11001 vRddhir Adaic ←

chunk 4: 11023 numerals

→ 11049 rule interpretation

11023 bahu- gaNa- vat Dati are numerals. bahugaNavatuDatisaGkhyA
11024 Numeral that ends in S n is sixlike. SNAntASaT
11025 Dati -enders . Datica
11026 The niSThA are kta and ktavatu. ktaktavatUniSThA
11027 The pronouns are sarva- etc. sarvAdInisarvanAmAni
11029 Unless inside a longhorn. nabahuvrIhau
11031 In a dvandva . dvandveca
11037 svarAdi and nipAta are unchanging. svarAdinipAtamavyayam
11042 zi is strong zisarvanAmasthAnam
11043 suT' of non-neuter . suDanapuMsakasya
11044 "Optionally" means "or not". navetivibhASA
11045 stretching means replacing yaN with ik. igyaNassamprasAraNam
11046 Tit kit go at start end. AdyantauTakitau
11047 mit go after last vowel midacontyAtparaH
11048 ec shorten into i u. eca::igghrasvAdeze




(bahugaNa) (@nume)

bahu;gaNa;vatu;Dati saMkhyA ONPANINI 11023
bahu- gaNa- vat(u) Dati are numerals.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 30

The numerals (saGMkhyA, also known as "numbers") are the nounbases eka- dvi- tri- catur- etc, that mean "one two three four" etc.

This rule says that

bahu- "many",

gaNa- "group",

and the words made with the affixes vatu and Dati

are numerals too.

Some words made with the affix vat(u) --

tAvat "as much as"

yAvat "that much"

etAvat "this much"

This vatu affix is not the same as vatup "that has", as in himavat-.

Some words made with the affix Dati --

kati "how many?"

tati "as many as"

yati "that many"

These nounbases are dubbed " numeral"s by this rule so that they will be affected by the rules that affect eka- dvi- tri- etc. For instance, bahu- "many" can get the affixes DaT, kRtvasuc, dhA', zas', tayap, just like sahasra- gets them --

sahasra- + kRtvasucsahasrakRtvas "a thousand times"

bahu- + kRtvasucbahukRtvas "many times"

KAZIKA bahu gaNa vatu ityeta saGkhyAsaMjJA bhavanti. bahukRtvaH. bahudhA. bahukaH. bahuzaH. gaNakRtvaH. gaNadhA. gaNakaH. gaNazaH. tAvatkRtvaH. tAvaddhA. tAvatkaH. tAvacchaH. katikRtvaH. katidhA. katikaH. katizaH. bahugaNazabdayor vaipulye saGghe ca vartamAnayoriha grahaNaM nAsti, saGkhyAvAcinoreva. bhUryAdInAM nivRttyarthaM saGkhyAsaMjJA vidhIyate. ardhapUrvapadazca pUraNapratyayAntaH saGkhyAsaMjJo bhavati iti vaktavyaM samAsakan vidhyartham. ardhapaJcamazUrpaH. ardhaM paJcamaM yezAm iti bahuvrIhau kRte ardhapaJcamaiH zUrpaiH krItaH. taddhitArthaiti samAsaH. tatra diksaGkhye saMjJAyAm 21050 ityanuvRttes tataH saGkhyApUrvasya dvigusaMjJAyAM zUrpAdaJanyatarasyAm 51026) iti aJ ThaJ ca. adhyardha-pUrva-dvigor lug a-saMjJAyAm 5-1-28 iti luk. ardhapaJcamakaH. saGkhyApradezAHsaGkhyA vaMzyena 21019 ityevam AdayaH.

616 letters. -- 11.bse 1239 -- popularity 16




(SNAntASaT) (@six)

S;NAntA SaT ONPANINI 11024
numeral that ends in S n is sixlike.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 31

In other words: these six nounbases are sixlike --

paJcan- "five"

SaS- "six"

saptan- "seven"

aSTan- "eight"

navan- "nine"

dazan- "ten"

Being sixlike makes rule SaDbhyoluk work. That's why the dvAdazan- here gets no jas --

dvi- + dazan- + jas dvyaSTanassa dvA + dazan + jas SaDbhyoluk dvA + dazan- + luk nalopaHprA dvAdaza "twelve"

Of course, by yenavidhi, the numbers ekAdazan- dvAdazan- etc are sixlike too.

