61001 reduplication ←

chunk 30: 61084 merge rules

→ 61111 non-mergers

61084 Replace previous and next with one. ekaHpUrvaparayoH
61085 That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following. antAdivacca
61086 kric tuk rules ignore the effect of merge rules. SatvatukorasiddhaH
61087 A a with ik into guNa. AdguNaH
61088 with ec into vRddhi. vRddhireci
61089 with eti edhati Uh- . etyedhatyUThsu
61090 Merge A . ATazca
61093 Merge o with am zas into A automzasoH
61094 "a A" of a preverb before eG. eGipararUpam
61096 before us jus. usyapadAntAt
61097 "a" before guNa. atoguNe
61098 at of onomatopoeia with iti. avyaktAnukaraNasyAta::itau
61101 Merge ak with similar into long. akassavarNedIrghaH
61102 Merge ak with au jas zas into the lengthened ak. prathamayoHpUrvasavarNaH
61103 And then zas to n if masculine. tasmAcchasonaHpuMsi
61104 does not A a plus au zI. nAdici
61105 of long with au jas. dIrghAjjasica
61107 am to m . amipUrvaH
61108 after stretched. samprasAraNAcca
61109 After wordfinal eG, "a" . eGaHpadAntAdati
61110 Gasi Gas lose a GasiGasozca




(ekaHpUrva) (@mer)

ekaH pUrva-parayoH ONPANINI 61084
Replace previous and next with one.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 552

talkaround. The rules below, down to Rta::ut, replace two things with the same thing. They are called " merge rules" (ekAdeza).

Example 1.

Rule vRddhireci below teaches "replace A before e with ai". But that actually means "replace A with ai and replace the e with that same ai". So the rule turns rAjA + eti into rAjaiti "king goes".

Example 2.

Rule AdguNaH below teaches "after A replace i with e". But that actually means "replace i with e and replace the A with that same e". So rAjA + icchati makes rAjecchati "king wants".

Translating these rules literally is sort of inconvenient, so I will be translating them in the style " merge A with e into ai" or " merge A with i into e".

See also antAdivacca below.

KAZIKA adhikAro 'yam. khyatyAt parasya iti prAg etasmAt sUtrAd ity uttaraM yad vakSyAmas tatra pUrvasya parasya dvayor api sthAne ekAdezo bhavati ity etad veditavyam. vakSyati Ad guNa iti. tatrAci pUrvasya avarNAt ca parasya sthAne eko guNo bhavati. khaTvendraH mAlendraH. pUrvaparagrahaNaM dvayor api yugapad-Adeza-pratipatty-artham, ekasya eva hi syAt, nobhe saptamI-paJcamyau yugapat prakalpike bhavataH iti. ekagrahaNam pRthag-Adeza-nivRtty-arthaM, sthAnibhedAd dhi bhinnAdiSu natvavad dvAv Adezau syAtAm.

540 letters. -- 61C.bse 4 -- popularity 11




(antAdiva) (!ant)

ant'-Adivac ca ONPANINI 61085
That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 553

Example. Because of rule AdguNaH, when lauha- is before iSus we must replace both the a and the i with the same e, this way --

lauha- + iSuslauheSus "an iron arrow"

Now, because of this rule, this e must be considered to be the last letter of the word lauhe, and the first letter of the word eSus.

In this example, the fact that the e is the last letter of lauhe is important, because otherwise h would be the last and hoDhaH would work.

