chunk 3: 11001 vRddhir Adaic

→ 11023 numerals

11001 A and aic are vRddhi. vRddhirAdaic
11002 a and eG are guNa. adeGguNaH
11003 guNa and vRddhi replace ik. ikoguNavRddhI
11004 But not before a soft that erased part of a root. nadhAtulopaArdhadhAtuke
11005 before kGit. kGitica
11007 Cluster means group of consonants. halonantarAssaMyogaH
11008 nasalized means "some air leaks off the nose". mukhanAsikAvacanonunAsikaH
11009 What has same position and openness is similar. tulyAsyaprayatnaMsavarNam
11010 vowel and consonant aren't . nAjjhalau
11011 I U e duals are nonjoiners. IdUdeddvivacanampragRhyam
11012 amI "those" . adasomAt
11013 e ze
11018 U~ . U~
11020 ghu are the dA dhA roots, except dAp daip. dAdhAghvadAp
11022 gha are tarap and tamap taraptamapaughaH


vRddhir Ad;aic ONPANINI 11001
A and aic are vRddhi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 16

Definition rule. This teaches that the letters A ai au are called vRddhi letters.


Rule vRddhireci says that when joining tathA + eva, we must replace the A and the e with one vRddhi letter.

That means that we must erase the A and the e, and put in their place one of A ai au.

Because of another rule (the most-alike rule), we must use ai --

tathA + eva vRddhireci tathaiva "indeed so"

You can hear this rule here.


ad;eG guNaH ONPANINI 11002
a and eG are guNa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 17

Definition rule. It says that the letters a e o are called guNa letters.

Example --

(1) According to rule hardsoft, the I of nI must be replaced with guNa when it is before tumun.

(2) Therefore, that I must be replaced with one of a e o. But we don't knowwith which one.

(3) rule most-alike explains clarifes that thereplacement must be e, not a or o --

nI + tumun hardsoft ne + tumunnetum "to lead"

As in the sentence --

tAGM grAmanM netum icchAmi "I want to lead her to the village"


iko guNa;vRddhI ONPANINI 11003
guNa and vRddhi replace ik.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 18

This is a talkaround, and means --

When any rule says "replace with guNa", or with vRddhi, without specifying what exactly it will replace, it will replace the ik only.

Example 1 --

Rule hardsoft sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH says -- " guNa before root affix"

and that means ikasHsArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH -- "replace ik with guNa before root affix"

so that rule will replace bibhI with bibhe before tip, bhI being an ik letter

but will not replace dadA with dada before tip, as A is not an ik letter

Example 2 --

miderguNaH says -- "replace mid with guNa"

and that means miderikoguNaH -- "replace the ik of mid with guNa".

So mid will turn into med.

Example 3 --

AdguNaH says "after a A replace with guNa"

And that means "after a A replace ik with guNa"

So rAjA + icchati turns into rAjecchati "king wants".

Similarly, rules jusica, hrasvasyaguNaH, guNoyaG;lukoH work only on the ik.


na dhAtu-lopa:: ArdhadhAtuke ONPANINI 11004
But not before a soft that erased part of a root.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 19

In more words --

" When a soft affix makes a root lose a piece, the ik letters remaining in that root are excepted from any rules that would replace them with guNa or vRddhi. "

Example --

The yaGluk root /lolu is made by erasing the ya of loluya, a yaG-ender root.

ac'' is a soft affix.

The remaining lolu root, before ac'', would ordinarily be affected by hardsoft, a rule that replaces with guNa, making lolava (with ecoya).

But because of this exception, hardsoft won't replace this u --

/lolu "reap lots" + ac'' aciznu loluva- "a great reaper"

(Note that the u was still replaced with u, because rule aciznu does not replace with guNa.)


kGiti ca ONPANINI 11005
(Do NOT replace ik with guNa vRddhi) before kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 20

This stops all rules that replace with guNa or vRddhi before root affixes if the affix is kGit.

As for instance, rules hardsoft and puganta replace things with guNa before many root affixes, such as soft tumun, hard tip, soft Nal --

nI + tumun hardsoft netum "to lead"

dviS + tip puganta dveS + tip STunA dveSTi "hates"

cikSip + Nal puganta cikSepa "threw"

But those rules won't work before kGit affixes such as kta, caG, and the tas that replaces laT --

nI + ktanIta- "led"

anInRt + caG + t'''anInRtat "he made (them) dance"

dviS + laT tas STunA dviSTas "both hate"


halo 'nantarAH saMyogaH ONPANINI 11007
Cluster means group of consonants.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 21

The word cluster means two or more consonants with no vowels in between.


Rules halGyA and others turn hanumat- + su into hanumAnt.

The " nt " in hanumAnt is a cluster because this rule says so.

Rule saMyogAnta works here because nt is a cluster ----

hanumat m + su atvasanta hanumAts ugidacA hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt saMyogAnta hanumAn


mukha;nAsikA-vacano 'nunAsikaH ONPANINI 11008
nasalized means "some air leaks off the nose".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 22

A sound is nasalized (anunAsika) when it is pronounced with the flap that is between the back of the mouth and the nasal cavity lowered, so that some air leaks through the nose ( noseleak). Maybe in addition to the air leaking through the mouth, maybe not.

In Sanskrit there are two sorts of nasalized sounds --

(1) The five nasals (J m G N n) and the M sound are always nasalized.

(2) Some of the other consonants, and all the vowels, can either be pronounced normally, with the flap up, or nasalized, with the flap down allowing a noseleak. This seldom happens -- only when some special rules, such as torli, force it, or others like aNopra allow it optionally. Notice that a nasalized d is a n.