See also Datica.

KAZIKA strI-liGga-nirdezAt saGkhya iti sambadhyate. SakArAntA nakArAntA ca yA saGkhyA sA SaTsaMjJA bhavati. SakArAntA tAvatSaT tiSThanti. SaT pzye. nakArAntaHpaJca. sapta. nava. dasa. antagrahaNam aupadezikArtham. tenaiha na bhavati zatAni, sahasrANi. aSTAnAm ityatra nuD bhavati. SaTpradezAH SaDbhyo lug ity evam AdayaH.

Some epics for ya --

tato dvAdaza varSANi kAnaneSu jaleSu ca

reme tasmin girau rAjA tayaiva saha bhAryayA

"then for twelve years in forests and lakes

the king lived happily in that mountain with his wife"

446 letters. -- 11.bse 1299 -- popularity 6

420 /svasrAdi and @sixlike don't (get any [@feminine affix]).

747 (/Am gets /nuT) after @sixlike and /catur-.




(Datica) (/Dat)

Dati ca ONPANINI 11025
Dati -enders (are sixlike).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 32

The Dati -enders are --

kim- + Dati TeH k + Datikati- "how many?"

yad- + Dati → .. → yati- "as many as"

tad- + Dati → .. → tati- "that many"

Being sixlike, they lose jas zas by SaDbhyoluk --

kati- + jas + paThantikati paThanti "how many are reading?"

159 letters. -- 11.bse 1330 -- popularity 3

30 /bahu- !gaNa- {vat(u)} /Dati are [@numeral]s.




(ktaktavatU) (/niS)

kta;ktavatU niSThA ONPANINI 11026
The niSThA are kta and ktavatu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 33

The affixes (k)ta and (k)tavat(u) make adjectival nounbases. Because of rule niSThA, they mean that the action already happened. Examples --

nI + kta m + sunIta- + sunItas "he was led"

nI + ktavatu m + sunItavat(u)- + sunItavAn "he led, you led, I led" ( same steps as hanumAn )

These forms are often used as verblikes. As in --

ajo grAmamM mayA nItaH "I led the goat to the village"

grAmanM tanM nItavAn aham "I led him to the village"

They can be used as normal adjectives too --

senAM vande tvayA nItAm "I praise the army that you led"

See kta and ktavatu for more examples.

Important detail. In many styles of Sanskrit (including most styles of 21st century spoken Sanskrit), the past tenses ( laG, liT and luG) are seldom used, because most past statements have a kta-ender or a ktavatu-ender instead of a verb. Doing this is perfectly grammatical, and if you are a native speaker of Hindi or some other languages derived from Sanskrit, it is far more convenient. It also relieves lazy students from the burden of having to learn the laG, liT and luG rules.

807 letters. -- 11.bse 1357 -- popularity 10




(sarvAdIni) (@pron)

sarvAdIni sarvanAmAni ONPANINI 11027
The pronouns are sarva- etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 34

The pronouns, a.k.a. sarvanAma or sarvAdi or sarva-class, are a special group of nounbases. These are some of them --

sarva- vizva- ubha- ubhaya-

tvat tva nema sama sima

pUrva- "east" para- avara dakSiNa uttara

apara- "west" adhara sva- antara

tyad- tad- yad- etad- idam- adas-

eka- dvi-

yuSmad- asmad- bhavatu- kim-

Some rules that work only after pronouns --

jasaH zI -- jas to zI

sarvanAmnaH smai -- Ge to smai

Gasi;GyoH smAt;sminau -- Gas to smAt, Gi to smin

See also exception nabahuvrIhau below.

