74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

82001 From this point on, rules cantgoback. pUrvatrAsiddham
82007 Nounbasefinal n to lopa. nalopaHprAtipadikAntasya
82008 But not before calling. naGisambuddhyoH
82009 matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc. mAdupadhAyAzcamatorvoyavAdibhyaH
82010 after a stop. jhayaH
82023 Chop wordfinal cluster. saMyogAntasyalopaH
82024 But after r, delete s only. rAtsasya
82025 before dh. dhica
82026 after serious before serious. jhalojhali
82027 iT-less after short . hrasvAdaGgAt
82028 iSic disappears before It''' Is'''. iTaITi
82029 Delete s k that start a cluster that is or is wordfinal. skossaMyogAdyoranteca
82030 cu to ku. coHkuH
82031 h to Dh. hoDhaH
82032 d-starter h-ender root to gh . dAderdhAtorghaH
82033 Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to . vAdruhamuhaSNuhaSNihAm
82034 nah to dh . nahodhaH
82035 Ah to th . AhasthaH
82036 ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S . vrazcabhrasjasRjamRjayajarAjabhrAjacchazAMSaH
82037 baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv. ekAcobazobhaSjhaSantasyasdhvoH
82038 dadh to before t th s dh. dadhastathozca


pUrvatr/Asiddham ONPANINI 82001
From this point on, rules cantgoback.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 909

This is a headline.

I nickname it the " cantgoback rule", because it teaches --

" After any of the rules after this point works,

none of the rules that are before that rule can work anymore. "

Or, in less words --

"from here onwards, you can't go back".

Example 1.

When joining dvau + atra "there are two here", rule ecoya replaces au with Av, then rule lopazzA turns av into a, so we can say dvA atra. At this point it might look like akassa should work. But it can't work, because 83019 lopazzA is after 82001, and 61101 akassa is before 83019 lopazzA, so we cannot go back.

Example 2.

The rules that are before 82001 turn hanumant- + su into hanumAnts first, then into hAnumant (by halGyA).

Now rule 82007 nalopaHprA cannot work, but 82023 saMyogAnta does, making hanumAn.

At this point it looks like nalopaHprA might work. But it doesn't, because 82007 nalopaHprA is before 82023 saMyogAnta, and the cantgoback principle says that after we have used 82023, we can't use any rule before 82023.

The rules below this one, that is, chapters 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4, are called the tripAdI "the three chapters at the end". Sometimes I call them the " assembly line", because they work in order.


na-lopaH prAtipadik%Antasya ONPANINI 82007
Nounbasefinal ( wordfinal) n to lopa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 910

Example 1.

rAjan- is a nounbase, and when we add su after it we get rAjAns.

This rAjAns is a word, and the rAjAn part inside it is a nounbase.

So this n of rAjAns is at the end of a nounbase, but not at the end of a word.

Now, when rule halGyA deletes the s, we get rAjAn, which is both a word and a nounbase.

So the n is now both wordfinal and nounbasefinal.

Then nalopaHprA deletes it, and we say rAjA.

Example 2.

The two words rAjJaH puruSaH "man of the king" can be made into a compound that means "king's officer, policeman".

rAjJas is built from rAjan- + Gas. The rAjan- nounbase is not a word, but after we add Gas, the resulting rAjJas is a word by rule suptiG.

Rule supodhA teaches that when we form the compound, and put rAjJAs in front of puRuSas, rAjJas loses its Gas by luk, and becomes rAjan again. This rAjan is still a word because rule nalumatAGgasya says so.

Therefore now the n of rAjan is both nounbasefinal and wordfinal.

So this rule nalopaHprA deletes the n, and we say rAjapuruSaH.


na Gi;saMbuddhyoH ONPANINI 82008
But not before calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 911

Exception to nalopaHprA above -- the wordfinal nounbasefinal n does stay if it was before calling.

