preverbs ←

chunk 65: DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

→ short definitions

True r is the wordfinal r that is not a ru.
words with true r
seT aniT veT
Meaning of asiddha.
About the postpositions
prAdi are pra etc.
rootnouns are rootlike nouns.
ending means sup or tiG
Wordfinal is what is at the end a word.


True r is the wordfinal r that is not a ru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1213

There are two kinds of wordfinal r --

the ru, that carry label u, used to be s earlier

and the rest, that don't carry label u, were r from the start.

I call the wordfinal r that doesn't carry label u " true r ".

A ru always comes from rules such as sasaju, ahan, nazchavyaprazAn, that replaced s (or some other wordfinal letter) with ru. Example --

azva + suazvas sasaju azva + ru beforepause azvaH

The words with true r had r from the start. Examples --

punar hasati "laughs again"

hasati punar beforepause hasati punaH "laughs again"

The words that end in s and turn into ru are at least a hundred times more common that the words that end in true r. So when you hear a word that ends in H you are always going to guess that it originally ended in s, and then got sasaju and kharava. This means that you need to know the most common words with true r .


words with true rmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1214

Words that end in true r are few. These are some of the most common --


punar "again"

prAtar "in the morning"

antar "between, amidst; inner"


pitar "hey father"

(and also mAtar, kSattar, bhrAtar, svasar, and all the other words made by adding the calling after an R nounbase that got no GI.)

ahar "day" ( made from ahan- n + su by rule ahan )

There are also a handful of nounbases that end in r, such as

gir- f "speech"

dhur- f "yoke"

pur- f "city"

( Most of those are rootnouns, and that's why rvoru will work on them. )

This nounbasefinal r will become wordfinal when halGyA, supodhA, svamorna, svAdiSva or other rules erase their sup. Examples --

gir + su halGyA gir rvoru gIr "speech"

gir + sup' svAdiSva gir ( word ) rvoru gIrsu kric gIrSu "in words"

dhur + sup'dhUrSu "in yokes" ( same steps )

Some sentences with true r-enders --

punar eva tadA bhImo rAjAnam idam abravIt

tato rAtryAM vyatItAyAmM prAtar utthAya sa dvijaH

droNasya vacanaM zrutvA dhRtarASTro 'bravId idam | samyag Aha guruH kSattar upAvartaya pANDavAn ||


seT aniT veTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1215

There are three groups of roots --

seT roots make ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH work.

aniT roots don't.

veT roots optionally do.

" Most R-RR-U- hal-enders are seT, and most of the others are aniT. "

This rule sorts out correctly most of the roots (for instance bhU car are seT, dA nI kR are aniT). But it fails with a handful of vowel roots, a hundred of consonant roots, and the few dozens of veT roots. Many of the exceptions are very common: dviS kSip dRz zak.

You might learn the exceptions in advance, but I advise against that, as I don't think you'll ever have to pass a test that checks if you memorized the exception roots. But if you want to disregard my advice, you may find lists of the exception roots in Kale's grammar.


Meaning of asiddha.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1216

When Sanskrit grammarians say that a change made by one rule is asiddha ("as if it had not happened") to another rule, this means that the other rule does not notice the change has happened.


According to rule atobhisa::ais, bhis turns into ais after a.

According to rule nalopaHprAtipadikAntasya, rAjan turns into rAja before bhis.

And rule cantgoback teaches,literally, that the changes made by nalopaHprAtipadikAntasya are " asiddha" to atobhisa::ais.

This means that when the n disappears, rule atobhisa::ais does not notice any change. In other words, atobhisa::ais does not trigger then, because it is still "seeing" rAjanbhis.


About the postpositionsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1217

The postpositions are certain unchanging words that link to a noun, that always takes the same case.

Examples --

The postposition saha means "together" and is always linked to a noun that has third, like here umayA ("with umA") --

Agato hara:: umayA saha "ziva came with umA"

The postposition prati means "towards" and is used with a noun that means the place towards which motion happens. That noun always carries second --

gacchatasH sAgaramM prati "they are going towards the sea"

This postposition prati is not the same thing as the preverb prati --

pratigacchatasH sAgaram "they are going towards the sea"

Agato harasH sahomayA "ziva came with umA"

or even in the middle --

Agato hara:: umayA saha devyA "ziva came with the goddess umA"

The exception to that is the A that means "up to". It is always used before a noun that has fifth --

A samudrAt "up to the sea"


prAdi are pra etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1218

The prAdi are --

adhi abhi AG anu

ati apa api ava

dur dus ni nir nis

pari pra parA prati

sam su' upa ud vi

They are words, and also unchanging.

(see also eGipararUpam).

Most of the prAdi are used often as preverbs, and seldom as postpositions.

For instance, anu means "after" in thesens4e of following.

Use as preverb --

siMho 'nudravati mRgam "lion after-runs deer, lion chases deer"

Use as postposition --

siMho dravati mRgam anu "lion runs after deer, lion chases deer"

The use as postposition is uncommon in the epics, but very common in the veda.

See also list of preverbs.


rootnouns are rootlike nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1219

A rootnoun is a nounbase that looks like a root. Examples --

nI- "leader", from root nI "lead"

ac- "that is at", from aJcu

jit- "defeater, victor", from root ji "conquer"

bhRt- "that carries", from bhR

Most of those can be used only as a latter --

senA- + nI-senAnI- "army-leader, general"

grAma- + nI- Natvam grAmaNI- "village-leader, mayor"

pra + ac-prAc- "eastern"

pustaka-bhRt "book-carrier"

These nI- jit- ac- bhRt- nounbases are not just bare roots. They are formed from roots by adding to them some kRt affixes, such as kvip and kvin. I call those " rootnounmaker affixes".

As for instance, adding the kRt affix kvip to the roots nI ji, we get the nounbases nI- and jit- --

nI ( root ) + kvipnI- ( nounbase ) "leader"

ji ( root ) + kvip hrasvasyapitikRtituk jit- ( nounbase ) "vanquisher"


ending means sup or tiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1220

When I say ending, I mean either

-- a sup ( noun ending) from list svaujas


-- a tiG ( verb ending) from list tiptas

The noun endings are added to nounbases, and the verb endings are added to roots.

pac + laGpac + mip luGlaG apac + mipapac + am'''

The m is not the " ending " of apacam, it is the LAST LETTER of apacam.


Wordfinal is what is at the end a word.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1221

example 1:

manasas is a word because it has Gas, so suptiG applies

therefore the second s of manasas is wordfinal

therefore rule sasaju applies to the second s of manasas

and does not apply to the first s of manasas

example 2:

aplavata is a word because it has ta,

so the last a is wordfinal,

So rule atoguNe won't work on aplavata + azvaH, but akassa will.

example 3:

the manas- part of manas + sup' = manassu is a word because rule svAdiSva says so.

so the first s of manassu is wordfinal

so sasaju aplies to it, making a wordfinal ru,

which is turned into H by kharava,

which is then caught by visarjanIyasyasaH, making s again.

preverbs ←

chunk 65: DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

→ short definitions