KAZIKA sarvazabdaH AdiryeSAM tAnImAni sarvAdIni sarvanAmasaMjJAni bhavanti. sarvaH, sarvau, sarve. sarvasmai. sarvasmAt. sarveSAm. sarvasmin. sarvakaH. vizvaH, vizvau, visve. vizvasmai. vizvasmAt. vizveSAm. vizvasmin. vizvakaH. ubha. ubhaya. ubhazabdasya sarvanAmatve prayojanam sarvanAmnastRtIyA ca iti. ubhAbhyAM hetubhyAM vasati, ubhayoH hetvoH vasati. ubhaye. ubhayasmai. ubhayasmAt. ubhyeSAm. ubhayasmin. Datara, Datama. katara, katama. katarasmai, katamasmai. itara. anya. anyatara. itarasmai. anyasmai. anyatarasamai. tvazabdo 'nyavAcI svarabhedAd dviH paThitaH. ekaH udAttaH. dvitIyo 'nudAttaH. kecit takArAntamekaM paThanti. tva tvatiti dvAvapi ca anudAtAu iti smaranti. nemanemasmai. vakSyamANena jasi vibhASA bhavati. neme, nemAH iti. samasamasmai. kathaM yathAsaGkhyam anudezaH samAnAm, same deze yajeta iti. samasya sarvazabdaparyAyasya sarvanAmasMjJA iSyte, na sarvatra. simasimasmai. pUrvaparAvaradakSiNauttarAparAdharANi vyavasthAyAm asaMjJAyAm ( 11034 ). svam aMjJAtidhanA'khyAm ( 11035 ). antaraM bahiryogopsaMvyAnayoH ( 11036 ). tyad, tad, yad, etad, idam, adas, eka, dvi, yuSmad, asmad, bhavatu, kim. sarvAdiH. sarvanAmapradezAH sarvanAmnaH smAy ity evam AdayaH.

371 letters. -- 11B.bse 1 -- popularity 27




(nabahuvrI) (!naba)

na bahuvrIhau ONPANINI 11029
Unless inside a longhorn.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 35

Exception to sarvAdIni sarvanAmAni. The sarvaclass are not pronouns when they are inside a longhorn.

So lone vizva- is a pronoun --

vizva- + jas jasazzI vizva + zI AdguNaH vizve "everybody"

But priyavizva- "that loves everybody" isn't --

priyavizva- + jas prathamayo priyavizvAH

KAZIKA sarvanAma-saMjJAyAM tadantavidher abhyupagamAd bahuvrIher api sarvA'dyantasay saMjJA syAd iti pratiSedha Arabhyate. bahuvrIhau samAse sarvAdIni sarvanAmasaMjJAni na bhavanti. priyavizvAya. priyobhyAya. dvyanyAya. tryanyAya. iha ca, tvatkapitRkaH, matkapitRkaH ityakaj na bhavati. bahuvrIhau iti vartamAne punarbahuvrIhigrahaNaM bhUtapUrvamAtre 'pi pratiSedho yathA syAt, vastrAntaravasanAntarAH iti.

194 letters. -- 11B.bse 83 -- popularity 2

174 The rest are [@longhorn]s.




(dvandveca) (!dvandve)

dvandve ca ONPANINI 11031
In a dvandva (the sarvAdi are not pronouns).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 36

So, for "easterners and westerners", we say pUrvAparANAm, not pUrvApareSAm.

KAZIKA dvandve ca samAse sarvAdIni sarvanAmasaMjJAni na bhavanti. pUrvAparANAm. katarakatamAnAm.

60 letters. -- 11B.bse 90 -- popularity none




(svarAdini) (/svarA)

svarAdi-nipAtam avyayam ONPANINI 11037
svarAdi and nipAta are unchanging.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 37

These are two groups of unchanging words.

The nipAta are described in rules prAg rIzvarAn@ nipAtAH.

The svar-class ( svarAdi) is group two of the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha . These are some svarAdi --

svar prAtar antar punar uccais nicais zanais Rte yugapat upAMzu pRthak hyas zvas dhik

232 letters. -- 11B.bse 101 -- popularity 2

1337 An /AkRtigaNa is a group of words that is not in {pANini}'s version of the /gaNapATha.




(zisarvanA) (!zi)

zi sarvanAmasthAnam ONPANINI 11042
zi is strongmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 38

zi only appears after neuters, and only by rule jazzasozziH.

After a neuter, only zi is strong.

Here, the fact that zi is strong makes the rAjAnam rule work --

nAman- n + jasnAman- + zi → * nAman- + @strong zi rAjAnam nAmAni "names"

Back to strong affixes .

