61001 reduplication ←

chunk 30: 61084 merge rules

→ 61111 non-mergers

61084 Replace previous and next with one. ekaHpUrvaparayoH
61085 That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following. antAdivacca
61087 A a with ik into guNa. AdguNaH
61088 with ec into vRddhi. vRddhireci
61089 with eti edhati Uh- . etyedhatyUThsu
61090 Merge A . ATazca
61093 Merge o with am zas into A automzasoH
61094 "a A" of a preverb before eG. eGipararUpam
61096 before us jus. usyapadAntAt
61097 "a" before guNa. atoguNe
61098 at of onomatopoeia with iti. avyaktAnukaraNasyAta::itau
61101 Merge ak with similar into long. akassavarNedIrghaH
61102 Merge ak with au jas zas into the lengthened ak. prathamayoHpUrvasavarNaH
61103 And then zas to n if masculine. tasmAcchasonaHpuMsi
61104 does not A a plus au zI. nAdici
61105 of long with au jas. dIrghAjjasica
61107 am to m . amipUrvaH
61108 after stretched. samprasAraNAcca
61109 After wordfinal eG, "a" . eGaHpadAntAdati
61110 Gasi Gas lose a GasiGasozca


ekaH pUrva-parayoH ONPANINI 61084
Replace previous and next with one.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 532

talkaround. The rules below, down to Rta::ut, replace two things with the same thing. They are called " merge rules" (ekAdeza).

Example 1.

Rule vRddhireci below teaches "replace A before e with ai". But that actually means "replace A with ai and replace the e with that same ai". So the rule turns rAjA + eti into rAjaiti "king goes".

Example 2.

Rule AdguNaH below teaches "after A replace i with e". But that actually means "replace i with e and replace the A with that same e". So rAjA + icchati makes rAjecchati "king wants".

Translating these rules literally is sort of inconvenient, so I will be translating them in the style " merge A with e into ai" or " merge A with i into e".

See also antAdivacca below.


ant'-Adivac ca ONPANINI 61085
That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 533

Example. Because of rule AdguNaH, when lauha- is before iSus we must replace both the a and the i with the same e, this way --

lauha- + iSuslauheSus "an iron arrow"

Now, because of this rule, this e must be considered to be the last letter of the word lauhe, and the first letter of the word eSus.


Ad guNaH ONPANINI 61087
( Merge) A a with ik into guNa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 534

Examples --

atra + idam → atredam "this is here"

mahA- + utsavas → mahotsavas "great festival"

mahA- + RSis → mahaSis uraNraparaH maharSis "great seer"

tava + LkAras → tavakArastavalkAras "your pronunciation of the letter L"

See also optional exception RtyakaH.


vRddhir eci ONPANINI 61088
( Merge "A a") with ec into vRddhi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 535

Exception to AdguNaH. We replace e ai o au with ai ai au au.

Examples before e o --

atra + eva → atraiva "right here"

tadA + eva → tadaiva "right then"

atra + odanas → atraudanaH "here's the cooked rice"

mahA + ojas- → mahaujas- "highly energetic, very powerful"

Examples before ai au --

jagAma + airAvatas → jagAmairAvataH "airAvata came"

tadA + aicchat → tadaicchat "then he wanted"

azva- + au → azvau "two horses"

na + mahAlaGkA + auSTrI → na mahAlaGkauSTrI "Australia is not full of camels"


ety;edhaty;UThsu ONPANINI 61089
( Merge "a A") with eti edhati Uh- (into vRddhi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 536

These eti edhati stand for all forms of the roots iN' and edh that start with an e. Uh- is a vedic rootnoun that means 'carrier' (from root vah, with stretching).

Before eti and edhati, this is an exception to the exception eGipararUpam, that would have made e --

upa + eti → upaiti "approach"

Before Uh-, this is an exception to AdguNaH, that would have made o not au --

vizva- + vAh- + Gas Uh- vizva + Uh- + Gasvizvauhas "of the all-sustaining"


ATaz ca ONPANINI 61090
Merge A(T) (with ik into vRddhi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 537

Exception to AdguNaH, that would make A plus ik into guNa.

