- samIpa- means water ".

Examples with dvi-, antar, and the preverb sam --

dvi + ap- → * dvi + Ip akassa dvIp RkpUra dvIpa- "island"

antar + ap → * antar + Ip RkpUra antarIpa- "island"

sam + ap → .. → samIpa- "vicinity"

Rule Ap;jJapy;RdhAm It is sort of like this one; it makes Ap into Ip after san.

KAZIKA dvi antarityetAbhyAM upasargAc ca uttarasya apityetasya IkArAdezo bhavati. dvIpam. antarIpam. upasargAt nIpam. vIpam. samIpam. samApa Itve pratizedho vaktavyaH. samApaM nAma devayajanam. apara Aha ItvamanavarNAd iti vaktavyam. iha mA bhUt, prApam, parApam. ap-zabdaM prati kriya-yog%AbhAvAt upasarga-grahaNaM prAdy-upalakSaN%Artham.

How did "twowaters" come to mean "island"?

In old times dvIpa- meant the land between two rivers. Later it came to mean any place surrounded by water.

And how did "joined waters" came to mean "vicinity"?

You see, I'm making up these stories about "old times" so as to help you to remember. But now you already are old enough to make up your own stories.

504 letters. -- 63.bse 321 -- popularity 1

(vibhASApu) (!vibhASApu)

vibhASA puruSe ONPANINI 63106
( ku to kA) optionally before puruSa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 588

Only example --

kupuruSa- "miserable man, coward" → * kApuruSa- "miserable man, coward"

If the ku means ISad, then replacing with kA is compulsory --

ISat puruSa-kupuruSa- → * kApuruSa- "he's a bit of a mensch"

KAZIKA puruSa-zabde uttara-pade vibhASA koH kA ity ayam Adezo bhavati. kApuruSaH, kupuruSaH. aprAptavibhASeyam. ISad-arthe tu pUrvavipratiSedhena nityaM kA bhavati. ISat puruSaH kApuruSaH.

153 letters. -- 63.bse 354 -- popularity none

(DhralopepU) (!Dhr)

Dh;ra-lope pUrvasya dIrgho 'NaH ONPANINI 63111
lengthen a i u before deleted Dh r.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 589

Example when rori deletes r before r --

kapir + ramate rori kapi ramate → * kapI ramate "monkey has fun"

Example when DhoDhelopaH deletes Dh before Dh --

guh + kta hoDhaH guDh + ta jhaSastatho guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gu + Dha → * gUDha- "hidden"

See also long before r .

KAZIKA DhakAra-rephayoH lopaH yasmin sa Dhra-lopaH, tatra pUrvasya aNaH dIrgho bhavati. lIDham. mIDham. upagUDham. mUDhaH. ralope nIraktam. agnIrathaH. indUrathaH. punA raktaM vAsaH. prAtA rAjakrayaH. pUrvagrahaNam anuttarapade 'pi pUrvamAtrasya dIrghArtham. aNaH iti kim? AtRDham. AvRDham.

172 letters. -- 63.bse 360 -- popularity 9

935 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.

1144 /vah !vahati "carries, conveys"

1371 words that end in !r or !s

1372 sandhi of [@true r]

(sahivaho) (!sahi)

sahi;vahor od avarNasya ONPANINI 63112
a A of sah vah to o (before disappeared Dh).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 590

Examples of va sa replaced with vo so --

vah + tRc hoDhaH vaDh + tR jhaSastatho vaDh + dhR STunA vaDh + DhR DhoDhe va + DhR → * voDhR- "carrier, puller"

sah + tumun → .. → soDhum "to endure"

Example of vA replaced with vo --

ud + vah + luG tas → .. → udavADh + DhAm DhoDhe udavA + DhAm → * udavoDhAm "both lifted"

KAZIKA sahi vahi ityetayoH avarNasya okAra Adezo bhavati Dhralope. soDhA. soDhum. soDhavyam. voDhA. voDhum. voDhavyam. avarNasya iti kim? UDhaH. UDhavAn. varNagrahaNaM kim? kRtAyAm api vRddhau yathA syAt. udavoDhAm. udavoDham. tAdapi paraH taparaH, taparatvAd AkArasya grahaNaM na syAt.

What does the avarNasya word mean?

It means "replace a A". The word a-varNa stands for "a and its similars".