KAZIKA ekaH iti vartate, pUrvaparayoH iti ca. ekaH pUrvaparayoH iti yo 'yam ekAdezo vidhIyate sa pUrvasya antavad bhavati, parasyAdivad bhavati. yathA tasyAntaH Adir vA tadantarbhUtaH tadgrahaNena gRhyate, tadvadekAdezo 'pi tadgrahaNena grhyate ityeSo 'tidezArthaH. brahmabandhUH ityatra brahmabandhu iti prAtipadikam, UGiti aprAtipadikam, tayoH prAtipadikAprAtipadikayor yaH ekAdezaH sa prAtipadikasya antavad bhavati, yathA zakyate kartuM GyAp prAtipadikAt iti svAdividhiH. vRkSau ityatra subaukAraH asubakAraH, tayoH sub-asupor ekAdezaH supaH Adivad bhavati, yathA zakyate vaktuM subantaM padam iti. varNAzrayavidhau ayam anatAdivadbhAvo nisyate. tathA hi khaTvAbhiH ityatra antavadbhAvAbhAvAt ato bhisa ais iti na bhavati. hvayateH juhAva iti samprasAraNapUrvatvasya AdivadbhAvAhAvAt Ata au NalaH iti na bharvAta. asyai azvaH, asyA azvaH iti vRddhireci iti vRddhiH, eGaH padAntAdati ityatra vidhau Adivan na bhavati. pUrvaparasamudAya ekAdezasya sthAnI, sa hi tena nivartayate. tatra avayavayorAnumAnikaM sthAnitvam iti tadAzrayaM kAryaM sthAnivadbhAvAdaprAptam ityantAdivadbhAvo vidhIyate.

335 letters. -- 61C.bse 153 -- popularity 3

2 next pages for chris

554 /kric /tuk rules ignore the effect of @merge rules.




(Satvatuko) (!Sat)

Satva;tukor asiddhaH ONPANINI 61086
kric tuk rules ignore the effect of merge rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 554

Example of a kric rule ignoring the effect of eGaHpa.

After rules sasaju, atoro, AdguNaH, turn azva + asi into azvo asi, rule eGaHpa, which is a merge rule, replaces both the o and the next a one o, and we get --

azvosi "you're a horse"

At this point osi is a word that starts with o (see antAdivacca), and the si is an affix ( sip). So, ordinarily, kric would make azvoSi here. But that does not happen, because merge rules do not trigger kric rules.

Example of a tuk rule ignoring the effect of akassa.

After we join adhi + i in --

adhi + iG + lyap akassa adhI + lyap

we would ordinarily expect hrasvasyapiti to do nothing, as I is a long vowel. However, as hrasvasyapiti is a tuk rule, and akassa is a merge rule, hrasvasyapiti ignores the change of i into I, and works anyway --

adhi + iG + lyap akassa adhI + lyap hrasvasyapiti adhI + tuk + yaadhItya "after studying"

KAZIKA Satve tuki ca kartavye ekadezo 'siddho bhavati, siddhakAryaM na karoti ityarthaH. asiddhavacanam AdezalakSaNapratiSedhartham, utsargalakSaNabhAvArthaM ca. ko 'sicatityatra eGaH padAntAdati iti ekAdezasya paraM pratyAdivadbhAvAtapadAderiNa uttarasya Adezasya sakArasya SatvaM prApnoti, tadasiddhatvAn na bhavati. ko 'sya, yo 'sya, ko 'smai, yo 'smai ityekAdezasya asiddhatvAtiNaH iti SatvaM na bhavati. tugvidhau adhItya, preta ityatra ekAdezasya asiddhatvAt hrasvasya piti kRti tuk iti tug bhavati. samprasAranaGITsu pratiSedho vaktavyaH. samprasAraNe brahmahUSu. samprasAraNapUrvatvasya asiddhatvAt SatvaM na prApnoti. Gau vRkSe cchatram, vRkSe chatram. iTi apace cchatram, apace chatram. AdguNasya asiddhatvAd hrasvalakSaNo nityo 'tra tuk prApnoti, dIrghAt, padAntAd vA iti tugnikalpa iSyate.

631 letters. -- 61C.bse 182 -- popularity 1




(AdguNaH) (!Adg)

Ad guNaH ONPANINI 61087
( merge) A a with ik into guNa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 555

Examples --

atra + idam → * atredam "this is here"

mahA- + utsavas → * mahotsavas "great festival"

mahA- + RSis → * mahaSis uraNraparaH maharSis "great seer"

tava + LkAras → * tavakAras RdvadL tavalkAras "your pronunciation of the sound L"

See also optional exception RtyakaH.