This A(T) affix is made by several rules -- AD aj-AdInAm, AD uttama, AN nadyAH. The T label makes Adyantau work.


Iks + laG ta ADajA AT + IkS + zap + ta → aikS + a + taaikSaikSata "he saw"

iS + laG tipAT + iS + tip → .. → aicchat "wanted"

As + laG ta ADajA AT + As + ta akassa Asta "sat"

sarasvatI- + ( AT + Ge ) vRddhireci sarasvatI + ai ikoya sarasvatyai "to sarasvatI"

sItA- + ( yAT + Ge ) vRddhireci sItA + yaisItAyai "to sItA"


'' .auto 'm;zasoH ONPANINI 61093
Merge o with am zas into Ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 538

The only o nounbases in common use are go- and dyo-, so these four examples are the only ones relevant --

go- + amgAm "cow, bull"

go- + zasgAs "cows, bulls"

dyo- + amdyAm "sky"

dyo- + zasdyAs "skies"

A- + su = "into A"

ot- + Gasi = "after o".

Therefore "A + otas + amzasos" means " merge ot with am zas into A".


eGi pararUpam ONPANINI 61094
(Delete) "a A" of a preverb before eG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ 539

Exception to vRddhireci.

Examples --

pra + ejateprejate "shines all around, trembles"

upa + oSatiupoSati "burns, sprinkles"

This won't work before eti edhati, because of exception etyedhatyUThsu.


usy a-pad%AntAt ONPANINI 61096
(Delete A a) before us jus.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 540

There are three us affixes, and all replace jhi --

the jus made by jherjus, that always replaces liG jhi

the us made by parasmaipadAnANN that always replaces liT jhi

the jus made by sija, that sometimes replaces laG jhi and luG jhi

all three make this rule work.

Example with liG jus --

dviS + @hard liG jhidviS + jus yAsuT dviS + yAsus liGassa dviS + yA + us → dviSyus "they would hate"

Example with liT us --

dA + liT jhidA + us → .. → dadA + us → dadus "they gave"

Example with laG jus --

dA + zlu + laG jhi sija dA + zlu + jus → d + us zlau dAd + us hrasvaH dad + us luGlaG adadus "they gave"

Example with luG jus --

aT + dA + sic + jhi gAtisthA aT + dA + jhi AtaH a + dA + jus → adus "they gave"


ato guNe ONPANINI 61097
(Delete non- wordfinal) "a" before guNa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 541

Exception to akassa and vRddhireci --

a with a in the same word make a (exception to akassa, that would have made A)

pazya + anti''' → pazyanti "they see"

a with e in the same word make e (exception to vRddhireci, that would have made ai)

plava + e'''plave "I jump"


avyaktAnukaraNasy' .Ata:: itau ONPANINI 61098
( Merge) at of @onomatopoeia with iti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 542

So, paTat plus iti makes paTiti, as in --

paTity akarot "it went paT!"


akaH savarNe dIrghaH ONPANINI 61101
Merge ak with similar into long.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 543

Examples between words --

a A + a A

tatra + agaccham → tatrAgaccham "I went there"

atra + Agaccham → atrAgaccham "I came here"

sItA + abravIT → sItAbravIt "sItA said"

tadA + Arohat → tadArohat "then he climbed"

i + i

dadhi + icchAmi → dadhIcchAmi "I want curds"

u + u

zrImadbhagavadgItAsu + upaniSatsu → zrImadbhagavadgItasUpaniSatsu

R + R

payodharavistArayitR + RtuH → payodharavistArayitRRtuH

Examples inside a word --

yA + laT jhiyA + anti'''yAnti "they go"

Inside a word, exception atoguNe might apply.


prathamayoH pUrva-savarNaH ONPANINI 61102
Merge ak with au jas zas into the lengthened ak.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 544

In other words, " au jas zas lose their vowel after ak, and lengthen the ak".

