71009 sup replacement ←

chunk 37: 71027 yuSmad and asmad

→ 71078 /zatR with /num

71027 Gas to az after yuSmad- asmad-. yuSmadasmadbhyAGGasoz
71028 Ge, first and second to am . Geprathamayoram
71029 zas to n . zasona
71030 Fourth bhyas to bhyam . bhyasobhyam
71031 Fifth to at . paJcamyAat
71032 Gasi . ekavacanasyaca
71033 sAm to Akam . sAmaAkam
71034 Nal to au after A AtaauNalaH
71035 Optionally tu''' and hi''' to tAtaG when wishing. tuhyostAtaGAziSyanyatarasyAm
71036 After vid, zatR to vas optionally. videzzaturvasuH
71037 ktvA to ya in a naJ-less compound. samAsenaJpUrvektvolyap
71052 Am to sAm after pronoun. AmisarvanAmnassuT
71053 tri- to traya . trestrayaH
71054 nuT after short, nadI, Ap. hrasvanadyAponuT
71055 after sixlike and catur-. SaTcaturbhyazca
71058 idit roots get num. iditonumdhAtoH
71059 Before za, muc-class . zemucAdInAm
71060 masj and naz before serious. masjinazorjhali
71070 ugit gets before strong. ugidacAMsarvanAmasthAnedhAtoH
71071 Uncompounded yuj- gets . yujerasamAse
71072 nonfunny gets num before zi. napuMsakasyajhalacaH
71073 i u before vowel vibhakti. ikocivibhaktau
71074 Before TAsup, adjectives are masculine-like optionally. tRtIyAdiSubhASitapuMskampuMvadgAlavasya
TAsup means TA to sup'
71075 asthi- dadhi- sakthi- akSi- to anaG . asthidadhisakthyakSNAmanaGudAttaH




(yuSmadasma) (/tava)

yuSmad;asmadbhyAM Gaso 'z ONPANINI 71027
Gas to az after yuSmad- asmad-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 719

There are only two examples --

yuSmad- + Gas → * yuSmad + a tavamamauGasi tava + a atoguNe tava "your, yours"

asmad- + Gas → * asmad + a tavamamauGasi mama + a atoguNe mama "my, mine"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with sixth .

112 letters. -- 71B.bse 12 -- popularity 5

799 /yuSmad- /asmad- to (!A before a consonant /sup) that is not a @replacement.

939 @Singular (/yuSmad- /asmad- with /Ge or /Gas optionally to) /te'' /me''.

1097 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @first.




(Geprathama) (!Gep)

Ge prathamayor am ONPANINI 71028
Ge, first and second to am (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 720

Examples with Ge --

yuSmad- + Ge tubhyamahyauGayi tubhyad + Ge zeSelopaH tubhya + Ge → * tubhya + am atoguNe tubhyam "to you"

asmad- + Ge → .. → mahyam "to me" ( same steps )

with first --

yuSmad- + su → * yuSmad + am zeSelopaH yuSma + am tvAhausau tva + a + am → .. → tvam "you"

asmad- + su → * asmad + am zeSelopaH asma + am tvAhausau aha + a + am → .. → aham "I"

AvAm "the two of us"

vayam "we"

yuvAm "the two of you"

yUyaM "y'all"

with second --

yuSmad- + am → * yuSmad + am dvitIyAyAMca yuSma + A + am tva;mAvekavacane tva + a + A + am → .. → tvAm "you"

asmad- + am → * asmad + am dvitIyAyAMca asma + A + am tva;mAvekavacane ma + a + A + am → .. → mAm "me"

AvAm "the two of us"

yuvAm "the two of you"

yuSmAn "y'all"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- tables .

352 letters. -- 71B.bse 37 -- popularity 10




(zasona) (!zas)

zaso na ONPANINI 71029
zas to n (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 721

Exception to Geprathama above.