KAZIKA acIty anuvartate. avarNAt paro yo 'c ca pUrvo yo 'varNaH tayoH pUrva-parayoH avarNAcoH sthAne eko guNa Adezo bhavati. tavedam. khaTvendraH. mAlendraH. tavehate. khaTvehate. tavodakam. khaTvodakam. tavarzyaH. khaTvarzyaH. tavalkAraH. khaTvalkAraH. L-kArasya sthAne yo 'ne yo 'N tasya lapratvam iSyate.

187 letters. -- 61C.bse 229 -- popularity 49




(vRddhireci) (!vRd)

vRddhir eci ONPANINI 61088
( merge "A a") with ec into vRddhi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 556

Exception to AdguNaH. We replace e ai o au with ai ai au au.

Examples before e o --

atra + eva → * atraiva "right here"

tadA + eva → * tadaiva "right then"

atra + odanas → * atraudanaH "here's the cooked rice"

mahA + ojas- → * mahaujas- "highly energetic, very powerful"

Examples before ai au --

jagAma + airAvatas → * jagAmairAvataH "airAvata came"

tadA + aicchat → * tadaicchat "then he wanted"

azva- + au → * azvau "two horses"

na + mahAlaGkA + auSTrI → * na mahAlaGkauSTrI "Australia is not full of camels"

KAZIKA Atiti vartate. avarNAt paro ya ec, eci ca pUrvo yaH avarNaH, tayoH pUrvaparayoH avarNaicoH sthAne vRddhirekAdezo bhavati. AdguNasya apavAdaH. brahamaiDakA. khaTvaiDakA. brahmaitikAyanaH. khaTvaitikAyanaH. brahmaudanaH. khaTvaudanaH. brahmaupagavaH. khaTvaupagavaH.

360 letters. -- 61C.bse 272 -- popularity 23




(etyedhatyU) (!ety)

ety;edhaty;UThsu ONPANINI 61089
( merge "a A") with eti edhati Uh- (into vRddhi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 557

These eti edhati stand for all forms of the roots iN' and edh that start with an e. Uh- is a vedic rootnoun that means 'carrier' (from root vah, with stretching).

Before eti and edhati, this is an exception to the exception eGipararUpam, that would have made e --

upa + eti → * upaiti "approach"

Before Uh-, this is an exception to AdguNaH, that would have made o not au --

vizva- + vAh- + Gas Uh- vizva + Uh- + Gasvizvauhas "of the all-sustaining"

KAZIKA vRddhireci iti vartate, Atiti ca. tad etad ej-grahaNam eter eva vizeSaNaM , na punar edhateH, avyabhicArAt, UThazca sambhavAt. iN gatau ityetasmin dhAtau eci, edha vRddhau ity etasminn UThi ca pUrvaM yadavarNaM tatazca paro yo 'c, tayoH pUrvaparyoH avarNAcoH sthAne vRddhir ekAdezo bhavati. upaiti. upaiSi. upaimi. upaidhate. praidhate. praSThauhaH. praSThauhA. praSThauhe. UThi AdguNApavAdo vRddhir vidhIyate. etyedhatyoH tu eGi pararUpApavAdaH. omAGozca 61095 ityetat tu pararUpaM na bAdhyate, yena na aprApte yo vidhirArabhyate sa tasya bAdhako bhavati iti, purastAdapavAdA anantarAn vidhIn badhante iti vA. tena iha na bhavati, upa A itaH upetaH iti. eci iteva, upa itaH upetaH. akSAdUhinyAM vRddhir vaktavyA. akSauhiNI. svAdIreriNyor vRddhir vaktavyA. svairam. svairiNI. prAdUDhoDhyeSaiSyeSu vRddhir vaktavyA. prauDhaH. prauDhiH. praiSaH. praiSyaH. Rte ca tRtIyAsamAse 'varNAd vRddhir vaktavyA. sukhena RtaH sukhArtaH. duHkhena RtaH duHkhArtaH. RtaH iti kim? sukhena itaH sukhetaH. tRtIyA iti kim? paramartaH. samAse iti kim? sukhenartaH. pravatsatarakambalavasanAnAmrNe vRddhir vaktavyA. pra prArNam. vatsatara vatsatarArNam. kambala kambalArNam. vasana vasanArNam. RNadazAbhyAM vRddhir vaktavyA. RNArNam. dazArNam.