Examples with short ak vowels --

azva- + jas → azvAs

RSi- + au → RSI

guru- + au → gurU

guru- + zas → gurUs tasmAccha gurUn

pitR- + zas → pitRRs tasmAccha pitRRn

mAtR- + zas → mAtRRs

The long ak vowels of course aren't replaced, but the zas still loses its a --

azvA- + zasazvAs

vRkI- + zasvRkIs

vadhU- + zasvadhUs'

strI- + zasstrIs (can be striyas too)

See also exceptions nAdici, dIrghAjjasica, jasica.


tasmAc chaso naH puMsi ONPANINI 61103
And then zas to n if masculine.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 545

Addition to prathamayo. After prathamayo lengthens the short of a masculine, replace s with n.

Examples with a i, u, R --

azva- + zas prathamayo azvA- + s → azvAn "horses"

kapi- + zas prathamayo kapI- + s → kapIn "monkeys"

guru- + zasgurUn

pitR- + zaspitRRn


n' Ad ici ONPANINI 61104
( prathamayo) does not (work on) A a plus au zI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 546

In the absence of prathamayo, rules vRddhireci and AdguNaH will work as usual --

azva- + au vRddhireci azvau

azvA- + au auGa::ApaH azvA- + zI AdguNaH azve "two mares"

phala + au napuMsakAcca phala- + zI AdguNaH phale "two results"

phala + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni


dIrghAj jasi ca ONPANINI 61105
(No prathamayo) of long with au jas.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 547

When a long is before au jas, prathamayo does not work, so we get either akassa --

azvA- + jasazvAs "mares"

or ikoyaNaci --

vyAghrI- @f + jasvyAghryas "tigresses"

vadhU- @f + auvadhvau "two wives"

grAmaNI- m @f + jasgrAmaNyas "mayors, principals"


ami pUrvaH ONPANINI 61107
am to m (after ak).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 548

Exception to atoguNe, akassa and ikoyaNaci.

azva- + am → azva + mazvam "horse"

azva- + Ap + am akassa azvA- + am → azvA + mazvAm "mare"

kapim "monkey"

nadIm "river"

gurum "teacher"

vadhUm "wife"

This rule does not work on neuters, because svamorna and atom work first.

kartR- n + am svamo kartR "fabber"

pitR- + am RtoGi pitaram "father"

pitR- m + am RtoGi pitaram "father"


samprasAraNAc ca ONPANINI 61108
(Delete whatever is) after stretched.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 549

talkaround rule. This rule teaches that rule igyaNassa, that says just " stretching means replacing yaN with ik ", actually stays for " stretching means replacing yaN with ik and deleting the vowel that is right afterwards."


eGaH padAntAd ati ONPANINI 61109
After wordfinal eG, "a" (disappears).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 550

Exception to ecoya, that would have made aya ava.

Examples --

vidyate + atra → vidyatetra "it's here"

azvas + atra sasaju azva + ru + atra atoro azva + u + atra AdguNaH azvo + atra → azvotra "there's a horse here"

Spelling --

In old times these were always spelled azvotra vidyatetra, just like they sound.

Nowadays, however, in carefully proofread books, a space and a flycrap is written at the place where the a disappeared, this way --

vidyate 'tra

azvo 'tra

This sign works like the apostrophe in "don't". This sign shows that an "o" went away and the "don't" was originally "do not". The sign helps English learners to notice that an "o" disappeared, but experienced users do not need it to understand what they are reading, so they will often mispell that as "dont" in email and chat. Expect most Sanskrit users to be similarly careless -- you'll find azvotra often.

Please note: when the eG and the a straddle the middle of a compound, there is no flycrap. So a compound of ziras- + agre is zirogre, not ziro'gre.

See also exception sarvatravibhASAgoH.


Gasi;Gasoz ca ONPANINI 61110
Gasi Gas lose a (after eG)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 551


kapi- + Gas gherGiti kape- + Gas → kapes "of monkey"

guru- + Gas gherGiti guro- + Gas → guros "of teacher"

go- + Gas → gos "of cow"

61001 reduplication ←

chunk 30: 61084 merge rules

→ 61111 non-mergers