Only examples --

yuSmad- + zas zeSelopaH yuSma + as → * yuSma + n dvitIyAyAMca yuSmA + nyuSmAn "y'all"

asmad- + zas → .. → asmAn "us" ( same steps )

KAZIKA yuSmad-asmadbhyAm uttarasya zaso nakAr´Adezo bhavati. yuSmAn brAhmaNAn. asmAn brAhmaNAn. yuSmAn brAhmaNIH. asmAn brAhmaNIH. yuSmAn kulAni. asmAn kulAni.

Hairsplitters will be happy to notice that I mistranslated this rule. Because of AdeHparasya, this rule just replaces (z)as with ns, then saMyogAnta disposes of the s.

236 letters. -- 71B.bse 124 -- popularity 2

1098 /yuSmad- /asmad- with @second.




(bhyasobhyam) (!bhy)

bhyaso bhyam ONPANINI 71030
fourth bhyas to bhyam (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 722

Only examples:

yuSmad- + @fourth bhyas zeSelopaH yuSma + bhyas → * yuSmabhyam "to y'all"

asmad- + @fourth bhyas → .. → asmabhyam "to us"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fourth .

KAZIKA yuSmadasmadbhyAm uttarasya bhyasaH bhyam ityayam Adezo bhavati. yuSmabhyaM dIyate. asmabhyaM dIyate. bhyamAdeze kRte zeSelope ca bahuvacane jhalyet iti etvaM prApnoti, tataGgavRtte punarvRttAvavidhirniSThitasya iti na bhavati. kecit punarabhyamAdezametvanivRttyarthaM kurvanti. yeSAM tu zeSelopaH TilopaH, teSAm abhyamAdeza eva. udAttanivRttisvarazcAdereva bhavati.

112 letters. -- 71B.bse 163 -- popularity 3

26 {(z)e} (is @nonjoiner)




(paJcamyAat) (!paJ)

paJcamyA:: at ONPANINI 71031
fifth ( bhyas) to at (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 723

Only examples --

yuSmad- + @fifth bhyas zeSelopaH yuSma + bhyas → * yuSma + at atoguNe yuSmat "from y'all"

asmad- + @fifth bhyas → .. → asmat "from us"

As in --

gRhANa varam asmat kAGkSitaM yat "accept from us whatever wish you want"

KAZIKA paJcamyAH bhyasaH yuSmadasmadbhyAm uttarasya atityayam Adezo bhavati. yuSmad gacchanti. asmad gacchanti.

These yuSmat asmat words are seldom used, as the fifth bhyas turns into tasil more often than not --

yuSmad- + @fifth bhyasyuSmad + tasil kharica yuSmattas "from y'all"

asmad + tasil → .. → asmattas "from us"

As in --

gRhANa varam asmattaH kAGkSitaM yan nararSabha "accept from us whatever wish you want"

I tell my students to prefer the tasil option, because there is a risk of confusion, as yuSmad and asmad may also be a former in a compound. Here, for instance --

asmaddhitam idaM vAkyamM bhISmazH zAnMtanavo 'bravIt

pANDavAnAM hitaJM caiva sarvasya jagatas tathA

asmaddhitam is a compound for asmAkaM hitam "good for us".

asmAkaM hitam supodhA asmad + hitam jhayoho asmaddhitam

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fifth .

687 letters. -- 71B.bse 182 -- popularity 3

2 next pages for chris

938 (/yuSmad- /asmad- to) /vas'' /nas'' when @plural (optionally).




(GasitoatafteryuSmadasm) (!eka)

ekavacanasya ca ONPANINI 71032
Gasi (to at after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 724

Only examples --

yuSmad- + Gasi → * yuSmad + at zeSelopaH yuSma + at tvamAvekavacane tva + a + at → .. → tvat "from you"

asmad- + Gasimat "from me" ( same steps )

As in --

tvad gacchanti "they go away from you"

na ca tvad anyamM pazyAmi yo na Apatsu tArayet "and no one but you can make us overcome these disasters"

These tvat and mat are quite seldom; usually they are replaced with the tasil-enders tvattas and mattas, as in --

bhavApyayau hi bhUtAnAM zrutau tvatto mayAnagha "I have heard from you the creation and destruction of creatures, o sinless one"

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with fifth .