Examples --

rAjan- + @calling su halGyA rAjan- + loparAjan "hey king"

yogin- + @callingyogin "hey yogi"


m;Ad upadhAyAz ca mator vo 'yavAdibhyaH ONPANINI 82009
matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 912

Examples with m a A-enders --

vRkSAs + matup → vRkSavat- "treed"

mAlA + matup → mAlAvat- "garlanded"

kim + matup → kiMvat- "having what?"

Examples with nexttolast a --

yazas + matup → yazasvat- "good-famed"

saras + matup → sarasvat- "many-laked"

Counterexamples with no m a A --

gomat- "that has cattle"

See also rule jhayaH.

yavamat- "that has barley"

in serious ancient writers, they are fine. Just don't make your own exceptions, okay?


jhayaH ONPANINI 82010
( matup to v) after a stop.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 913

Addition to mAdupa.


vidyutvat- "that has lightning",

as in megho vidyutvAn "the cloud has (lots of) lightning"

marutvat- "that has marut s"

marutvAn indraH "indra, who is the lord of the winds"

dRSadvat- "that has rocks"

dRSadvantaH parvatAH "the Rocky Mountains"

dRSadvantaH "the Rockies"

garutmat- "that has wings"


saMyog%Antasya lopaH ONPANINI 82023
Chop wordfinal cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 914

As in --

nRt + laG jhinRt + zyan + jhinRt + zyan + ant''' luGlaG anRtyant → anRtyan "they danced"

hanumat(up)- + su atvasa hanumAts ugidacA hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt → hanumAn "pn"

See also exception rAtsasya.


rAt sasya ONPANINI 82024
But after r, delete s only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 915

Exception to saMyogAnta. Rule saMyogAnta will work normally on rs --

pitR + Gas Rta::ut piturs saMyogAnta pitur "of father"

but it won't work on the other clusters that start with r --

Urj- + su halGyA Urj coHkuH Urg beforepause Urk "strength; juice"

mRj + laG tip OR sip itazca mRj + t''' OR s''' halGyA mRj luGlaG aT + mRj mRjervRddhiH amArj vrazca amArS jhalAJjazonte amArD beforepause amArT "you / he / she rubbed"

The only Sanskrit words that end in two consonants are made by this exception.


dhi ca ONPANINI 82025
(Erase s) before dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 916

This erases the s of sic, tAs, and lukclass roots that end in s (like As), before dhvam and dhve'''.

Examples --

As + laT dhvamAs + dhve'''Adhve "y'all sit"

As + laG dhvam ADajAdInAm AT + As + dhvAm akassa Adhvam "y'all sat"

As + loT dhvamAs + dhvam''''Adhvam "please sit everybody"

kR + luT dhvamkR + tAs + dhve''' → kartAdhve "y'all will do"


jhalo jhali ONPANINI 82026
(Erase sic) after serious before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 917

Examples --

bhid + luG ta luGlaG abhid + taabhid + sic + ta → abhid + ta kharica abhitta "he broke"

gAh + luG thAsgAh + sic + thAs luGlaG agAh + s + thAs → agAh + thAs hoDhaH agADhthAs jhaSastatho agADhdhAs STunA agADhDhas DhoDhelopaH agADhAs "you went into"


hrasvAd aGgAt ONPANINI 82027
iT-less ( sic to lopa) after short (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 918 luG iT

As in --

kR + luG ta → .. → aT + kR + sic + ta → akRta "made"

but before non- serious AtAm, the s stays --

kR + luG tas → .. → aT + kR + sic + AtAm kric akRSAtAm "both made"

and after long o too --

plu + luG ta → .. → aT + plu + sic + ta hardsoft aplosta kric aploSta STunA aploSTa "jumped"


iTa:: ITi ONPANINI 82028
iSic disappears before It''' Is'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 919

After sic and iSic, t''' s''' turn into It''' Is''' by astisico'pRkte. The sic stays, but the iSic is completely zapped. So after the seT root lU we have --

lU + luG tip → .. → alU + iSic + t'''alU + iSic + It''' sicivRddhiH alau + iSic + It → alau + It''' ecoya alAvIt "he reaped"

You might want to remember this rule as " iSIt iSIs to It Is ".