330 letters. -- 61C.bse 291 -- popularity 3




(ATazca) (/AT)

ATaz ca ONPANINI 61090
merge A(T) (with ik into vRddhi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 558

Exception to AdguNaH, that would make A plus ik into guNa.

This A(T) affix is made by several rules -- AD-aj-AdInAm, AD uttama, AN nadyAH. The T label makes Adyantau work.

Examples:

Iks + laG ta AD-aj-AdInAm AT + IkS + zap + ta → * aikS + a + taaikSaikSata "he saw"

iS + laG tipAT + iS + tip → .. → aicchat "wanted"

KAZIKA eci iti nivRttam. aci ityanuvartate. ATaH paro yo ac, aci ca pUrvo ya AT, tayoH pUrvaparayoH ADacoH sthAne vRddhir ekAdezo bhavati. aikSiSTa. aikSata. aikSiSyata. aubhIt. Ardhnon. aubjIt. cakAro 'dhikavidhAnArthaH, usi omAGozca 61095 iti pararUpabAdhanArthaH. ausrIyat. auGkArIyat. A UDhA oDhA, tAmaicchatauDhIyat.

Before non- ik, AT behaves normally --

As + laG ta AD-aj-AdInAm AT + As + ta akassa Asta "sat"

AT + Ge vRddhireci ai

260 letters. -- 61C.bse 371 -- popularity 12




(automzasoH) (!Wto)

'' .auto 'm;zasoH ONPANINI 61093
merge o with am zas into Ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 559

The only o nounbases in common use are go- and dyo-, so the only examples are --

go- + amgAm "cow, bull"

go- + zasgAs "cows, bulls"

dyo- + amdyAm "sky"

dyo- + zasdyAs "skies"

KAZIKA otaH ami zasi ca parataH pUrvaparayoH AkAraH Adezo bhavati. gAM pazya. gAH pazya. dyAM pazya. dyAH pazya. dyozabdo 'pi okArAnta eva vidyate, tato 'pi paraM sarvanAmasthAnaM NitiSyate, tena nAprAptAyAM vRddhau ayam AkAro vidhIyamAnastAM bAdhate. am iti dvitIyaikavacanaM gRhyate, zasA sAhacaryAt, supi iti cAdhikArAt. tena acinavam, asunavam ityatra na bhavati.

117 letters. -- 61C.bse 430 -- popularity 2

755 (@Strong is) /Nit after /go-.




(eGipara) (!eGi)

eGi pararUpam ONPANINI 61094
(Delete) "a A" of a preverb before eG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ 560

Exception to vRddhireci.

Examples --

pra + ejateprejate "shines all around, trembles"

upa + oSatiupoSati "burns, sprinkles"

This won't work before eti edhati, because of exception etyedhatyUThsu.

156 letters. -- 61C.bse 468 -- popularity 2

1271 /prAdi are !pra etc.




(usyapadA) (!us)

usy a-pad%AntAt ONPANINI 61096
(Delete A a) before us jus.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 561

There are three us affixes, and all replace jhi --

the jus made by jherjus, that always replaces liG jhi

the us made by parasmaipadAnANN that always replaces liT jhi

the jus made by sija, that sometimes replaces laG jhi and luG jhi

all three make this rule work.

Example with liG jus --

dviS + @hard liG jhidviS + jus yAsuT dviS + yAsus liGassa dviS + yA + us → * dviSyus "they would hate"

Example with liT us --

dA + liT jhidA + us → .. → dadA + us → * dadus "they gave"

Example with laG jus --

dA + zlu + laG jhi sija dA + zlu + jus → * d + us zlau dAd + us hrasvaH dad + us luGlaG adadus "they gave"

Example with luG jus --

aT + dA + sic + jhi gAtisthA aT + dA + jhi AtaH a + dA + jus → * adus "they gave"

KAZIKA Atityeva. avarNAtapadAntAtusi pUrvaparayoH AdguNApavAdaH pararUpam ekAdezo bhavati. bhindyA us bhindyuH. chindyA us chindyuH. adA usaduH. ayA usayuH. apadAntAd iti kim? kA usrA kosrA. kA uSitA koSitA. Atityeva, cakruH. abibhayuH.