KAZIKA paJcamyA ekavacanasya yuSmadasmadbhyAm uttarasya atityayam Adezo bhavati. tvad gacchanti. mad gacchanti.

418 letters. -- 71B.bse 212 -- popularity 2

802 (/yuSmad- /asmad- to) !y before @vowel (/sup that is not a @replacement).




(sAmaAkam) (!sAm)

sAma:: Akam ONPANINI 71033
sAm to Akam (after yuSmad- asmad-).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 725

This rule can be reworded as:

" yuSmad- plus Am makes yuSmAkam and asmad- plus Am makes asmAkam "

Only examples --

yuSmad- + Am zeSelopaH yuSma + Am Amisarva yuSma + sAmyuSma + Akam akassa yuSmAkam "of y'all"

asmad- + AmasmAkam "our, of us" ( same steps )

Back to yuSmad- asmad- with sixth .

KAZIKA sAma iti SaSthI-bahuvacanam AgatasuTkaM gRhyate. tasya yuSmadasmadbhyAm uttarasya Akam ityayam Adezo bhavati. yuSmAkam. asmAkam. atha kimartham AgatasuTko gRhyate, na ghAdezavidhAnakAle suD vidyate? tasya eva tu bhAvinaH suTo nivRttyartham. Adeze kRte hi zeSelope yuSmadasmadorakArAntatvAt suT prAptnoti, sa sthAnyantarbhUtatvAt nivartate. dIrghoccAraNaM savarNadirghArtham. akami tu sati hrasvakaraNe tadvidhAnasAmarthyAdeva savarNadIrghatvaM na prApnoti? tatsAmarthyam etvaM prati bhaviSyati iti akArakaraNametvanivRttyartham iti. ato guNe pararUpatvaM syAt.

189 letters. -- 71B.bse 232 -- popularity 1




(AtaauNa) (/dadW)

Ata:: au NalaH ONPANINI 71034
Nal to au after Ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 726

Example --

dA "give" + liT tipdA + Nal → * dA + audadA + au vRddhireci dadau "he gave"

dA "give" + liT mip → .. → dadau "I gave" ( same steps )

KAZIKA AkArAntAdaGgAduttarasya NalaH aukArAdezo bhavati. papau. tasthau. jaglau. mamlau. atra autvam, ekAdezaH , sthAnivadbhAvaH, dvirvacanam ityanena krameNa kAryANi kriyante. ekAdezAdanavakAzatvAdautvaM dvirvacanAdapi paratvAdekAdezaH iti.

76 letters. -- 71B.bse 253 -- popularity 2

553 That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following.

1161 {mA(G)'} "measure"




(tuhyostAta) (/tAta)

tuhyos tAtaG AziSy anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 71035
Optionally tu''' and hi''' to tAtaG when wishing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 727

According to loTca, the loT may have many meanings, one of which is "wish", that is, blessing or curse --

jIv + loT tipjIv + zap + tipjIva + tu'''jIvatu "may he live!"

jIv + loT sipjIv + zap + sipjIva + hi''' atoheH jIva "live!"

mR + loT sip → .. → mara "die!"

When loT means a wish, this rule allows replacing the tu or hi with tAt(aG) --

jIv + loT tu'''jIv + zap + tu → * jIvatAt

jIv + loT hi'''jIv + zap + hi → * jIvatAt

mR + loT hi'''mR + za + hi → * maratAt

As in --

jIvatAd bhavAn "live!"

jIvatAt tvam "live!"

maratAt tvam "die!"

The G of tAt(aG) triggers kGitica, so no hardsoft here --

brU + loT sipbrU + hi''' → * brU + tAt(aG)brUtAt "may you say"

brU + loT tipbrU + tu''' → * brU + tAt(aG)brUtAt "may he say"

You might have noticed two oddities here. First, the G label of tAt(aG) triggers kGitica, but does not trigger Gicca. Secondly, tu''' has label p, but when we replaced it with tAtaG, the tAtaG did not trigger bruva_IT. Instead, it worked as if it were the tAtaG that replaced hi''', which is apit.

