71009 sup replacement ←

chunk 37: 71027 yuSmad and asmad

→ 71078 /zatR with /num

71027 Gas to az after yuSmad- asmad-. yuSmadasmadbhyAGGasoz
71028 Ge, first and second to am . Geprathamayoram
71029 zas to n . zasona
71030 Fourth bhyas to bhyam . bhyasobhyam
71031 Fifth to at . paJcamyAat
71032 Gasi . ekavacanasyaca
71033 sAm to Akam . sAmaAkam
71034 Nal to au after A AtaauNalaH
71035 Optionally tu''' and hi''' to tAtaG when wishing. tuhyostAtaGAziSyanyatarasyAm
71036 After vid, zatR to vas optionally. videzzaturvasuH
71037 ktvA to lyap in a compound. samAsenaJpUrvektvolyap
71052 Am gets suT after pronoun that ends in A a. AmisarvanAmnassuT
71053 tri- to traya . trestrayaH
71054 nuT after short, nadI, Ap. hrasvanadyAponuT
71055 after sixlike and catur-. SaTcaturbhyazca
71058 idit roots get num. iditonumdhAtoH
71059 Before za, muc-class . zemucAdInAm
71060 masj and naz before serious. masjinazorjhali
71070 ugit gets before strong. ugidacAMsarvanAmasthAnedhAtoH
71071 Uncompounded yuj- gets . yujerasamAse
71072 nonfunny gets num before zi. napuMsakasyajhalacaH
71073 i u before vowel vibhakti. ikocivibhaktau
71074 Before TAsup, adjectives are masculine-like optionally. tRtIyAdiSubhASitapuMskampuMvadgAlavasya
TAsup means TA to sup'
71075 asthi- dadhi- sakthi- akSi- to anaG . asthidadhisakthyakSNAmanaGudAttaH


yuSmad;asmadbhyAM Gaso 'z ONPANINI 71027
Gas to az after yuSmad- asmad-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 691

There are only two examples --

yuSmad- + Gas → yuSmad + a tavamamauGasi tava + a atoguNe tava "your, yours"

asmad- + Gas → asmad + a tavamamauGasi mama + a atoguNe mama "my, mine"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with sixth .


Ge prathamayor am ONPANINI 71028
Ge, first and second to am (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 692

Examples with Ge --

yuSmad- + Ge tubhyamahyauGayi tubhyad + Ge zeSelopaH tubhya + Ge → tubhya + am atoguNe tubhyam "to you"

asmad- + Ge → .. → mahyam "to me" ( same steps )

with first --

yuSmad- + su → yuSmad + am zeSelopaH yuSma + am tvAhausau tva + a + am → .. → tvam "you"

asmad- + su → asmad + am zeSelopaH asma + am tvAhausau aha + a + am → .. → aham "I"

AvAm "the two of us"

vayam "we"

yuvAm "the two of you"

yUyaM "y'all"

with second --

yuSmad- + am → yuSmad + am dvitIyAyAMca yuSma + A + am tva;mAvekavacane tva + a + A + am → .. → tvAm "you"

asmad- + am → asmad + am dvitIyAyAMca asma + A + am tva;mAvekavacane ma + a + A + am → .. → mAm "me"

AvAm "the two of us"

yuvAm "the two of you"

yuSmAn "y'all"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- tables .


zaso na ONPANINI 71029
zas to n (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 693

Exception to Geprathama above.

Only examples --

yuSmad- + zas zeSelopaH yuSma + as → yuSma + n dvitIyAyAMca yuSmA + nyuSmAn "y'all"

asmad- + zas → .. → asmAn "us" ( same steps )

Back to yuSmad- asmad- tables .

pazyAmi yuSmAn brAhmaNAn "I see that y'all are brAhmaNas"

pazyAmi yuSmAn brAhmaNIH "I see that y'all are brAhmaNIs"

pazyAmi yuSmAn kulAni "I see that y'all are of good family"


bhyaso bhyam ONPANINI 71030
Fourth bhyas to bhyam (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 694