If you are curious: the literal translation of the rule is

' non- wordfinal a A merges with us into us '

It is necessary to specify "nonwordfinal" so that the rule applies only to us affixes, and not to the us letters that start a word. Otherwise this rule would override AdguNaH in --

kA + usrA AdguNaH kosrA "which cow?"

687 letters. -- 61C.bse 485 -- popularity 9

2 next pages for chris

53 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.

206 /iN' and !ik to /gAG before /luG.

398 Optionally /laG (/jhi to /jus after !A).

793 !yA (of @hard /yAsuT) to !iy after !a, .

913 But the @stop after /zar (stays).

1078 @Hard @flat /liG.




(atoguNe) (!atog)

ato guNe ONPANINI 61097
(Delete non- wordfinal) "a" before guNa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 562

Exception to akassa and vRddhireci --

a with a in the same word make a (exception to akassa, that would have made A)

pazya + anti''' → * pazyanti "they see"

a with e in the same word make e (exception to vRddhireci, that would have made ai)

plava + e'''plave "I jump"

KAZIKA apadAntAtiti vartate. akArAtapadantAt guNe parataH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pararUpam ekAdezo bhavati. pacanti. yajanti. akaH savarne dIrghasya apavAdaH. pace, yaje ityatra vRddhireci iti vRddhiH prApnoti. ataH iti kim? yAnti. vAnti. guNe iti kim? apace. ayaje. apadAntAtityeva, daNDAgram. yupAgram.

There are no examples with a + o, because no affix starts with o.

248 letters. -- 61C.bse 538 -- popularity 44




(avyaktAnu) (!avy)

avyaktAnukaraNasy' .Ata:: itau ONPANINI 61098
( merge) at of onomatopoeia with iti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 563

An onomatopoieia is a word that means a sound and sounds roughly like it. For instance, in an English comic book, the word "slam" might be used to suggest the sound of a door suddenly closing. That word is the onomatopoeia "slam", which is not the same as the verb "to slam".

An example in Sanskrit would be the word "paTat", that means "the sound paT".

So, according to this rule, paTat plus iti makes paTiti, as in --

paTity akarot "it went paT!"

KAZIKA avyaktam aparisphuTavarNam, tadanukaraNaM parisphuTavarNam eva kenacit sAdRzyena tadavyaktam anukaroti, tasya yo atzabdaH tasmAtitau pUrvaparayoH sthAne pararUpam ekAdezo bhavati. paTatiti paTiti. ghaTatiti ghaTiti. jJaTatiti jJatiti. chamititi chamiti. avyaktAnukaraNasya iti kim? jagatiti jagaditi. ataH iti kim? maraTiti maraDiti. itau iti kim? paTatatra paTadatra. anekAca iti vaktavyam. iha mA bhUt, zratiti zraditi. katham ghaTaditi gambhIramambudairnaditam iti? dakArAntam etadanukaraNaM draSTavyam.

339 letters. -- 61C.bse 592 -- popularity 1

2 next pages for chris




(akassava) (!ak)

akaH savarNe dIrghaH ONPANINI 61101
merge ak with similar into long.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 564

Examples between words --

a A + a A

tatra + agaccham → * tatrAgaccham "I went there"

atra + Agaccham → * atrAgaccham "I came here"

sItA + abravIT → * sItAbravIt "sItA said"

tadA + Arohat → * tadArohat "then he climbed"

i + i

dadhi + icchAmi → * dadhIcchAmi "I want curds"

u + u

zrImadbhagavadgItAsu + upaniSatsu → * zrImadbhagavadgItasUpaniSatsu

Examples of R RR + R RR are hard to come by, and if I don't want to make one up, I will have to use the rule vqtovA, where R plus RR makes RR --

vR- + RRtas + vAvRRto vA

If I'm allowed to make up mine --

IkSate guNabhoktR + RSis + → IkSate guNabhoktRRSir nivAramM pacati rSikA "the seer sees the perceiver of the qualities and his wife cooks wild rice"

Examples inside a word --

yA + laT jhiyA + anti'''yAnti "they go"

Inside a word, exception atoguNe might apply.