KAZIKA tu hi ityetayoH AziSi viSaye tAtaGAdezo bhavatyanyatarasyAm. jIvatAd bhavAn. jIvatAt tvam. jIvatu bhavAn. jIva tvam. GitkaraNam guNavRddhi-pratiSedhArtham iti sarvAdezastAtaG bhavati. GittvAc cAsya sthAnivadbhAvAt yat pittvaM prApnoti tannivartate. Gicca pit na bhavati. tena bruva IT iti brUtAd bhavAniti IT na bhavati. AziSi iti kim? grAmaM gacchatu bhavAn. gaccha tvam. tAtaGi GitvaM saGkramakRt syAdantyavidhizcet tacca tathA na. her adhikAre her adhikAro lopavidhau tu jJApakam Aha. tAtaGo Gittva-sAmarthyAn na ayam antyavidhiH smRtaH. na tadvad anaG-AdInAM tena te 'ntyavikArajAH.

705 letters. -- 71B.bse 261 -- popularity 1




(videzzatu) (/vasu)

videH zatur vasuH ONPANINI 71036
After vid, zatR to vas(u) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 728

In other words, this rule is saying --

vidvas(u)- (from vid + vasu), means "that knows", same as vidat- ( vid + zatR).

According to this rule, vidvas- would be just an optional replacement of vidat-. Yet, in practice, this vidvas- nounbase is seldom used to mean "that knows" in general. In fact it usually means "a sage".

This vidvas- is the only vasu or kvasu ender that is often used outside the veda.

See also vasu with sup .

KAZIKA vida jJAne ityetasmAd dhAtoruttarasya zatuH vasurAdezaH bhavati. vidvAn, vidvAMsau, vidvAMsaH. sthAnivadbhAvAdugitkArye siddhe vasoH ukArakaraNaM vasoH samprasAraNam ity atra kvasor api sAmAnya-grahaN%Artham. ekAnubandhakagrahaNe na dvyanubandhakasya ity etad api na bhavati. tathA sati ukAra-karaNam anarthakaM syAt. anyatarasyAM grahaNaM kecid anuvartayanti. vidan, vidantau, vidantaH.

316 letters. -- 71B.bse 328 -- popularity 8

409 /ugit (gets /GIp when [@f]).

737 /ugit gets (/num) before @strong.

974 Replace (@wordfinal) /vasu !sraMs !dhvaMs /anaDuh- with !d

1127 /ugit is what has an /uk as @label.

1288 Some [@feminine]s get /GI




(samAsena) (/lya)

samAse '-naJ-pUrve ktvo lyap ONPANINI 71037
ktvA to (l)ya(p) in a naJ-less compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 729

"In a compound" means --

when the ktvA-ender has a preverb (like pra + dRSTvA)

or when it is an auxiliary root compounded after something else (like paTU + bhUtvA).

In these cases we must replace ktvA with lyap --

AG + sthitvAAG + sthA + ktvA → * AG + sthA + lyapAsthAya "after performing"

ud + tIrtvAud + tRR + ktvA → * ud + tRR + lyap → .. → uttIrya "after crossing up"

paTU + bhUtvApaTU + bhU + ktvA → * paTU + bhU + lyappaTUbhUya "after sharpening"

This lyap affix always comes from this rule, so it always replaces ktvA. ktvA es kit (unless naktvAseT worked), so lyap will usually be kit too, by sthAnivad. That k label prevents puganta here --

pra + dRSTvApra + dRz + ktvA → * pra + dRz + lyappradRzya "after foreseeing"

and stretches grah here --

pra + gRhItvApra + grah + ktvA → * pra + grah + lyap grahijyA pragRhya "after stretching out"

The l label of (l)ya(p) is for liti. The p label triggers hrasvasyapitikRtituk --

ava + plu + ktvA → * ava + plu + lyap hrasvasyapiti avaplutya "jumped down and"

This rule won't work when the ktvA-ender is compounded after naJ --

naJ + kRtvAakRtvA "without doing"