Why did pANini say avarNasya in that sense instead of saying asya, same meaning?

No clue, sorry.

But the kAzikA appears to explain that. Why didn't you translate for us what the kAzikA says?

Because I think it's wrong, or at least highly unlikely.

453 letters. -- 63.bse 413 -- popularity 1

(anyeSAma) (!any)

anyeSAm api dRzyate ONPANINI 63137
Sometimes other lengthenings are seen.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 591

More than a "rule", this is an excuse. This says that in some cases we are going to hear words that have a long vowel where, according to grammar rules, a short belongs, but that they can be considered correct nonetheless if the Big Schtrumpfs agree that they are correct.

Example. In this line ( bhg 6:36) --

atha kena prayukto 'yamM pApaJM carati pUruSaH "what compels a man to do evil?"

The word pUruSas has a long, even though according to grammar it should be puruSas. But grammarians agree that this is good anyway, and pUruSas is found in many old books, so it's good. And a grammarian might comment here "pUruSa is good by anyeSAm api dRzyate ".

KAZIKA anyeSAm api dIrgho dRzyate, sa ziSTa-prayogAd anugantavyaH. yasya dIrghatvaM vihitaM, dRzyate ca prayoge, tadanena kartavyam. kezA-kezi. kacA-kaci. jalASAT. nArakaH pUruSaH. zuno danta-daMSTrA-karNa-kunda-varAha-puccha-padeSu. zvAdantaH. zvAdaMSTraH. zvAkarNaH. zvAkundaH. zvAvarAhaH. zvApucchaH. zvApadaH.

So who are the Big Schtrumpfs, exactly?

Basically the agreement of old writers.

568 letters. -- 63.bse 485 -- popularity 3

293 In the /veda, (@latter) !sah gets (/Nvi).

295 /kvip too (appears randomly).

606 ([/iT]-less) /san lengthens vowel and !han !gam.

(cau) (!cW)

cau ONPANINI 63138
(Lengthen vowel) before c(u).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 592

This c(u) is the aJc(u) root (aka aJcati or ac''') that became ac(u) by aniditA and then c(u) by acaH.

Examples --

prati + aJc + TAprati + ac + TA acaH prati + c + A → * pratIcA "with the eastern dude"

prati + aJc @f + su → .. → prati + c + GI + su → * pratIcIs halGyA pratIcI "the eastern woman"

KAZIKA cau parataH pUrvapadasya dIrgho bhavati. cau iti aJcatir luptanakArAkAro gRhyate. dadhIcaH pazya. dadhIcA. dadhIce. madhUcaH pazya. madhUcA. madhUce. antaraGgo 'pi yaNAdezo dIrghavidhAnasAmarthyAn na pravartate.

182 letters. -- 63.bse 562 -- popularity 2

(aGgasya) (!aG)

aGgasya ONPANINI 64001
Replace stem.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 593

headline. The following rules, down to 81001 sarvasyadve exclusive, replace only the stem of affixes when those affixes are added.


Rule nAmi teaches: " lengthen the short that is before nAm".

However, because of this headline, this does not mean that every short is lengthened before every nAm. It just means that the AFFIX nAm lengthens the stem of nAm, that is, lengthens the short vowel of whatever the affix nAm is added to.

Therefore, rule nAmi will lengthen the a of pUta- when the affix nAm is added to the nounbase pUta --

pUta- + nAmpUtAnAm "of clean ones"

But it will not lengthen the a of pUta in the sentence --

jaghAna pUtanAGM kRSNaH "kRSNa killed the demoness pUtanA"

because those nAm letters are not the affix nAm.

576 letters. -- 64.bse 1 -- popularity 1

599 (@Nexttolast of !n @stem lengthens) before @strong that is not the @calling.

(halaH) (/hU)

halaH ONPANINI 64002
(Lengthen a stem-final stretched a i u,) after consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 594

After stretching roots like jyA hveJ vyA etc, they end in a consonant plus a stretched short vowel, ji hu vi etc. That vowel must then be lengthened, making jI hU vI.

Examples --

jyA + kta grahijyA ji + ta → * jIta- lvAdi jIna- "grown old"

hve + kta vacisvapi hu + ta → * hUta- "called"

( Not same as huta- "poured", from hu + ktvA )

vyA + kta vacisvapi vi + ta → * vIta

A + hve + lyap vacisvapi Ahu + ya → * AhUya "after calling"

so we say hUta-, jIna-, saMvIta-, AhUya.