182 letters. -- 11B.bse 165 -- popularity 2

1321 @weak affixes are the [@nounbase affix]es that are not @strong




(suDanapu) (/suT)

suD a-napuMsakasya ONPANINI 11043
suT' of non- neuter (are strong).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 39

The suT are the first five in list svaujas, from su to auT --

su au jas am au

When these five are after a non- neuter nounbase, they are said to be strong. Example --

zvan- m + am → * zvan + @strong am rAjAnam zvAnam "dog"

Rule rAjAnam only works before strong affixes. Here, rule rAjAnam worked because this rule made am into a strong.

Back to strong affixes .

262 letters. -- 11B.bse 198 -- popularity 2

1321 @weak affixes are the [@nounbase affix]es that are not @strong




(navetivi) (@opt)

na veti vibhASA ONPANINI 11044
" optionally" means "or not".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 40

Whenever a rule says "optionally", you are free to apply the rule or not.

Example. Rule nRca teaches "optionally replace R or nRNAm with RR". This means that you may replace or not replace -- nRNAm and nRRNAm are both kosher.

Rules actually use three words for "optionally" -- vibhASA, anyatarasyAm, and vA. All three mean "or not".

254 letters. -- 11B.bse 239 -- popularity 2

1005 (@Optionally) !nqn (to !nqMH) before !p.




(igyaNassa) (@stre)

ig yaNaH samprasAraNam ONPANINI 11045
stretching means replacing yaN with ik.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 41

talkaround. When any other rule says, for instance, " stretch vas' ", this rule says that stretching vas means replacing vas with uas. After we do that change, rule saMprasAraNAcca will replace uas with us. Summarizing the two rules --

" Stretching something means replacing its y v r with i u R, and deleting the next vowel. "

Example.

Rule zvayuva says --

" stretch zvan- "dog" before TA ".

Rules igyaNa and saMprasAraNAcca say --

" stretching zvan- " means " replacing zvan- with zun- ".

Therefore --

zvan- + TA zvayuva zunA "with a dog"

As in --

Agacchac chunA "he came with his dog"

Similarly, stretching yaj we get ij, and stretching pracch we get pRcch. See vacisvapi, zvayuva and grahijyA for more examples.

KAZIKA ik yo yaNaH sthAne bhUto bhAvI vA tasya saMprasAraNam ityeSA saMjJA bhavati. yaji STam. vap uptam. graha gRhItam. kecid ubhayathA sUtram idaM vyAcakSate vAkyArthaH saMjJI, varNaz ca iti. igyaNaH yo vAkyArthaH sthAnyAdeza-sambandha-lakSaNaH sa samprasAraNa-saMjJo bhavati, yaN-sthAnika ig-varNaH sa samprasAraNa-saMjJo bhavati iti. tatra vidhau vAkyArtha upatiSThate SyaGaH samprasAraNaM putrapatyos tatpuruSe 61013 vasoH samprasAraNamiti. anuvAde varNaH samprasAraNAc ceti. saGkhyAtAnudezAd iha na bhavati adhitarAm iti. dyubhyAm ity atra diva ut iti tapara-karaNAd dIrgho na bhavati. samprasAraNa-pradezAH vasoH samprasAraNam ity evam AdayaH.

532 letters. -- 11B.bse 279 -- popularity 29




(AdyantauTa) (@tita)

Ady;antau Ta;kitau ONPANINI 11046
Tit kit go at start end.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 42

This talkaround states that, in rules --

(1) When a rule says

"replace kSip with a(T)"

it means

"add a in front of kSip",

and (2) When a rule says

"replace dRzya with m(uk)"

it means

"add m at the end of dRzya".

Examples.

Rule eruH says "replace i with u", and it actually does that. That's because u is not an affix that has k or T label, so this rule does not work.

But rule hrasvanadyA teaches "replace Am with n(uT)". As the n(uT) has T label, this rule says that "replace Am with n(uT)" actually means "add n in front of Am". So rule hrasvanadyA will replace Am with nAm, not with n.

Rule Anemuk teaches "replace dRzya with m(uk)". As m(uk) has k label, that "replace dRzya with m(uk)" actually means "add m at the end of dRzya". So, Anemuk replaces dRzya with dRzyam.