KAZIKA samAse 'naJpUrve ktvA ityetasya lyapityayam Adezo bhavati. prakRtya. prahRtya. pArzvataHkRtya. nAnAkRtya. dvidhAkRtya. samAse iti kim? kRtvA. hRtvA. anaJpUrve iti kim? akRtvA. ahRtvA. paramakRtvA. uttamakRtvA. anaJiti naJA anyadanaJ naJsadRzam avyayaM parigRhyate. tena naJanavyayaM canaJ na bhavati. snAtvAkAlakAdiSu mayUravyaMsakAdiSu nipAtanAl lyabAdezo na bhavati. athavA samAse iti nirdhAraNe saptamI. tena ktvA-'ntaH samAsa eva parigRhyate. sa ca yena vidhis tadantasya ityanena tadantavidhinA, na tu kRdgrahaNe gatikArakapUrvasya api iti. tathA ca a-naJ-pUrve ityucyate. gatikArakapUrvasyeva tu grahaNe sati naJpUrvasya prasaGga eva na asti, naJ na gatir na kArakam iti. pradhAya, prasthAya ityAdiSu hiprabhRtInantaraGganapi vidhIn bahiraGgo lyab bAdhate eva iti jJApitam etat.

In some rare cases the epics will have lyap replacement when there is no compounding. For instance, here we have gRhya for gRhItvA --

tato yudhiSThiraH pUrvanM dhanur gRhya mahAravam "Then Y. took his noisy bow and..."

949 letters. -- 71B.bse 384 -- popularity 26




(Amisarva) (/sA)

Ami sarvanAmnaH suT ONPANINI 71052
Am to sAm after (the a A of a) pronoun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 730

So, after sarva- we get --

sarva f + Am ajAdyataSTAp sarva + Ap + Am yasyetica sarvA + Am → * sarvAsAm f "of all"

sarva mn + Am → * sarva + sAm bahuvacanejhalyet sarve + sAm kric sarveSAm "of all"

as in --

sarveSAM sukhamM bhavatu "may all have happiness"

This rule will of course apply to the tad- that has turned into ta- or tA-, see --

tad- mn + Am tyadAdInAmaH ta- + Am → * ta + sAm bahuvacanejhalyet te + sAm kric teSAm "of those"

tad- f + Am tyadAdInAmaH ta- + Am ajAdya tA + am → * tA + sAm kric tAsAm "of those"

pUrva- m + Am → .. → pUrveSAm "of the eastern dudes; of the ancients"

KAZIKA Atiti vartate. avarNAt sarvanAmna uttarasya AmaH suDAgamo bhavati. sarveSAm. vizveSAm. yeSAm. teSAm. sarvAsAm. yAsAm. tAsAm. Atityeva. bhavatAm. Ami iti SaSThIbahuvacanaM gRhyate, na GerAm nadyAmnIbhyaH 73116 iti , tasya hi paratvAtADyATsyATo bhavanti. yazca ghAtAmuH , Amazca liTi, na tau sarvanAnmaH staH. sAnubandhakau iti vA tau na gRhyete. Ami iti saptamI-nirdezaH uttarArthaH. iha tu sarvanAmnaH iti paJcamI-nirdezAt tasmAd ity uttarasya iti , SaSThI-prakLptir bhaviSyati.

The literal translation of this rule is --

" Am gets suT after pronoun (that ends in A a). "

Here " Am gets s(uT)" means " Am becomes sAm" (see Adyantau).

The "that ends in a A" is a trickle from vedic rule 71050 Ajjaserasuk.

462 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 1 -- popularity 6

39 /suT' of non-@neuter (are @strong).

65 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as @label after it.

725 /sAm to !Akam (after /yuSmad- /asmad-).

981 Before @plural, replace the !de of /adas- (with !mI).

1025 Some roots get /Satvam after /pari /ni /vi

1219 /kim- "what, who"




(trestrayaH) (!trest)

tres trayaH ONPANINI 71053
tri- to traya (before Am).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 731

This boils down to --

' tri- plus Am makes trAyANAm "

As in --

teSAnM trayANAJM cApAni ciccheda vizikhais tribhiH "The bows of those three he cut with three arrows."