KAZIKA aGgAvayavAd dhalo yaduttaraM samprasAraNam tadantasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati. hUtaH. jInaH. saMvItaH. halaH iti kim? utaH. utavAn. aGgAvayavAtiti kim? nirutam. tadantasya iti kim? viddhaH. vicitaH. aNaH ityeva, tRtIyaH. tRtIyA iti vA nipAtanAd atra dIrghAbhAvaH. aGga-grahaNam Avartayitavyam halvizeSaNArtham, aGga-kArya-pratipatty-arthaM ca.

Why do we bother to say "after consonant"? Won't the final vowel of the root be always after a consonant, as in ji hu vi?

Not so. Root veJ, after stretching, is just u. This u is not after consonant, so this rule does not work on it --

veJ + ktauta- "woven"

veJ + ktavatuutavat- "he wove"

495 letters. -- 64.bse 50 -- popularity 6

516 (!vyA @stretches) optionally after /pari (before /lyap).

751 /niSThA (don't get /iT) after /Idit roots or !zvi.

(nAmi) (!nAm)

nAmi ONPANINI 64003
( lengthen) before nAm.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 595

Examples --

vRkSa- + Am hrasvanadyA vRkSa + nAm → * vRkSA + nAm Natvam vRkSANAm "of trees"

azva- + nAm → * azvAnAm "of horses"

kapi- + nAm → * kapInAm "of horses"

guru- + nAm → * gurUnAm Natvam gurUNAm "of teachers"

pitR- + nAm → * pitRRnAm Natvam pitRRNAm "of ancestors"

See exception natisRcatasR right below.

187 letters. -- 64.bse 120 -- popularity 9

54 /luk /zlu /lup replace a whole affix (and are invisible).

593 Replace @stem.

709 /tri- to !traya (before /Am).

787 @Feminine /tri- /catur- to !tisR !catasR

839 (Lengthen "!a") before /bhyAm !ya.

1006 After !r !R !RR !S, same-@word !n to !N.

1485 /ik are {i uN R Lk} and their [@similar]s {I U RR}.

(natisRca) (!nat)

na tisR;catasR ONPANINI 64004
but not tisR- catasR-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 596

Exception to nAmi. tisR- catasR- don't lengthen before nAm.

tri- f + Am tricaturo tisR + AmtisR + nAm → * tisRnAm Natvam tisRNAm f "of three"

catur- f + Am → .. → catasRNAm f "of four"

112 letters. -- 64.bse 130 -- popularity 4

(nRca) (!nR)

nR ca ONPANINI 64006
nR (lengthens optionally before nAm)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 597

Only example --

nR + Am hrasvana nR + nAm → * nRRnAm Natvam nRRNAm "of men"

If we don't take the option --

nR + Am → .. → nRNAm "of men"

71 letters. -- 64.bse 142 -- popularity 2

39 "@Optionally" means "or not".

1583 Why are there optional rules?

(nopadhAyAH) (!nopadhAy)

n%opadhAyAH ONPANINI 64007
nexttolast of n (-ender- stem lengthens before nAm).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 598

There are exactly five examples --

paJcan- + Am SaTcaturbhyazca paJcan + nAm → * paJcAn + nAm svAdiSva paJcAn (word) + nAm nalopaHprA paJcAnAm "of five"

saptAnAm "of seven"

aSTAnAm "of eight"

navAnAm "of nine"

dazAnAm "of ten"

KAZIKA nAntasya aGgasya upadhAyAH nAmi parato dIrgho bhavati. paJcAnAm. saptAnAm. navAnAm. dazAnAm. naH iti kim? caturNAm. nAmIty eva, carmaNAm.

Why does the rule say "before nAm", not "before Am"?

nAm comes after n only if it was made by SaTcaturbhyazca. That's why the rule only makes the five words above. It must not work on carman-, rAjan-, yogin- etc.

293 letters. -- 64.bse 167 -- popularity 1

(sarvanAma) (/rAjAn)

sarva-nAma-sthAne c'.Asambuddhau ONPANINI 64008
( nexttolast of n stem lengthens) before strong that is not the calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 599

I nicknamed this rule as the " rAjAnam rule", after the first example below. That's way better than calling it "sarva rule".