Only examples:

yuSmad- + @fourth bhyas zeSelopaH yuSma + bhyas → yuSmabhyam "to y'all"

asmad- + @fourth bhyas → .. → asmabhyam "to us"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fourth .


paJcamyA:: at ONPANINI 71031
Fifth ( bhyas) to at (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 695

Only examples --

yuSmad- + @fifth bhyas zeSelopaH yuSma + bhyas → yuSma + at atoguNe yuSmat "from y'all"

asmad- + @fifth bhyas → .. → asmat "from us"

As in --

gRhANa varam asmat kAGkSitaM yat "accept from us whatever wish you want"

These yuSmat asmat words are seldom used, as the fifth turns into tasil more often than not --

yuSmad- + @fifth bhyasyuSmad + tasil kharica yuSmattas "from y'all"

asmad + tasil → .. → asmattas "from us"

As in --

gRhANa varam asmattaH kAGkSitaM yan nararSabha "accept from us whatever wish you want"

Notice that the earlier asmat kAGkSitam is sort of confusing, because asmatkAGkSitam may sound like a compound. Maybe that's why yuSmat asmat are seldom used.

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fifth .


ekavacanasya ca ONPANINI 71032
Gasi (to at after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 696

Only examples --

yuSmad- + Gasi → yuSmad + at zeSelopaH yuSma + at tvamAvekavacane tva + a + at → .. → tvat "from you"

asmad- + Gasimat "from me" ( same steps )

As in --

tvad gacchanti "they go away from you"

na ca tvad anyamM pazyAmi yo na Apatsu tArayet "and no one but you can make us overcome these disasters"

These tvat and mat are quite seldom; usually they are replaced with the tasil-enders tvattas and mattas, as in --

bhavApyayau hi bhUtAnAM zrutau tvatto mayAnagha "I have heard from you the creation and destruction of creatures, o sinless one"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fifth .


sAma:: Akam ONPANINI 71033
sAm to Akam (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 697

Only examples --

yuSmad- + Am zeSelopaH yuSma + Am Amisarva yuSma + sAmyuSma + Akam akassa yuSmAkam "of y'all"

yuSmad- + AmasmAkam "our, of us" ( same steps )

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with sixth .


Ata:: au NalaH ONPANINI 71034
Nal to au after Ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 698

Example --

dA "give" + liT tipdA + Nal → dA + audadA + au vRddhireci dadau "he gave"

dA "give" + liT mip → .. → dadau "I gave" ( same steps )


tuhyos tAtaG AziSy anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 71035
Optionally tu''' and hi''' to tAtaG when wishing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 699

According to loTca, the loT may have many meanings, one of which is express a wish, ie, a blessing or a curse, as in --

jIvatu bhavAn "live!"

jIva "live!"

mara "die!"

When it means a wish, this rule allows replacing the tu or hi with tAt(aG) --

jIvatAd bhavAn "live!"

jIvatAt tvam "live!"

maratAt tvam "die!"

The G of tAt(aG) triggers kGitica, so no hardsoft here --

brU + loT sip → brU + tAt(aG)brUtAt "may you say"


videH zatur vasuH ONPANINI 71036
After vid, zatR to vas(u) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 700


... shorten and deconfuse, move declesion to footnote

In other words, this rule is saying --

vidvas(u)- ( vid + vasu), means "that knows", same as vidat- ( vid + zatR).

Or more simply, according to this rule, vidvas- would be just an optional replacement of vidat-.

Yet, in practice, this vidvas- nounbase is seldom used to mean "that knows" in general. In fact it usually means "a sage".

This vidvas- is the only vasu or kvasu ender that is often used outside the veda.