If the tri- is feminine, we get tisRNAm instead, by tricaturo ff.

akSauhiNInAnM tisRNAmM patiH "lord of three akSauhinis"

KAZIKA tri ity etasya Ami pare traya ityayam Adezo bhavati. trayANAm. trINAm ityapi chandasi iSyate. trINAm api samudrANAm iti.

Small details --

tri- mn + Am → * traya + Amtraya + nAm nAmi trayA + nAm Natvam trayANAm "of three"

276 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 43 -- popularity 2

2 next pages for chris




(hrasvanadyA) (/nAm)

hrasva;nady;Apo nuT ONPANINI 71054
( Am gets) nuT after short, nadI, Ap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 732

So, Am turns into nAm after most vowels.

(1) Example after Ap --

ajA- "she-goat" + Am → * ajAnAm "of she-goats"

(2) Examples after nadI- and vadhU-, that are nadI --

nadI- + Am → * nadI- + nAmnadInAm "of rivers"

vadhU + Am → * vadhUnAm "of wives"

(3) Examples after short a i u R, which will lengthen by nAmi --

azva + Am → * azva + nAm nAmi azvAnAm "of horses"

kapi + Am → * kapi + nAm nAmi kapInAm "of monkeys"

guru + Am → * guru + nAm nAmi gurUnAm Natvam gurUNAm "of monkeys"

pitR + Am → * pitR + nAm nAmi pitRRnAm Natvam pitRRNAm "of fathers, of ancestors"

This rule works after most vowels. The vowels that do not turn Am into nAm are all seldom found, namely --

(A) the ec (only in nounbases go- dyo- nau- rai-), and

(B) the rootnouns that end in A I U (such as the nI of grAmaNI-).

So we say nAvam and grAmaNyAm.

KAZIKA hrasvAntAt nadyantAtAbantAc ca uttarasya AmaH nuDAgamo bhavati. hrasvAntAt tAvat – vRkSANAm. plakSANAm. agnInAm. vAyUnAm. kartRRNAm. nadyantAt – kumArINAm. kizorINAm. gaurINAm. zArGgaravINAm. lakSmINAm. brahmabandhUnAm. vIrabandhUnAm. AbantAt – khaTvAnAm. mAlAnAm. bahurAjAnAm. kArISagandhyAnAm.

Inria declension shows grAmaNInAm. That's no good. Ask hyderabad, if you don't trust pANini.

607 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 50 -- popularity 17




(SaTcaturbhya) (!SaTc)

SaT;caturbhyaz ca ONPANINI 71055
( Am gets nuT) after sixlike and catur-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 733

So we replace Am with nAm after --

catur- + Am → * catur- + nAm Natvam caturNAm "of four"

paJcan- + Am → * paJcan- + nAm nopadhAyAH paJcAn + nAm svAdiSva paJcAn @word + nAm nalopaHprA paJcAnAm "of five"

and of course after SaS-, which is clearly a sixlike --

SaS- + Am → * SaS- + nAm svAdiSva @word SaS + nAm jhalAJjazonte SaD + nAm STunA SaD + NAm yaronu SaNNAm "of six"

And as yaronu is optional, SaDNam "of six" is pc too.

KAZIKA SaTsaMjJakebhyaH catuHzabdAc ca uttarasyAmo nuDAgamaH bhavati. SaNNAm. paJcAnAm. saptAnAm. navAnAm. dazAnAm. caturNAm. rephAntAyAH saGkhyAyAH SaTsaMjJA na vihitA, SaDbhyo lug iti lug mA bhUt. bahuvacananirdezAdatra saGkhyApradhAnasya grahaNaM bhavati. paramaSaNNAm. paramapaJcAnAm. paramasaptAnAm. paramacaturNAm. upasarjanIbhUtAyAs tu saGkhyAyAH na bhavati, priyaSaSAm, priyapaJcAm, priyacaturAm iti.