This rule does not apply to all kit and Tit affixes, but only to a special class of short affixes, called augments. Q.v.

KAZIKA AdiH Tit bhavati, antaH kit bhavati SasThI-nirdiSTasya. lavitA. muNDo bhISayate. Tit-pradezAH ArdhadhAtukasyeD valAdeH ity evam AdayaH. kit-pradezAH bhiyo hetubhaye Suk ity evam AdayaH.

655 letters. -- 11B.bse 443 -- popularity 19




(midacontyA) (/mit)

mid aco 'ntyAt paraH ONPANINI 11047
mit go after last vowelmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 43

mit is m + it, therefore it means "whatever has label m" (see labels).

For instance, num, znam, and the i(m) mentioned in tRNaha::im are all mit affixes, or mitaugments (in Sanskrit: mid-Agama).

This rule explains that the mit affixes are added after the last vowel of whatever they are added to.

For instance,

"im" means "an i added after the last vowel".

Therefore, when a rule teaches

"tRnah gets im",

that's just short for

"add i after the last vowel of tRnah",

or for

"replace tRnah with tRna + i + h".

(Of course, after doing that replacement, AdguNaH will work and we'll have tRneH, which will thenget Natvam.)

More examples --

Rule nonfunny teaches that phala- and manas get n(um) before zi. So we add n after the last vowel of these --

phala- + zi nonfunny phala- + num + i → * phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni "results"

manas- + zi nonfunny manas- + num + i → * manans + i sAntama manAnsi nazcA manAMsi "minds"

Rule rudhAdibhyaHznam teaches "rudh gets (z)na(m) before laT tip". So, we wedge the na after the u --

rudh + laT tip rudhAdibhya rudh + znam + tip → * ru + na + dh + ti → .. → ruNaddhi "obstructs"

Rule caturana teaches that anaDuh- gets A(m) before su, and sAvana says that it gets n(um) too. So --

anaDuh- + su caturana anaDuh + Am' + s → * anaDu + A + h + s ikoyaNaci anaDvAh + s sAvana anaDvAh + num + s → * anadvAnhs halGyA anaDvAnh saMyogAnta anaDvAn "ox"

901 letters. -- 11B.bse 499 -- popularity 15




(eca::igghra) (!eca)

eca:: ig ghrasvAdeze ONPANINI 11048
ec shorten into i u.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 44

This is a talkaround. It means --

" Rules that replace an ec with short actually replace e ai o au with i i u u. "

Example 1:

Rule hrasvaH says: " replace the stammer vowel with short ". Therefore, hrasvaH will replace o au with u and e ai with i --

hu + laT tip zlau ho + ho + tip hrasvaH hu + ho + ti kuhozcuH juhoti "sacrifices"

sev + liT tasev + ez liTidhA se + sev + ez hrasvaH si + sev + e kric siSeve "he served"

ji + ji + Nal → .. → gai + gai + a → .. → jigAya "he won"

Example 2:

Rule gostriyoru says: ' replace the o of citrago with short '. So the short will be u --

citra- + go-citragu- "Mr. Spottedcows"

Example 3:

Rule hrasvonapuMsake says: ' shorten neuter nounbase '. So when rai- is neuter, its ai will shorten into i --

rai @n + su hrasvonapuMsake ri + s svamorna ri

rai "wealth" is a masculine usually, but it becomes neuter when the compound ati + rai- "super-rich" agrees with a neuter nounbase, as in --

atiri kulam "super-rich family"

This rule might look useless to you because you know that the only short vowels are a i u R L. Therefore, when a rule says "replace e with short", you might have figured out by yourself that you must replace e with the most-alike of those five, namely with i.

The problem with that reasoning is that it was ME who told you that those five are the only shorts -- pANini did not say that anywhere. Therefore, absent this rule, any rule that teaches "replace ec with short" would have created four new short vowel sounds.

1020 letters. -- 11B.bse 534 -- popularity 4

1069 Delete [@fake h] of the @stammer.

1571 @Lengthen, @shorten mean replace with @long, @short.
















11001 vRddhir Adaic ←

chunk 4: 11023 numerals

→ 11049 rule interpretation