As vasu ender are uncommon, I summarize here what happens when vidvas- is before a svaujas affix --

Before strong, vas gets num by ugidacA and lengthening by sAntama --

vidvas(u)- + su ugidacA vidvans sAntama vidvAns saMyogAnta vidvAn

vidvas(u)- + @calling su ugidacA vidvans saMyogAnta vidvan

When wimpy, vas becomes us by vasoHsamprasAraNam --

vidvas- + TA vasossa vidus + A kric viduSA

vidvas- @f + su ugitazca vidvas- + GI + s vasossa vidus + I + s halGyA vidusI kric viduSI

Otherwise the s of vas is wordfinal and turns into d by vasu;sraMsu --

vidvas- + bhis vasusra vidvad + bhisvidvadbhis

The kvasu affix is basically the same affix as this vasu, but it replaces the flat liT affixes. Therefore, it causes reduplication, by liTidhA --

zru + liTzru + tip kvasuzca zru + kvasu liTidhA zuzruvas(u)-

(k)vas(u) sometimes turns into ivas, but never when it has turned into us by vasossa. See Kale for examples.


samAse '-naJ-pUrve ktvo lyap ONPANINI 71037
ktvA to lyap in a compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 701

The affix (l)ya(p) is always made by this rule only -- therefore, it is actually (kl)ya(p), by sthAnivad. It is pit for hrasvasyapitikRtituk and lit for liti.

The ktvA-enders, being verb replacers, can only be in a compound when rules gatizca ff allow it. In all the following the ktvA word is in composition after a preverb, but we also get lyap in puraskRtya, AvirbhUya, UrIkRtya, paTUbhUya etc.

Examples after a root that carries a preverb --

pra + viz + ktvA → pra + viz + lyappravizya "went in and"

AG + sthA + lyapAsthAya

The p label of (l)ya(p) makes rule hrasvasyapitikRtituk work --

ava + plu + ktvA → ava + plu + lyap hrasvasyapiti avaplutya "jumped down and"

lyap is lit for accent.

Counterexamples after a root with no preverb --

plu + ktvAplutvA "jumped and"


Ami sarvanAmnaH suT ONPANINI 71052
Am gets suT after pronoun that ends in A a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 702

Getting s(uT) turns Am into sAm (by Adyantau).

Examples --

sarva + Ap + Am yasyetica sarvA + Am → sarvAsAm f "of all"

sarva mn + Am → sarva + sAm bahuvacanejhalyet sarve + sAm kric sarveSAm "of all"

tad- mn + Am tyadAdInAmaH ta- + Am → ta + sAm bahuvacanejhalyet te + sAm kric teSAm "of those"


tres trayaH ONPANINI 71053
tri- to traya (before Am).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 703

Only example --

tri- + Am → traya + Amtraya + nAm nAmi trayA + nAm Natvam trayANAm "of three"

As in --

teSAnM trayANAJM cApAni ciccheda vizikhais tribhiH "The bows of those three he cut with three arrows."

The feminine is tisRNAm, by tricaturo ff.


hrasva;nady;Apo nuT ONPANINI 71054
( Am gets) nuT after short, nadI, Ap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 704

So Am turns into nAm after most vowels.

(1) Example after Ap --

ajA- "she-goat" + Am → ajAnAm "of she-goats"

(2) Examples after nadI- and vadhU-, that are nadI --

nadI- + Am → nadI- + nAmnadInAm "of rivers"

vadhU + Am → vadhUnAm "of wives"

(3) Examples after short a i u R. These will lengthen by nAmi --

azva + Am → azva + nAm nAmi azvAnAm "of horses"

kapi + Am → kapi + nAm nAmi kapInAm "of monkeys"

guru + Am → guru + nAm nAmi gurUnAm Natvam gurUNAm "of monkeys"

pitR + Am → pitR + nAm nAmi pitRRnAm Natvam pitRRNAm "of fathers, of ancestors"

This rule works after most vowels. The vowels that do not turn Am into nAm are all seldom found, namely --

(A) the ec (only in nounbases go- dyo- nau- rai-), and

(B) the rootnouns that end in A I U (such as the nI of grAmaNI-).

So we say nAvam and grAmaNyAm.


SaT;caturbhyaz ca ONPANINI 71055
( Am gets nuT) after sixlike and catur-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 705

So we replace Am with nAm after --

catur- + Am → catur- + nAm Natvam caturNAm "of four"

paJcan- + Am → paJcan- + nAm nopadhAyAH paJcAn + nAm svAdiSva paJcAn @word + nAm nalopaHprA paJcAnAm "of five"

and of course after SaS-, which is clearly a sixlike --

SaS- + Am → SaS- + nAm svAdiSva @word SaS + nAm jhalAJjazonte SaD + nAm STunA SaD + NAm yaronu SaNNAm "of six"

And as yaronu is optional, SaDNam "of six" is PC too.


id-ito num dhAtoH ONPANINI 71058
idit roots get num.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 706 num

An idit root has label i in the dhAtupATha. Like "(Tu)nad(i)" ( AD 01.0070 "be glad"), that has label Tu' and label i.