231 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 162 -- popularity 4

1032 After !r !R !RR !S, same-@word !n to !N.

1042 But no (!!STunA) after @wordfinal /Tu, /nAm aside.




(iditonu) (/idi)

id-ito num dhAtoH ONPANINI 71058
idit roots get num.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 734 num

An idit root has label i in the dhAtupATha. Like "(Tu)nad(i)" ( ad 01.0070 "be glad"), that has label Tu' and label i.

The label i makes it get num --

nad + laT tip → * nand + tip kartarizap nandati "rejoices"

nad + kta → * nand + ktanand + ( iT + ta ) nandita- "rejoiced"

As nad gets num no matter what, it is listed as nand in modern dictionaries.

KAZIKA idito dhAtor numAgamo bhavati. kuDi kuNDitA. kuNDitum. kuNDitavyam. kuNDA. huDi huNDitA. huNDitum. huNditavyam. huNDA. iditaH iti kim? pacati. paThati. ayaM dhAtUpadezAvasthAyAm eva nugAmamo bhavati kuNDA, guNDA iti, gurozca hala ityakArapratyayo yathA syAt. tathA hi dhinvikRNvyora ca 31080 iti pratyayavidhAveva numanuSaktayor grahaNam. dhAtugrahaNam ca iha kriyate dhAtUpadezakAla eva numAgamo yathA syAtityevam artham. tAsisicoriditkAryaM na asti ityuccAraNArtho niranunAsika ikAraH paThyate. amaMsta ityevam Adau hi hanaH sic 12024 iti kitvavidhAnasAmarthyAt nakAralopo na bhavati. mantA ityatra api asiddhavadatrA' bhAt 64022 iti Tilopasya asiddhatvAn nalopo na bhavati. iha kasmAn na bhavati, bhettA, dhettA iti? iritAM samudAyasyetsaMjJA iti iditvaM na asti. avayavazo 'pi itsaMjJAyAM satyAM goH pAdAnte 71057 ito 'ntagrahaNam anuvartayitavyam, tenAntedito dhAtavo gRhyante.

225 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 193 -- popularity 2

629 Non-/idit /halanta roots (lose) @nexttolast (nasal sound) before /kGit.

633 !n of /aJcu stays when it means worshipping




(zemucAdI) (!zem)

ze muc'-AdInAm ONPANINI 71059
Before za, muc-class (get num).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 735

Example --

muc + laT tipmuc + za + ti → * munc + a + ti nazcA muMcati anusvA muJcati

The muc-class are the last eight roots of the zaclass, namely --

muc lup vid lip sic kRt khid piz

So this rule is why we have muJcati siJcati vindati but mucyate muktaH siktam vittam.

Examples of muc-class with laT --

muJcate muJcati

lumpate lumpati

vindate vindati

limpate limpati

siJcate siJcati

kRntati

khindati

piMzati

305 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 223 -- popularity 2

535 Rootstarter !S to !s.

1171 /sic' "sprinkle"




(masjinazo) (!mas)

masji-nazor jhali ONPANINI 71060
masj and naz (get num) before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 736

The roots

majj majjati (Du)masj(o) 06.0151 "be inmersed"

and

naz nazyati Naz(a) 04.0091 "disappear, perish"

get num before affixes that start with a serious letter.

Examples before affixes that start with s t --

naz + sya + tip → * nanz + sya + ti vrazca;bhrasja nanS + sya + ti SaDhoHkassi nankSyati monusvA naMkSyati anusvA naGkSyati "he will perish"

masj + tumun skossa maj + tum → * manj + tum coHkuH manktum monusvA maMktum anusvA maGktum "to sink"

KAZIKA masji nazi ity etayor aGgayoH jhal-Adau pratyaye num-Agamo bhavati. maGktA. maGktum. maGktavyam. naMSTA. naMSTum. naMSTavyam. jhali iti kim? majjanam. nazanam. masjer antyAt pUrva numam icchanti anuSaGg´Adi-lop%Artham. magnaH. magnavan.

269 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 299 -- popularity none




(ugidacA) (!ugid)

ugid;acAM sarvanAmasthAne '-dhAtoH ONPANINI 71070
ugit gets ( num) before strong.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 737 num

The ugit nounbases (those that end in an ugit affix such as matup, zatR, vatup, ktavatu, Iyas(un), vasu) get num before strong affixes.