If you have never heard the difference between a nasalized vowel and a normal vowel, listening to this video might help --

a pro teacher explaining the nasalized vowels of French

In this website, the sounds of type (2) are written with a moondot (~) right after the letter that represent that sound when it is not nasalized. Yet, in ordinary Sanskrit spelling, the nasalization is not written at all (outside of grammar books).

The exception is nasalized ell sound made by torli. This one, in theory, should be spelled with a moondot on top of an ordinary ell, but in practice nearly always ends up mispelled as Ml or lM. The indology epics spell that one as "&l" plus space.


tulyAsya-prayatnaM savarNam ONPANINI 11009
What has same position and openness is similar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 23

Example 1. The letters ch and j are pronounced with the same position ( palatal) and openness (fully closed). Therefore ch and j are similar.

Example 2. D and N have same position ( curledback) and same openness (fully closed). So they are similar. One of them is nasalized, but NVM that.

Example 3. I and i are similar to each other. They have the same position (middle of tongue raised) and openness (half-open). They have different duration (see UkAlo), but NVM that.

Counterexample. s and t are not similar, because they have different openness -- t is closed, while s is almost closed. The position is the same, dental, but NVM.

Counterexample. s and z have the same openness (a bit open) but not the same position, so not similar.




The most important groups of similar letters are --

a A

i I

u U


(the ec aren't savarNa to anything, not even to themselves)

ku -- k kh g gh G ( also known as tavarga )

cu -- c ch j jh J ( cavarga )

Tu -- T Th D Dh N ( Tavarga )

tu -- t th d dh n ( tavarga )

pu -- p ph b bh m ( pavarga )


nAj;jhalau ONPANINI 11010
vowel and consonant aren't ( similar).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 24

Exception to tulyAsya-prayatnaM savarNam -- vowels are never similar to consonants, not even if they have the same position and openness.

Examples --

R and r have the same position ( curledback) and openness ("makes contact"), but they are not similar.

i and z have the same position ( palatal) and openness ("slightly open"), but they are not similar.

ac + hal + au jhalAJjazonte aj + hal + au jhayoho aj + jhal + auajjhalau "vowel and consonant"


Id;Ud;ed dvivacanaM pragRhyam ONPANINI 11011
I U e duals are nonjoiners.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 25

By rule pluta;pragRhyA, nonjoiner vowels do not change; they are unaffected by ikoyaNaci, akassa, eGaHpa, ecoya.

Examples with the dual nouns zakunI, gurU, dRSTe --

zakunI: apatatAm "two birds flew"

gurU: UcatuH "both teachers said"

dRSTe: aje: anaDuhA "the ox saw two she-goats"

kadalIphale: icchAmi "i want two bananas"

And with plavete a dual verb --

plavete: azvau "two horses jump"

See also next rule, amI "those" is a nonjoiner .

plavante 'zvAH "horses jump"

dRSTe 'je 'naDuhA "after the ox saw the he-goat"

azvau + aplavetAm ecoya azvAv aplavetAm "two horses jumped"

maNIvoSTrasyalambete priyauvatsataraumama " my beloved calves dangle from the camel like a pair of jewels "


adaso mAt ONPANINI 11012
amI "those" (is a nonjoiner).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 26

This amI "those" is masculine adas- with jas. The m came from eta::Idbahuvacane.

Example --

amI azvAH "those horses"


ze ONPANINI 11013
(z)e (is nonjoiner)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 27

vedic rule.

The ONLY thing this rule teaches is that the asme in the following stanza of the Rgveda is correct, in spite of ecoya etc --

asm(e) indrA;bRhaspatI "to us, O Indra and bRhaspati"

ray(i)nM dhattaM zatagv(i)nam "riches vouchsafe hundredfold"

(a)zvAvantaM sahasr(i)Nam "With store of horses, thousandfold."

Rgveda 4.49.4


U~ (is optionally nonjoiner before iti).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 28

So we may say either

U~ iti "saying oo"


viti "saying oo"

The letter U of this rule carries a moondot, not a topdot. So this rule is chanted as a nasalized U, and not as an U followed by an M sound.

This word U~ is some sort of interjection.


dA;dhA ghv adAp ONPANINI 11020
ghu are the dA dhA roots, except dAp daip.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 29

The most common of the ghu roots are dA "give" and dhA "put", both zluclass --

dA + laT tipdA + zlu + tidadA + tidadAti "gives"

dhA + laT tipdhA + zlu + tidadhAti "puts"

The roots do dhe are also ghu, because they turn into dA dhA by Adeca_u.

Being ghu triggers some rules, such as dodadghoH, aca::upa, ghumA, ghvasore, gAti;sthA;, IhalyaghoH .


tarap;tamapau ghaH ONPANINI 11022
gha are tarap and tamapmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 30

tara(p) means "-er", "more", "very". Examples --

kRSNaH "black"

kRSNataraH "blacker ; very black"

The "than" word gets fifth --

kAkAt kRSNataraH "blacker than crow"

and if we use one, tarap is optional --

kAkAt kRSNaH "blacker than crow"

tama(p) means "-est", "most", "very". Examples --

kRSNaH "black"

kRSNatamaH "blackest; very black"

The "of" word gets sixth or seventh --

kAkAnAGM kRSNatamaH "the blackest of crows"

kAkeSu kRSNatamaH "the blackest of crows"

zakuniSu dhImattamaH kAkaH "among birds crow is smartest"

and if we use an "of" word, the tamap is optional --

kAkAnAm kRSNaH "the blackest of crows"

sa buddhimAn manuSyeSu "he's the smartest among humans"

dhImAn kAkazH zakuniSu "among birds crow is smartest"


chunk 3: 11001 vRddhir Adaic

→ 11023 numerals