11001 vRddhir Adaic ←

chunk 4: 11023 numerals

→ 11049 rule interpretation

11023 bahu- gaNa- vat Dati are numerals. bahugaNavatuDatisaGkhyA
11024 Numeral that ends in S n is sixlike. SNAntASaT
11025 Dati -enders . Datica
11026 The niSThA are kta and ktavatu. ktaktavatUniSThA
11027 The pronouns are sarva- and others. sarvAdInisarvanAmAni
11029 Unless inside a longhorn. nabahuvrIhau
11037 svarAdi and nipAta are unchanging. svarAdinipAtamavyayam
11042 zi is strong zisarvanAmasthAnam
11043 suT' of non-neuter . suDanapuMsakasya
11044 "Optionally" means "or not". navetivibhASA
11045 stretching means replacing yaN with ik. igyaNassamprasAraNam
11046 Tit kit go at start end. AdyantauTakitau
11047 mit go after last vowel midacontyAtparaH
11048 ec shorten into i u. eca::igghrasvAdeze


bahu;gaNa;vatu;Dati saMkhyA ONPANINI 11023
bahu- gaNa- vat(u) Dati are numerals.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 31

The numbers (saGMkhyA) are the nounbases eka- dvi- tri- catur- etc, that mean "one two three four" etc. This rule says that

bahu- "many",

gaNa- "group",

and the words made with the affixes vatu and Dati

are numbers too, as far as grammar is concerned.

I will call all of those " numerals" instead of "numbers" in my rules, because I need the word "number" to mean something else (see number). Sorry for the highfalutin'ness.

Some words made with the affix vat(u) --

tAvat "as much as"

yAvat "that much"

etAvat "this much"

This vatu affix is not the same as vatup "that has", as in himavat-.

Some words made with the affix Dati --

kati "how many?"

tati "as many as"

yati "that many"

These nounbases are dubbed " numeral"s by this rule so that they will be affected by the rules that affect eka- dvi- tri- etc. For instance, both sahasra- "thousand" and bahu- "many" can get the affixes DaT, kRtvasuc, dhA', zas', tayap --

sahasra- + kRtvasucsahasrakRtvas "a thousand times"

bahu- + kRtvasucbahukRtvas "many times"


Numeral that ends in S n is sixlike.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 32

In other words: these six are sixlike --

paJcan- "five"

SaS- "six"

saptan- "seven"

aSTan- "eight"

navan- "nine"

dazan- "ten"

See also Datica.

Being sixlike makes rule SaDbhyoluk work. So the dvAdazan- here gets no jas --

tato dvAdaza varSANi

"then for twelve years

kAnaneSu jaleSu ca |

in forests and lakes

reme tasmin girau rAjA

the king lived happily in that mountain

tayaiva saha bhAryayA ||

with his wife"


Dati ca ONPANINI 11025
Dati -enders (are sixlike).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 33

The Dati -enders are --

kim- + Dati TeH k + Datikati- "how many?"

yad- + Dati → .. → yati- "as many as"

tad- + Dati → .. → tati- "that many"

Being sixlike, they lose jas zas by SaDbhyoluk --

kati- + jas + paThantikati paThanti "how many are reading?"


kta;ktavatU niSThA ONPANINI 11026
The niSThA are kta and ktavatu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 34

The affixes (k)ta and (k)tavat(u) make adjectival nounbases. Because of rule niSThA, they mean that the action already happened. Examples --

nI + kta m + sunIta- + sunItas "he was led"

nI + ktavatu m + sunItavat(u)- + sunItavAn "he led, you led, I led" ( same steps as hanumAn )

These forms are often used as verblikes. As in --

ajo grAmamM mayA nItaH "I led the goat to the village"

grAmanM tanM nItavAn aham "I led him to the village"

They can be used as normal adjectives too --

senAM vande tvayA nItAm "I praise the army that you led"

See kta and ktavatu for more examples.

Important detail. In many styles of Sanskrit (including most styles of 21st century spoken Sanskrit), the past tenses ( laG, liT and luG) are seldom used, because most past statements have a kta-ender or a ktavatu-ender instead of a verb. Doing this is perfectly grammatical, and if you are a native speaker of Hindi or some other languages derived from Sanskrit, it is far more convenient. It also relieves lazy students from the burden of having to learn the laG, liT and luG rules.


sarvAdIni sarvanAmAni ONPANINI 11027
The pronouns are sarva- and others.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 35

The pronouns, a.k.a. sarvanAma, are a special group of nounbases. These are some of them --

sarva- vizva- ubha- ubhaya-

tvat tva nema sama sima

pUrva- "east" para- avara dakSiNa uttara

apara- "west" adhara sva- antara

tyad- tad- yad- etad- idam- adas-

eka- dvi-

yuSmad- asmad- bhavatu kim-

See also exception nabahuvrIhau below.

sarva- + jas jasaHzI sarva + zI AdguNaH sarve "all"

Some rules that work after pronouns --

jasaH zI -- jas to zI

sarvanAmnaH smai -- Ge to smai

Gasi;GyoH smAt;sminau -- Gas to smAt, Gi to smin


na bahuvrIhau ONPANINI 11029
Unless inside a longhorn.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 36

Exception to sarvAdIni sarvanAmAni. The sarvaclass are not pronouns when they are inside a longhorn.

So lone vizva- is a pronoun --

vizva- + jas jasazzI vizva + zI AdguNaH vizve "everybody"

But priyavizva- "that loves everybody" isn't --

priyavizva- + jas prathamayo priyavizvAH


svarAdi-nipAtam avyayam ONPANINI 11037
svarAdi and nipAta are unchanging.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 37

These are two groups of unchanging words.