After the other luG affixes, iS stays --

alU + iSic + jhi sij;abhyasta alU + iS + jus sicivRddhiH alau + iS + us ecoya alAviSus "they reaped"

The sic that has no iT stays before all luG affixes. So with the aniT root dRz -- --

dRz + luG tip → .. → adrAkSIt "he saw"

dRz + luG jhi → .. → adrAkSus "they saw"

See also tanAdibhyasta;thAsoH, a similar rule that works befor ta thAs.


skoH saMyogAdyor ante ca ONPANINI 82029
Delete s k that start a cluster that is (before serious) or is wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 920

Exception to saMyogAnta above, that would have dropped the last letter.

Example of deleting s --

@soft liG tipyAsuT + tipyAs(uT) + t'''yAst → yAt'''

as in

bhU + yAt'''bhUyAt "may he be"

Examples of deleting k --

takS "hew" + kta → taS + tataSTa- "was hewn, was pared"

caks + laG ta luGlaG acakSta → acaSta STunA acaSTa "he said"


coH kuH ONPANINI 82030
cu (that is wordfinal or before serious) to ku.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 921

This changes c ch j jh J into k kh g gh G respectively.

Example of wordfinal c to k --

vAc- + su halGyA vAc → vAk jhalAJjazonte vAg beforepause vAk @f "speech"

Example of non- wordfinal j to g before t, which is a serious --

bhuj + tumun puganta bhoj + tum → bhog + tum kharica bhoktum "to eat"

Sometimes cu will change into ku before a non- serious by rule cajoHku.


ho DhaH ONPANINI 82031
h (that is wordfinal or before serious) to Dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 922

Examples of wordfinal h --

madhulih- + bhis → madhuliDh + bhis jhalAJjazonte madhuliDbhis "by bees"

madhulih- + su halGyA madhulih → madhuliDh jhalAJjazonte madhuliD beforepause madhuliT "bee"

Examples of h before serious --

guh + kta → guDh + ta jhaSasta guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gu + Dha Dhralope gU + DhagUDha- "hidden"

vah + tRc → .. → voDhR- "carrier, puller"

sah + tumun → .. → soDhum "to endure"

The o came from sahivahorodavarNasya.

See also exception nahodhaH below.


dAder dhAtor ghaH ONPANINI 82032
d-starter h-ender root to gh (if wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 923

So dah druh duh turn into dagh drugh dugh. Exception to hoDhaH, that would have made duDh druDh duDh.

Examples --

dah + kta → dagh + ta jhaSasta;tho dagh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi dagdha- "burnt"

duh + laT taduh + te''' jhaSasta;tho duh + dhe → dugh + dhe jhalAJjazjhazi dugdhe "he milks"

ekAcoba will work if it can --

duh + laT sip puganta doh + sip → dogh + si ekAcoba dhogh + si kharica dhok + si kric dhokSi "you milk"

druh + su halGyA druh → drugh ekAcoba dhrugh jhalAJjazonte dhrug beforepause dhruk "hater"

kAmaduh- @f + su halGyA kamaduh → kamadugh ekAcoba kAmadhugh jhalAJjazonte kAmadhug beforepause kAmadhuk "desire-yielder" (name of a mythical cow)


vA druha;muha; SNuha;SNihAm ONPANINI 82033
Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to (gh when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 924

Exception to hoDhaH, that would have made Dh.

When wordfinal --

druh- + su → drugh + su halGyA drugh throwback dhrugh jhalAJjazonte dhrug "harmer"

As in mitradhrug "friend-harmer, traitor".