KAZIKA akaH savarNe aci parataH pUrvaparayoH sthAne dIrgha ekAdezo bhavati. daNDAgram. dadhIndraH. madhUdake. hotRRzyaH. akaH iti kim? agnaye. savarne iti kim? dadhy atra. aci ity eva, kumArI zete. nAj-jhalAv ity atra yataciti pratyAhAragrahaNaM tatra grahaNakazAstrasya anabhinirvRttatvAt savarNA na gRhyanta iti savarnatvamIkArazakArayorapratiSiddham. savarNadIrghatve Rti R vA vacanam. Rti savarNe parabhUte tatra R vA bhavati iti vaktavyam. hotR RkAraH hotRkAraH. yadA na R tadA dIrgha eva hotRRkAraH. lRti lR vA vaktavyam. lTti savarNe parato lR vA bhavati iti vaktavyam. hotR lRkAraH hotlRkAraH. hotRRkAraH. RkAralRkArayoH savarNAsaMjJAvidhiruktaH. dIrghapakSe tu samudAyAntaratamasya lRvarNasya dIrghasya abhAvAtRkAraH kriyate.

In old books, when this rule makes an A, you will find sometimes an avagraha symbol where the a of the second word disappeared --

sItA + abravItsItA 'bravIt

and other times two avagraha symbols where the A of the second word disappeared --

tadArohattadA ''rohat

Doing this is now considered out of fashion, and you will find sItAbravIt and tadArohat more often than not. But I encourage my students to do it anyway in their notes, as it can save heaps of confusion when they reread them.

976 letters. -- 61C.bse 614 -- popularity 60




(prathamayo) (!prathama)

prathamayoH pUrva-savarNaH ONPANINI 61102
merge ak with au jas zas into the lengthened ak.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 565

In other words --

" au jas zas lose their vowel after ak, and lengthen the ak. "

Examples with short ak vowels --

azva- + jas → * azvAs

RSi- + au → * RSI

(Remember that au is one vowel, not two, so the whole of it disappears, not just the part written "a".)

guru- + au → * gurU

guru- + zas → * gurUs tasmAccha gurUn

pitR- + zas → * pitRRs tasmAccha pitRRn

mAtR- + zas → * mAtRRs

The long ak vowels are replaced with themselves, and the sup still loses its vowel --

azvA- + zas → * azvAs "mares"

vRkI- + zas → * vRkIs "wolvesses"

vadhU- + zas → * vadhUs' "wives"

(there is another word vadhUs "wife", made from vadhU- + su)

strI- + zas → * strIs

(can also be striyas, by the option vAmzasoH)

See also exceptions nAdici, dIrghAjjasica, jasica.

KAZIKA akaH iti dIrghaH iti vartate. prathamA-zabdo vibhaktivizeSe rUDhaH, tatsAhacaryAd dvitIyA 'pi prathamA iti uktA. tasyAM prathamAyAM dvitIyAyAM ca vibhaktau aci akaH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pUrvasavarNadIrghaH ekAdezo bhavati. agnI. vAyU. vRkSAH. plakSAH. vRkSAn. plakSAn. ato guNe iti yad akAre pararUpaM tatakaH savarNe dIrgha-tvam eva bAdhate, na tu pUrvasavarna-dIrgha-tvam, purastAd apavAda anantarAn vidhIn bAdhante na uttarAd iti. aci ity eva, vRkSaH. plakSaH. akaH ity eva, nAvau. pUrva-savarna-grahaNaM kim? agnI ity atra pakSe parasavarNo mA bhUt. dIrgha-grahaNaM kim? trimAtre sthAnini trimAtrAdeza-nivRtty-artham.

This rule does not work after non- ak --

nau- + au ecoya nAvau "two ships"

Ge + au ecoya gayau "two Ge affixes"

It does not work on grAmaNI- mf, because the exception eranekA replaces I with y before au jas zas. So we say grAmaNyau "two mayors".

664 letters. -- 61C.bse 688 -- popularity 17




(tasmAcchaso) (!tasmAc)

tasmAc chaso naH puMsi ONPANINI 61103
And then zas to n if masculine.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 566

Addition to prathamayo. After prathamayo lengthens the final short vowel of a masculine, replace s with n.