Examples with n-ender nounbases --

rAjan- + am → * rAjAn- + amrAjAnam "king"

rAjan- + su → * rAjAn- + s → .. → rAjA "king"

yogin- + su → * yogIn + s halGyA yogIn nalopaHprA yogI "yogi"

Examples with vowel-ender nounbases that got n added at the end by rule nonfunny before zi --

phala- n + jasphala- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH phalan + zi → * phalAni "fruits, results"

dadhIni "kinds of curds"

madhUni "kinds of honey"

KAZIKA sarvanAmasthAne ca parato 'sambuddhau nopadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati. rAjA, rAjAnau, rAjAnaH. rAjAnam, rAjAnau. sAmAni tiSThanti. sAmAni pazya. sarvanAmasthAne iti kim? rAjani. sAmani. asambuddhau iti kim? he rAjan. he takSan.

Why do we say "that is not the calling"?

The calling is strong, but does not trigger this rule --

rAjan- + @calling su halGyA rAjan "hey king; Your Highness"

yogin- + @calling su halGyA yogin "hey yogi; Your Holiness"

am is strong in yogin- m + am. Why no lengthening in yoginam?

Exception inhan.

For me, it feels sort of strange that this rule can lengthen phalan- dadhin- madhun-, which are vowel nounbases that got n added by some rule. I was sort of expecting this rule to only work on nounbases that end in n.

I understand your feelings. Yet, no one ever said that this rule should work only on bare nounbases. As we are in the shadow of the headline aGgasya, this rule is supposed to work on the stem of any strong affix, that is, on whatever the strong affix was originally added to, even if it grew afterwards.

966 letters. -- 64.bse 205 -- popularity 19

(sAntamaha) (!sAn)

sAnta;mahataH saMyogasya ONPANINI 64010
(Lengthen last vowel) of s -enders and mahat- when they got num.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 600 num

Lengthen last vowel of s -enders and mahat-, when they got num, before a strong that is not the calling.

Examples. mahat- "big" and zreyas- "better" get num from ugidacA before all strong (because they are udit). So this rule works too --

mahat- m + su ugidacA mahant- + s → * mahAnt + s halGyA mahAnt saMyogAnta mahAn "big"

zreyas- m + su ugidacA zreyanss → * zreyAnss halGyA zreyAns saMyogAnta zreyAn "best"

Before zi, neuter s-enders and neuter mahat- get their num from napuMsakasyajhalacaH, then this rule lengthens the last vowel --

manas- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH manansi → * manAnsi nazcA manAMsi "minds"

cakSus- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH cakSUnsi nazcA cakSUMsi kric cakSUMSi "eyes"

mahat- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH mahant + i → * mahAnti "big"

KAZIKA sakArAntasya saMyogasya yo nakAraH mahatazca tasya upadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati sarvanAmasthAne parataH asambuddhau. zreyAn, zreyAMsau, zreyAMsaH. zreyAMsi. payAMsi. yazAMsi. mahataH svalvapi mahAn, mahAntau, mahAntaH. asambuddhau iti kim? he zreyan. he mahan.

What happens before the calling?

Nothing special. This rule does not work, so the last vowel stays --

zreyas- m + @calling su ugidacA zreyanss halGyA zreyan "hey best man"

mahat- m + @calling su ugidacA mahant- + s halGyA mahant saMyogAnta mahan "hey big man"

The saMyogasya in the original means "nounbases that end in a cluster". Why did you translate that as "nounbases that got num"?

Because these nounbases can only end in a cluster if they got num.

Why didn't then pANini use the wording "that got num" instead of "that end in a cluster", like you did?

To save space , both of us used the shortest wording we could think of.