The label i makes it get num --

nad + laT tip → nand + tip kartarizap nandati "rejoices"

nad + kta → nand + ktanand + ( iT + ta ) nandita- "rejoiced"

As it gets num no matter what, it is listed as nand in modern dictionaries.


ze muc'-AdInAm ONPANINI 71059
Before za, muc-class (get num).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 707

Example --

muc + laT tipmuc + za + ti → munc + a + ti nazcA muMcati anusvA muJcati

The muc-class are the last eight roots of the zaclass, namely --

muc lup vid lip sic kRt khid piz

So this rule is why we have muJcati siJcati vindati but mucyate muktaH siktam vittam.

Examples of muc-class with laT --

muJcate muJcati

lumpate lumpati

vindate vindati

limpate limpati

siJcate siJcati





masji-nazor jhali ONPANINI 71060
masj and naz (get num) before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 708


naz + sya + tip → nanz + sya + ti vrazca;bhrasja nanS + sya + ti SaDhoHkassi nankSyati monusvA naMkSyati anusvA naGkSyati "he will perish"


ugid;acAM sarvanAmasthAne '-dhAtoH ONPANINI 71070
ugit gets ( num) before strong.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 709 num

The ugit nounbases (those that end in an ugit affix such as matup, zatR, vatup, ktavatu, Iyas(un), vasu) get num before strong affixes.

Example. pazyat- "that sees" is ugit because it was made from dRz + zatR, and zatR is Rdit. Therefore, before all strong, pazyat- gets num --

pazyat- m + jas → pazyant + aspazyantas "that see"

The nounbases dRSTavat-, hanumat-, gomat-, vidvas- are udit because they end in ktavatu matup vasu. As they are udit, they are also ugit, and get num before strong --

hanumat(u)- m + am → hanumat- + num + am midaco hanumantam "pn"

gomat(u)- m + jas → gomat- + num + jas midaco gomantas "cattleowners"

gomat(u)- n + zi → gomat- + num + i midaco gomanti "that own cattle"

as in

gomanti kulAni "cattleowner families"

Before strong su, the at(u)-enders get atvasanta. Examples with ktavatu, matup, vasu --

dRSTavat(u)- m + su atvasanta dRSTavAts → dRSTavAnts halGyA dRSTavAnt saMyogAnta dRSTavAn "he saw"

hanumat(u)- m + su atvasanta hanumAts → hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt saMyogAnta hanumAn "pn"

vidvas(u)- m + su → .. → vidvAn "sage"

but the zatR-enders don't, because they are not udit --

pazyat(R)- m + su → pazyants halGyA pazyant saMyogAnta pazyan "that sees"

Exception. Rootnouns do get num, even if they are ugit.

So, the root gras(u) 01.0717, when compounded after its object, as in

piNDagras- "rice-ball eater, crow"

, does not get num.

Exception to the exception. The root aJc(u) a.k.a. ac''' is udit, but it does get num before strong anyway. So, before strong su, we say --

pra + ac''' m + am → pra + anc + am akassa prAncam nazcA prAMcam anusvA prAJcam "eastern"

but before a non- strong --

pra + ac''' m + zaspra + ac + as akassa prAcas "eastern ones"

See also exception nAbhyastAcchatuH.


yujer a-samAse ONPANINI 71071
Uncompounded yuj- gets ( num before strong).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 710 num

This yuj- rootnoun has kvin (by Rtvig;dadhRk) and means "joiner". Anomalously for a rootnoun, it can be used uncompounded.

yuj- + jas → yunjas nazcA yuMjas anusvA yuJjas "joiners"

Because of the kvin affix, rule kvinpra works here:

yuj- + su → yunjs halGyA yunj saMyogAnta yun kvinpratyaya yuG "a joiner"

azva- + yuj- f + auazvayujau "the Two Yokers (alpha and beta Arietis)"

azva- + yuj- f + su halGyA azvayuj coHkuH azvayug beforepause azvayuk f "the Yoker (alpha and beta Arietis)"


napuMsakasya jhal;acaH ONPANINI 71072
nonfunny gets num before zi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 711 num

By " num it! ", I mean "add n after its last vowel", and by " nonfunny ", I mean whatever does not end in a funny letter.