Examples with a i, u, R --

azva- + zas prathamayo azvA- + s → * azvAn "horses"

kapi- + zas prathamayo kapI- + s → * kapIn "monkeys"

guru- + zasgurUn "teachers, superiors"

pitR- + zaspitRRn "fathers, ancestors"

KAZIKA tasmAt pUrva-savarNa-dIrghAd uttarasya zaso 'vayavasya sakArasya puMsi nakArAdezo bhavati. vRkSAn. agnIn. vAyUn. kartRRn. hartRRn. SaNDakAn. SaNDhakAn. SaNDhakAn. sthUrAn. ararakAn pazya. sarva ete puMliGgaviziSTaM svArthaM pratipAdayanti. iha tu caJceva caJcA, lummanuSye iti kano lupi kRte lupi yuktavad vyaktivacane iti puMso 'pi strIliGgata, tena natvaM na bhavati, caJcAH pazya, vadhrikAH pazya iti. tasmAtiti kim? etAMz carato gAH pazya. zasaH iti kim. vRkSAH. plakSAH. puMsi iti kim? dhenUH. bahvIH. kumarIH.

This rule only works on zas, not on jas. Therefore, with jas, azvAs can mean horses or mares, but, with zas, azvAn means horses and azvAs means mares.

323 letters. -- 61C.bse 739 -- popularity 5

980 If /adas- has no !s, !d plus vowel to !mu or !mU.

990 (@Optionally) !nqn (to !nqMH) before !p.

1039 (/Natvam won't) replace @wordfinal.

1070 /amauTchaS are the @second group of @case affixes, /am /au /zas.




(nAdici) (!nAdic)

n' Ad ici ONPANINI 61104
( prathamayo) does not (work on) A a plus au zI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 567

As prathamayo is an exception to vRddhireci and AdguNaH, when prathamayo does not work, those two do --

azva- + au vRddhireci azvau

azvA- + au auGa::ApaH azvA- + zI AdguNaH azve "two mares"

phala + au napuMsakAcca phala- + zI AdguNaH phale "two results"

KAZIKA a-varNAd ici pUrva-savarNa-dIrgho na bhavati. vRkSau. plakSau khaTve. kuNDe. Ad iti kim? agnI. ici iti kim? vRkSAH.

146 letters. -- 61C.bse 760 -- popularity 2

980 If /adas- has no !s, !d plus vowel to !mu or !mU.




(dIrghAjjasi) (!dIrghAj)

dIrghAj jasi ca ONPANINI 61105
(No prathamayo) of long with au jas.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 568

When a long is before au jas, prathamayo does not work. Therefore akassa, ikoyaNaci and other rules will --

azvA- + jas akassa azvAs "mares"

vyAghrI- @f + jas ikoyaNaci vyAghryas "tigresses"

vadhU- @f + au ikoyaNaci vadhvau "two wives"

brahmabandhu- + au ikoyaNaci brahmabandhvau "two fake brahmins"

grAmaNI- m @f + jas eranekAco grAmaNyas "mayors"

KAZIKA dIrghAt jasi ici ca parataH pUrvasavarNadIrghaH na bhavati. kumAryau. kumAryaH. brahmabandhvau. brahmabandhvaH.

223 letters. -- 61C.bse 784 -- popularity 1




(amipUrvaH) (!ami)

ami pUrvaH ONPANINI 61107
am to m (after ak).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 569

Exception to atoguNe, akassa and ikoyaNaci.

Examples --

azva- + am → * azva + mazvam "horse"

azva- + Ap + am akassa azvA- + am → * azvA + mazvAm "mare"

kapim "monkey"

nadIm "river"

gurum "teacher"

vadhUm "wife"

This rule does not work on neuters, because svamorna and atom work first.

It does not work after R-, because !!svamorNa, RtoGi or Rnne work first.

KAZIKA akaH ityeva. ami parato'kaH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pUrvarupam ekAdezo bhavati. vRkSam. plakSam. agnim. vAyum. pUrvagrahaNam kim? pUrva eva yathA syAt, pUrvasavarNo 'ntaratamo mA bhUd iti, kumArIm ityatra hi trimAtraH syAt. vA chandasi 61106 ity eva, zamIM ca (kATha. 36.6), zamyaM ca. gaurIM ca, gauryaM (RR. 4.12.6) ca.