Before serious t --

druh- + tRc → droghdhR- jhalAMjazjhazi drogDhR-

In the alternative, hoDhaH works as usual --

druh- + su halGyA druh hoDhaH druDh throwback dhruDh jhalAJjazonte dhruD "harmer"

As in mitradhruD "friend-harmer".

druh- + tRc hoDhaH droDhdhR- DhoDhe droDhR-


naho dhaH ONPANINI 82034
nah to dh (when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 925

Exception to hoDhaH. The root nah nahyati 04.0062 "tie" turns into nadh, not naDh.


nah + kta → nadh + ta jhaSastatho nadh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi nad + dhanaddha- "tied"

More examples in the kAzikA.


Ahas thaH ONPANINI 82035
Ah to th (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 926

Exception to hoDhaH. Only example --

brU + laT sip bruvaHpaJcA brU + thal bruvaHpaJcA Ah + thal → Aththa kharica Attha "you say"


vrazca;bhrasja;sRja; mRja;yaja;rAja; bhrAja;ccha;zAM SaH ONPANINI 82036
ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S (before serious and when wordfinal).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 927

Examples before serious t --

z to S --

dRz + kta → dRS + ta STunA dRSTa- "was seen"

dRz + tumun sRji;dRzo draz + tum → draS + tum STunA draSTum "to see"

ch to S. The cha mentioned in the rule replaces both ch proper, and its satellite c made by checa --

prach + tumun checa pracch + tum → praStum STunA praSTum

sRj to sRS --

sRj + tRnsRj + tR sRjidRzo sRaj + tR ikoya srajtR- → sraStR- STunA sraSTR- "loosener"

Examples with wordfinal --

z to S to D --

viz + su halGyA viz → viS jhalAMjazonte viD

viz + bhis → viS + bhis jhalAMjazonte viD + bhis "by settlers"

rAj to rAS to rAD --

samrAj- ( see morAji ) + su halGyA samrAj → samrAS jhalAJjazonte samrAD beforepause samrAT "emperor"

parivrAj- + su → .. → parivrAD "wandering mendicant"


ekAco bazo bhaS jhaS-antasya s;dhvoH ONPANINI 82037
baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 928

I call this rule as "the throwback rule", because it changes --

dugh into dhug,

budh into bhud,

guDh into ghuD,

and that looks as if the fake h jumped back.

Example when the h of duh- is wordfinal and turns into gh --

duh + laG tip luGlaG aduh + tipaduh + t''' halGyA aduh dAderdhAtorghaH adugh → adhug "he milked"

duh- + su halGyA duh dAderdhAtorghaH dugh → dhugh jhalAMjazo'nte dhug "milker"

as in --

kAma- + duh- + sukAmadhug "wish-yielder"

but h is not wordfinal in --

kAma- + duh- + amkAmaduham "wish-yielder"

Examples with dh Dh gh before s --

budh + sya + te''' → bhudh + syate puganta bhodhsyate kharica bhotsyate "he will wake up"

duh + luG tipduh + t''' luGlaG aduh + taduh + ksa + t dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + t → adhughsat kharica adhuksat kric adhukSat "he milked"

duh + luG dhvam luGlaG a + duh + dhvamaduh + ksa + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + dhvam → adhughsadhvam kharica adhuksadhvam kric adhukSadhvam "y'all milked"

Example with duh before dhvam --

duh + laG dhvam luGlaG aduh + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + dhvam → adhughdhvam jhalAJjazjhazi adhugdhvam "y'all milked"


dadhas ta;thoz ca ONPANINI 82038
dadh to (dhadh-) before t th s dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 929

This " dadh " is the dadhA that came from dhA + zlu and lost A by znAbhyasta.

Examples before t, th, s, dh --

dhA + laT tas → .. → dadhA + tas znAbhyasta dadh + tas → dhadhthas jhalAJjazjhazi dhadthas kharica dhatthas "both are putting"

dhA + laT thas → .. → dadh + thas → dhadh + thas → .. → dhatthas "you two are putting"

dhA + laG thAs → .. → a + dadh + se''' → a + dhadhseadhadseadhatse "thou didst put"

dhA + laT dhvam → .. → dadh- + dhve''' → dhadhdhvedhaddhve "y'all are putting"

74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n