900 letters. -- 64.bse 255 -- popularity 10

(aptRntRcsva) (!apt)

ap;tRn;tRc; svasR;naptR;neSTR; tvaSTR;kSattR;hotR; potR;prazAstRRNAm ONPANINI 64011
(Before strong except calling, lengthen nexttolast) of ap- tRn tRc, svasR naptR neSTR, tvaSTR kSattR hotR, potR prazastR.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 601

Example after ap- --

ap- + jas → * Apas "the waters"

After a tRc-ender --

netR- + am RtoGi netar + am → * netAram "leader"

After svasR- --

svasR- + jas RtoGi svasar + jas → * svasAras "sisters"

Counterexample before a weak --

ap- + zasapas "the waters"

Counterexample before strong calling --

kSattR- + @calling RtoGi kSattar- + @calling halGyA kSattar "hey charioteer"

as in --

droNasya vacanaM zrutvA dhRtarASTro 'bravId idam | samyag Aha guruH kSattar upAvartaya pANDavAn ||

KAZIKA ab ity etasya, tRn-antasya, tRj-antasya, svasR naptR neSTR tvaStR kSattR hotR potR pazAstR ity eteSAM cAGgAnAm upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati sarvanAmasthAne parato 'sambuddhau. ap ApaH. bahvAmpi taDAgAni iti kecid icchanti, tatra samAsAnto vidhir anityaH iti samAsAnto na kriyate. nityam api ca numam akRtva dIrghatvam iSyate. tRn kartArau kaTAn. vaditArau janApavAdAn. kartAraH. tRc kartArau kaTasya. kartAraH. hartArau bhArasya. hartAraH. svasR svasA, svasArau, svasAraH. naptR naptA, naptArau, naptAraH. neSTR neSTA, neSTArau, neSTAraH. tvaSTR tvaSTA, tvaSTArau, tvaSTAraH. kSattR kSattA, kSattArau, kSattAraH. hotR hotA, hotArau, hotAraH. potR potA, potArau, potAraH. prazAstR prazAstA, prazAstArau, prazAstAraH. naptrAdinAM grahaNamavyutpattipakSe vidhyartham. vyutpattipakSe niyamArtham, evam bhUtAnAm anyeSAM saMjJAzabdAnAM dIrgho mA bhUd iti. pitarau, pitaraH. mAtarau, mAtaraH. asambuddhau iti kim? he kartaH. he svasaH.

svasR- means "sister", so it's a feminine. Why didn't Rnne add GI ?

Because svasR- is a svasrAdi.

395 letters. -- 64.bse 329 -- popularity 3

1006 After !r !R !RR !S, same-@word !n to !N.

(inhanpUSA) (!inh)

in;han;pUS';.AryamNAM zau ONPANINI 64012
Rule rAjAnam won't work on in han puSan aryaman before au jas am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 602

So the i of in-enders does not lengthen before strong au jas am --

yogin- m + au → * yoginau

yogin- m + jas → * yoginas

yogin- m + am → * yoginam

The rootnoun han- is unaffected too --

vRtrahan- m + am → * vRtrahanam ekAjutta vRtrahaNam "soldier; the god indra"

puSan- and aryaman- are names of the Sun (used in the veda I guess).

KAZIKA in han pUSan aryaman ity evam antAnAm aGgAnAM zau parata upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati. bahudaNDIni. bahucchatrINi. bahuvRtrahANi. bahubhrUNahAni. bahupUSANi. bahvaryamANi. siddhe satyArambho niyamArthaH, inhanpUSAryamNAm upadhAyaH zAveva dIrgho bhavati na anyatra. daNDinau. chatriNau. vRtrahaNau. pUSaNau. aryamaNau. dIrghavidhirya ihenprabhRtInAM taM viniyamya suTIti suvidvAn. zau niyamaM punareva vidadhyAt bhrUNahanIti tathAsya na duSyet. zAsmi nivartya suTItyavizeSe zau niyamaM kuru vApyasamIkSya. dIrghavidherupadhAniyamAnme hanta yi dIrghavidhau ca na doSaH. suTy api vA prakRte 'navakAzaH zau niyamo 'prakRtapratiSedhe. yasya hi zau niyamaH suTi naitattena na tatra bhavedviniyamyam. hanteH anunAsikasya kvijhaloH kGiti 64015 iti dIrghatvaM yat tadapi niyamena bAdhyate vRtrahaNi, bhrUNahani iti. katham? yogavibhAgaH kriyate. inhanpUSAryamNAm sarvanAmasthAne eva dIrgho bhavati, na anyatra iti. tataH zau iti dvitIyo niyamaH. zau eva sarvanAmasthAne dIrgho bhavati na anyatra iti. sarvasya upadhAlakSaNasya dIrghasya niyamena nivRttiH kriyate. yas tu na upadhAlakSaNaH sa bhavatyeva. vRtrahAyate. bhrUNahAyate. atha va anuvartamAne 'pi sarvanAmasthAnagrahaNe sAmarthyAdayam avizeSeNa niyamaH. zizabdo hi sarvanAmasthA'M napuMsakasya, na ca tasya anyat sarvanAmasthAnam asti ityavizeSeNa niyamaH. tatra tu napuMsakasya ityetan na azrIyate. tena anapuMsakasya api dIrgho na bhavati. sarvanAmasthAnasaMjJAvidhAne tu napuMsakasya vyApAro 'sti iti tatra niyamaH kriyamaNo napuMsakasya syAt.