The nipAta are described in rules prAg rIzvarAn@ nipAtAH.

The svar-class ( svarAdi) is group two of the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha . These are some svarAdi --

svar prAtar antar punar uccais nicais zanais Rte yugapat upAMzu pRthak hyas zvas dhik


zi sarvanAmasthAnam ONPANINI 11042
zi is strongmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 38

zi only appears after neuters, and only by rule jazzasozziH.

After a neuter, only zi is strong.

Here, the fact that zi is strong makes the rAjAnam rule work --

nAman- n + jasnAman- + zi → nAman- + @strong zi rAjAnam nAmAni "names"

Back to strong affixes .


suD a-napuMsakasya ONPANINI 11043
suT' of non- neuter (are strong).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 39

The suT are the first five in list svaujas, from su to auT --

su au jas am au

When these five are after a non- neuter nounbase, they are said to be strong. Example --

zvan- m + am → zvan + @strong am rAjAnam zvAnam "dog"

Rule rAjAnam only works before strong affixes. Here, rule rAjAnam worked because this rule made am into a strong.

Back to strong affixes .


na veti vibhASA ONPANINI 11044
" Optionally" means "or not".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 40

Whenever a rule says "optionally", you are free to apply the rule or not.

Example. Rule nRca teaches "optionally replace R or nRNAm with RR". This means that you may replace or not replace -- nRNAm and nRRNAm are both kosher.

Rules actually use three words for "optionally" -- vibhASA, anyatarasyAm, and vA. All three mean "or not".


ig yaNaH samprasAraNam ONPANINI 11045
stretching means replacing yaN with ik.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 41

talkaround. This rule (together with saMprasAraNAcca) explains what stretching means --

" Stretching something means replacing its y v r with i u R, and deleting the next vowel. "

Examples. Rules vacisvapi, zvayuva and grahijyA teach that in certain situations we have to " stretch " yaj, zvan, pracch. And this talkaround clarifies that --

stretching yaj we get ij

stretching zvan we get zun

stretching pracch we get pRcch


Ady;antau Ta;kitau ONPANINI 11046
Tit kit go at start end.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 42

Talkaround rule. It states that, in a rule,

"replace kSip with a(T)" means "add a in front of kSip", and

"replace dRzya with m(uk)" means "add m at the end of dRzya".

Examples --

Rule hrasvanadyA teaches " Am to n(uT) after kapi". This replaces Am with nAm. So we get kapinAm (so far).

Rule Anemuk teaches "dRzya to m(uk) before zAnac". This replaces dRzya with dRzyam. So we get dRzyamAna.

Rule checa says "the last letter of atra to t(uk) before chAyA". This replaces a with at. So we get atratchAyA (so far).

This rule does not apply to all kit and Tit affixes, but only to a special class of short affixes, such as aT muk tuk num suT nuT, called Agama or augments. They are called "augments" because they make things bigger -- they turn kSip into akSip, dRzya into dRzyam etc. Here t(uk) m(uk) etc have label k and are kitaugments; s(uT) n(uT) a(T) have label T and are Titaugments.


mid aco 'ntyAt paraH ONPANINI 11047
mit go after last vowelmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 43

mit means "whatever has label m" (see it enders ). For instance, num, znam, and the i(m) mentioned in tRNaha::im are all mit affixes, or mitaugments (midAgama).

This rule explains that the mit affixes are added after the last vowel of whatever they are added to. Or, explained in another way, that "im" means "an i added after the last vowel". So, when a rule teaches "tRnah gets im", that's just short for "add an i after the last vowel of tRnah", or for "replace tRnah with tRna + i + h".

Examples --

Rule nonfunny teaches that phala- and manas get n(um) before zi. So we add n after the last vowel of these --

phala- + zi nonfunny phala- + num + i → phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni "results"

manas- + zi nonfunny manas- + num + i → manans + i sAntama manAnsi nazcA manAMsi "minds"

Rule rudhAdibhyaHznam teaches "rudh gets (z)na(m) before laT tip". So we wedge the na after the u --

rudh + laT tip rudhAdibhya rudh + znam + tip → ru + na + dh + ti → .. → ruNaddhi "obstructs"

Rule caturana teaches that anaDuh- gets A(m) before su, and sAvana says that it gets n(um) too. So --

anaDuh- + su caturana anaDuh + Am' + s → anaDu + A + h + s ikoyaNaci anaDvAh + s sAvana anaDvAh + num + s → anadvAnhs halGyA anaDvAnh saMyogAnta anaDvAn "ox"


eca:: ig ghrasvAdeze ONPANINI 11048
ec shorten into i u.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 44

This is a talkaround. It means --

" Rules that replace an ec with short actually replace e ai o au with i i u u. "

Example 1:

Rule hrasvaH says: " replace the stammer vowel with short ". So hrasvaH replaces o with u and e with i --

hu + laT tip zlau ho + ho + tip hrasvaH hu + ho + ti kuhozcuH juhoti "sacrifices"

sev + liT tasev + ez liTidhA se + sev + ez hrasvaH si + sev + e kric siSeve "he served"

Example 2:

Rule gostriyoru says: ' replace the o of citrago with short '. So the short will be u --

citra- + go-citragu- "Mr. Spottedcows"

Example 3:

Rule hrasvonapuMsake says: ' shorten neuter nounbase '. So, the last vowel ai of ati + rai "super-rich", when that compound becomes neuter, will shorten into i --

atiri kulam "super-rich family"

11001 vRddhir Adaic ←

chunk 4: 11023 numerals

→ 11049 rule interpretation