Examples --

manas- n + zi → manans + i sAntama manAnsi nazcApa manAMsi "minds"

phala- + zi → phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni "fruits, results"

dadhi- + zi → dadhin + i rAjAnam dadhIni "kinds of curds"

madhu- + zi → madhun + i rAjAnam madhUni "kinds of honey"

kartR- n + zi → kartRn + i rAjAnam kartRRni Natvam kartRRNi "fabbers"

mahat- n + zi → mahant + i sAntama mahAnti "big"

zakRt- n + zi → zakRnti "turds"

Counterexample with a n-ender nounbase (n is a funny) --

nAman- + zi rAjAnam nAmAni "names"

Instead of quoting this rule properly as napuMsakasyajhalacaH , I nickname it "the nonfunny rule". I got into that habit to keep my students from saying "napuMsa rule", which I don't like, as it might describe napuMsakAcca rule too.


iko 'ci vibhaktau ONPANINI 71073
( neuter) i u (gets num) before vowel vibhakti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 712 num

Example --

mRdu- + zI → mRdunI n "two soft ones"

This is the only rule that can make a TAsup behave differently after a masculine and after a neuter --

mRdu m + Gas → .. → mRdos

mRdu n + Gas → mRdunas

After adjectives, this n is optional, by tRtIyA-''diSu below, so we may say mRdos in the neuter too.


tRtIyA-''diSu bhASita-puMskaM puMvad gAlavasya ONPANINI 71074
Before TAsup, (neuter i u) adjectives are masculine-like optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 713

In other words, the previous rule is compulsory on normal nouns. But, on adjectives, it is still compulsory before zI, but optional before Ge Gasi Gas Gi os.

zuci- n "clean" is an adjective. So, before Gas, we can say either --

zuci- n + Gas ikoci zucinas

or, by this rule --

zuci- n + Gas → [ masculine-like ] zuci- n + Gas gherGiti zuce- + Gas GasiGasozca zuces ( same steps as kapes m )

However, as vAri- n is not an adjective, it gets ikoci compulsorily --

vAriNazH zucinaH "of clean water"

vAriNazH zuceH "of clean water"


TAsup means TA to sup'mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 714

So the TAsup are the last twenty-one affixes of the list svaujas.

In other words, all the sup are TAsup except the first six, svaujas and amauTchaS.


asthi;dadhi; sakthy;akSNAm anaG udAttaH ONPANINI 71075
asthi- dadhi- sakthi- akSi- to anaG (before vowel TAsup).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 715

(Exception to ikocivibhaktau, that would have added n.)

The four neuter nounbases asthi- "bone", dadhi- "curds", sakthi- "thigh", akSi- "eye" replace their i with an before the TAsup that start with a vowel.

Most of the time, alloponaH will erase the a. Examples --

dadhi- + TA → dadhan + A alloponaH dadhnA

akSi- + TA → akSan + TA alloponaH akSnA STunA akSNA

When these are not neuter because they are at the end of a compound, the rule still works --

priyadadhnA brAhmaNena "by a brahmin that likes curds"

dadhi- + su svamorna dadhi "curds"

dadhi- + bhyAm → .. → dadhibhyAm "with two kinds of curds"

asthi- + zi → .. → asthIni "bones"

akSi + Gi → akSan + i alloponaH akSn + i Natvam akSNi "in the eye"


akSi + Gi → akSan + i Natvam akSaNi "in the eye"

while your proposed rewording would forbid akSaNi.

71009 sup replacement ←

chunk 37: 71027 yuSmad and asmad

→ 71078 /zatR with /num