Will these in han etc lengthen before the calling?

No. Rule rAjAnam does not lengthen those. Neither does this rule. So we say --

he yogin

The original rule says: "in han etc lengthen before zi". How come you translate "they do not lengthen before am au zas"

Because that's what it boils down too. See --

This rule literally says

"in han lengthen before zi".

The next rule, sauca, translates as "and before su". Therefore, the two rules together state:

"in han etc lengthen before zi and strong su".

Now, the true meaning of this must be

"But in han etc only lengthen before zi and su".

because without the "only", this rule would be useless. (See niyama for more examples of skipped "only".)

751 letters. -- 64.bse 354 -- popularity 3

(sauca) (!sW)

sau ca ONPANINI 64013
Before su too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 603

I translated this rule and the previous rule ( inhan) together. See examples there.

KAZIKA sAv asambuddhau parataH inhan-pUS%AryamNAm upadhAyA dIrgho bhavati. daNDI. vRtrahA. pUSA. aryamA. asambuddhau iti kim? he daNDin. he pUSan. he aryaman.

66 letters. -- 64.bse 444 -- popularity 1

(atvasanta) (!atv)

atv;as-antasya c/AdhAtoH ONPANINI 64014
Non- rootnoun atu-as-enders (lengthen their nexttolast before non- calling strong su).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 604

The atu-enders are the nounbases that end in at and have label u. For instance, all ktavatu and matup are atu-enders --

dRSTavat- m + su → * dRSTavAt + s ugidacA dRSTavAnts halGyA dRSTavAnt saMyogAnta dRSTavAn m "he saw"

gomat- m + su → * gomAt + s → .. → gomAn "cattleowner"

This rule affects all as-enders regardless of labels, but only before non- calling strong su --

triziras m + su → * trizirAs + s halGyA trizirAs "three-headed, tricephalous, Threeheads (nickname)"

apsaras- f + su → * apsarAs + s halGyA apsarAs "naiad"

This rule won't work when the su is not strong --

gomat- n + su svamorna gomat "cattle ranch"

ziras- n + su svamorna ziras "head"

Also won't work when the at-ender is not udit. For instance, sat- "true, real, truth" has no labels --

sat- m + su halGyA sat "true"

and hasat- from has + zatR is Rdit, but not udit --

has + zatR m + su → .. → hasat(R) + su ugidacA hasants halGyA hasant saMyogAnta hasan "that laughs, laughing"

KAZIKA avu as ity evam antasya adhAtor upadhAyAH sAv asambuddhau parataH dIrgho bhavati. Davatu bhavAn. ktavatu kRtavAn. matup gomAn. yavamAn. atra kRte dIrghe num-AgamaH kartavyaH. yadi hi paratvAn@ nityatvAc ca num syat, dIrghasya nimittam atUpadhA vihanyeta. as-antasya supayAH. suyazAH. suzrotAH. adhAtoH iti kim? piNDaM grasate iti piNDagraH. carma vaste iti carmavaH. anarthako 'py as-zabdo gRhyate, aninasmaGgrahaNAnyarthavatA ca anarthakena ca tadantavidhiM prayojayanti iti. anta-grahaNam upadeza-prayogaikadezasya apy atvantasya parigrah%Artham, anyathA matupo grahaNam na syAd, upadeze rUpa-nirgraha-hetau nAyam atvantaH iti. asambuddhau ity eva, he goman. supayaH.

Why do we say "non- calling su" ?

The calling su does not lengthen --

he goman

he bhagavan

he triziraH

he apsaraH

May I say he 'psaraH?

Sure you may, in fact, accpo5ding to the rules, you must. I wrote he apsaraH because sometimes I pause after he. Sorry.

Why do we say "non- rootnoun"?

