→ 11023 numerals
11004 But not before a soft that erased part of a root.
11007 Cluster means group of consonants.
11008 nasalized means "some air leaks off the nose".
11009 What has same position and openness is similar.
11010 vowel and consonant aren't .
Definition rule. This teaches that the letters
Rule vRddhireci says that when joining
That means that we must erase the
Because of another rule (the most-alike rule), we must use
You can hear this rule here.
Definition rule. It says that the letters
(1) According to rule hardsoft, the
(2) Therefore, that
(3) rule most-alike explains clarifes that thereplacement must be
As in the sentence --
This is a talkaround, and means --
When any rule says "replace with guNa", or with vRddhi, without specifying what exactly it will replace, it will replace the ik only.
Example 1 --
Rule hardsoft sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH says -- " guNa before root affix"
and that means
so that rule will replace
but will not replace
Example 2 --
miderguNaH says -- "replace
and that means
Example 3 --
AdguNaH says "after
And that means "after
Similarly, rules jusica, hrasvasyaguNaH, guNoyaG;lukoH work only on the ik.
In more words --
" When a soft affix makes a root lose a piece, the ik letters remaining in that root are excepted from any rules that would replace them with guNa or vRddhi. "
The yaGluk root
But because of this exception, hardsoft won't replace this
(Note that the
This stops all rules that replace with guNa or vRddhi before root affixes if the affix is kGit.
As for instance, rules hardsoft and puganta replace things with guNa before many root affixes, such as soft tumun, hard tip, soft Nal --
But those rules won't work before kGit affixes such as kta, caG, and the tas that replaces laT --
The word cluster means two or more consonants with no vowels in between.
Rules halGyA and others turn
Rule saMyogAnta works here because
A sound is nasalized (
In Sanskrit there are two sorts of nasalized sounds --
(1) The five nasals (
(2) Some of the other consonants, and all the vowels, can either be pronounced normally, with the flap up, or nasalized, with the flap down allowing a noseleak. This seldom happens -- only when some special rules, such as torli, force it, or others like aNopra allow it optionally. Notice that a nasalized
If you have never heard the difference between a nasalized vowel and a normal vowel, listening to this video might help --
a pro teacher explaining the nasalized vowels of French
In this website, the sounds of type (2) are written with a moondot (
The exception is nasalized ell sound made by torli. This one, in theory, should be spelled with a moondot on top of an ordinary ell, but in practice nearly always ends up mispelled as
Example 1. The letters
The most important groups of similar letters are --
(the ec aren't savarNa to anything, not even to themselves)
Exception to tulyAsya-prayatnaM savarNam -- vowels are never similar to consonants, not even if they have the same position and openness.
ac + hal + au →
By rule pluta;pragRhyA, nonjoiner vowels do not change; they are unaffected by ikoyaNaci, akassa, eGaHpa, ecoya.
Examples with the dual nouns
See also next rule,
This amI "those" is masculine adas- with jas. The
The ONLY thing this rule teaches is that the
So we may say either
The most common of the ghu roots are
Being ghu triggers some rules, such as dodadghoH, aca::upa, ghumA, ghvasore, gAti;sthA;, IhalyaghoH .
The "than" word gets fifth --
and if we use one, tarap is optional --
The "of" word gets sixth or seventh --
and if we use an "of" word, the tamap is optional --
→ 11023 numerals