249 letters. -- 61C.bse 852 -- popularity 12




(samprasAra) (!sampr)

samprasAraNAc ca ONPANINI 61108
(Delete whatever is) after stretched.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 570

talkaround rule. This rule teaches that rule igyaNassa, that says just --

" stretching means replacing yaN with ik ",

actually means --

" stretching means replacing yaN with ik and deleting the vowel that is right afterwards."

KAZIKA pUrvaH ityeva. samprasAraNAtaci parataH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pUrvarUpam ekAdezo bhavati. yaji iSTam. vapi uptam. grahi gRhItam. samprasaraNavidhAnasAmarthyAt vigRhItasya zravaNe prApte pUrvatvaM vidhIyate. vA chandasi 61106 ityeva, mitro no atra varuNo yajyamAnaH. parapUrvatvavidhAne satyarthavat samprasAraNavidhAnam iti iSTa ityevam AdiSu pUrvatvabhAve yaNAdezo bhavatyeva. antaraGge ca aci iRtArthaM vacanam iti bAhye pazcAt sannipatite pUrvatvaM na bhavati. zakahvau. zakahvartham.

177 letters. -- 61C.bse 936 -- popularity 2

547 /ik to /yaN before /ac.




(eGaHpadA) (!eGa)

eGaH padAntAd ati ONPANINI 61109
After wordfinal eG, "a" (disappears).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 571

Exception to ecoya, that would have made aya ava.

Examples --

vidyate + atra → * vidyatetra "it's here"

azvas + atra sasaju azva + ru + atra atoro azva + u + atra AdguNaH azvo + atra → * azvotra "there's a horse here"

Spelling --

In old times these were always spelled azvotra vidyatetra, just like they sound.

Nowadays, however, in carefully proofread books, a space and a flycrap is written at the place where the a disappeared, this way --

vidyate 'tra

azvo 'tra

This sign works like the apostrophe in "don't". This sign shows that an "o" went away and the "don't" was originally "do not". The sign helps English learners to notice that an "o" disappeared, but experienced users do not need it to understand what they are reading, so they will often mispell that as "dont" in email and chat. Expect most Sanskrit users to be similarly careless -- you'll find azvotra often.

Please note: when the eG and the a straddle the middle of a compound, there is no flycrap. So a compound of ziras- + agre is zirogre, not ziro'gre.

See also exception sarvatravibhASAgoH.

KAZIKA eG yaH padAntaH tasmAdati parataH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pUrvarUpam ekAdzo bhavati. agne 'tra. vAyo 'tra. ayavAdezayorayam apavAdaH. eGaH iti kim. dadhyatra. madhvatra. padAntAtiti kim? cayanam. lavanam. ati iti im. vAyo iti. bhAno iti. vAyaviti. bhAnaviti. taparakaraNam iti kim? vAyavAyAhi.

797 letters. -- 61C.bse 1031 -- popularity 12




(GasiGaso) (!Ga)

Gasi;Gasoz ca ONPANINI 61110
Gasi Gas lose a (after eG)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 572

Examples:

kapi- + Gas gherGiti kape- + Gas → * kapes "of monkey"

guru- + Gas gherGiti guro- + Gas → * guros "of teacher"

go- + Gas → * gos "of cow"

KAZIKA eGaH iti vartate, ati iti ca. eGaH uttarayoH GasiGasoH ati parataH pUrvaparayoH sthAne pUrvarUpam ekAdezo bhavati. agnerAgacchati. vAyorAgacchati. agneH svam. vAyoH svam. apadAntArthaH ArambhaH.

76 letters. -- 61C.bse 1086 -- popularity 8

122 !pati- (is @wee) only in a @compound.

135 @from is whatever one goes away from.

708 /Ge to !ya (after !a).

741 Before /TAsup, (neuter !i !u) adjectives are masculine-like optionally.
















61001 reduplication ←

chunk 30: 61084 merge rules

→ 61111 non-mergers