For instance, the root gras "eat" makes the rootnoun gras- "eater", that ends in as. gras is unaffected by this rule --

piNDa + gras mf + su halGyA piNDagras "piNDa-eater, crow, ancestor"

So how do I say hello to a crow?

he piNDAgraH

982 letters. -- 64.bse 614 -- popularity 8

20 @Cluster means group of [@consonant]s.

89 [@root]s are !bhU etc.

737 Replace {R}-enders, !uzanas-, !purudaMsas- and !anehas- (with !an before non-@calling /su).

1098 /ugit is what has an /uk as @label.

1384 @padding letters just make jargon easier to say.

(anunAsi) (!anunAsika)

anunAsikasya kvi;jhaloH kGiti ONPANINI 64015
(Lengthen nexttolast) of nasal-enders before kvi or serious kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 605

Examples before kta, ktin, that are serious kit --

zam + kta → * zAm + ta nazcA zAMta anusvA zAnta- "calmed down"

zam + ktin f + su → .. → zAntis "peace of mind"

Example before kvip, one of the kvi affixes --

pra + zam + kvip + su → * prazAm + kvip + su verapRktasya prazAm + su halGyA prazAm monodhAtoH prazAn "calm"

This prazAn word is an exception to rule naz chavy a-prazAn, so we say --

prazAn tarati "he crosses calmly"

This rule won't work before ktic, because of exception naktici way below.

KAZIKA anunAsikAntasya aGgasya upadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati kvipratyaye parato jhalAdau ca kGiti. prazAn. pratAn. jhalAdau kiti zAntaH. zAntavAn. zAntvA. zAntiH. Giti khalvapi zaMzAntaH. tantAntaH. yaGlugantAdayaM tas. anunAsikasya iti kim? odanapak. pakvaH. pakvavAn. kvijhaloH iti kim? gamyate. ramyate. kGiti iti kim? gantA. rantA.

321 letters. -- 64.bse 736 -- popularity 4

602 Rule /rAjAnam won't work on !in !han !puSan !aryaman before /au /jas /am.

(ajjhanaga) (!ajj)

aj;jhana;gamAM sani ONPANINI 64016
( iT-less) san lengthens vowel and han gam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 606 iT

Examples with vowelender roots plu zru mR --

plu + san → * plU + sa → .. → puplUSa "want to jump"

zru + san → * zrU + sa → .. → zuzrUSa "want to hear"

mR + san → * mRR + sa → .. → mumUrSa "want to die, be about to die"

Example with han --

han + sanjighAMsa

Example with gam (that's the gam(i) that replaces iG) --

adhi + iG + san + laT ta iGazca adhi + gam + sa + ta → * adhi + gAm + sa + ta → .. → adhijigAMsate "he wants to study"

Even though pANini does not bother to say so, this rule does not affect gamL "go". So no A here --

saJjigaMsate vatso mAtre "the calf wants to meet his mom"

KAZIKA ajantAnAm aGgAnaM hani-gamyoz ca sani jhal-Adau pare dIrgho bhavati. ajantAnAm vivISati. tuSTUSati. cikIrSati. jihIrSati. han jighAMsati. gam adhijigAMsate. gameriGAdezasya iti vaktavyam. iha mA bhUt saJjigaMsate vatso mAtra iti. svargaM lokaM samajigAMsatiti chandasi yadaniGAdezasya api dIrghatvaM dRzyate, tad anyeSAm api dRzyate ityanena bhavati. atha vA iha ajgrahaNaM na kartavyam. sani dIrgho bhavati ityetAvadeva sUtraM kartavyam. tatrAcA gRhyamANasya vizeSaNe sati siddham ajantasya dIrghatvam? tat kriyate pravRttibhedena gamer api vizeSaNArtham, aj-antasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati, ajAdezasya gamer iti. tato na vaktavyam idaM gamer iG-Adezasya iti.

Why no hardsoft in plu + san?

Because iT-less san is kit after ik .

427 letters. -- 64.bse 761 -- popularity 5

759 /san (gets /iT optionally) after {iv}-enders, {Rdhu-bhrasja, dambhu-zri-svR, yu-UrNu-bhR} and {jJapi-san}.

819 /ji (to !gi) before /san and /liT.

61111 non-mergers ←

chunk 32: 63091 lengthening rules

→ 64019 cchvoz