Example. pazyat- "that sees" is ugit because it was made from dRz + zatR, and zatR is Rdit. Therefore, before all strong, pazyat- gets num --

pazyat- m + jas → * pazyant + aspazyantas "that see"

The nounbases dRSTavat-, hanumat-, gomat-, vidvas- are udit because they end in ktavatu matup vasu. As they are udit, they are also ugit, and get num before strong --

hanumat(u)- m + am → * hanumat- + num + am midaco hanumantam "pn"

gomat(u)- m + jas → * gomat- + num + jas midaco gomantas "cattleowners"

gomat(u)- n + zi → * gomat- + num + i midaco gomanti "that own cattle"

as in

gomanti kulAni "cattleowner families"

Before strong su, the at(u)-enders get atvasanta. Examples with ktavatu, matup, vasu --

dRSTavat(u)- m + su atvasanta dRSTavAts → * dRSTavAnts halGyA dRSTavAnt saMyogAnta dRSTavAn "he saw"

hanumat(u)- m + su atvasanta hanumAts → * hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt saMyogAnta hanumAn "pn"

vidvas(u)- m + su → .. → vidvAn "sage"

but the zatR-enders don't, because they are not udit --

pazyat(R)- m + su → * pazyants halGyA pazyant saMyogAnta pazyan "that sees"

Exception. Rootnouns do get num, even if they are ugit.

So, the root gras(u) 01.0717, when compounded after its object, as in

piNDagras- "rice-ball eater, crow"

, does not get num.

Exception to the exception. The root aJc(u) a.k.a. ac''' is udit, but it does get num before strong anyway. So, before strong su, we say --

pra + ac''' m + am → * pra + anc + am akassa prAncam nazcA prAMcam anusvA prAJcam "eastern"

but before a non- strong --

pra + ac''' m + zaspra + ac + as akassa prAcas "eastern ones"

See also exception nAbhyastAcchatuH.

KAZIKA ugitAm aGgAnAM dhAtu-varjitAnAm aJcatez ca sarvanAmasthAne parato num-Agamo bhavati. bhavatu bhavAn, bhavantau, bhavantaH. Iyasun zreyAn, zreyAMsau, zreyAMsaH. zatR pacan, pacantau, pacantaH. aJcateH prAG, prAJcau, prAJcaH. ugidacAm iti kim? dRSad, dRSadau, dRSadaH. sarvanAmasthAne iti kim? bhavataH pazya. zreyasaH pazya. aJcatigrahaNaM niyamArtham, aJcatereva dhAtoranyasya mA bhUt. ukhAsrat. parNadhvat. adhAtoH iti kim? a-dhAtu-bhUta-pUrvasya yathA syAt. gomantam icchati gomatyati, gomatyater apratyayaH gomAn. atra hi dhAtutvAd aJcati-grahaNAn na syAt.

1149 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 310 -- popularity 24




(yujerasa) (!yuj)

yujer a-samAse ONPANINI 71071
Uncompounded yuj- gets ( num before strong).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 738 num

The yuj- rootnoun has kvin (by Rtvig;dadhRk) and means "joiner". Anomalously for a rootnoun, it can be used uncompounded.

yuj- + jas → * yunjas nazcA yuMjas anusvA yuJjas "joiners"

The kvin affix makes rule kvinpra work here:

yuj- + su → * yunjs halGyA yunj saMyogAnta yun kvinpratyaya yuG "a joiner"

KAZIKA yujer asamAse sarvanAmasthAne parato num-Agamo bhavati. yuG, yuJjau, yuJjaH. a-samAse iti kim? azvayuk, azvayujau, azvayujaH. yujeH iti ikAra-nirdezAt yuja samAdhau ity asya grahaNaM na bhavati. yujamApannA RSayaH.

Of course when yuj- is in a compound, it gets no num --

azva- + yuj- f + auazvayujau "the Two Yokers (alpha and beta Arietis)"

azva- + yuj- f + su halGyA azvayuj coHkuH azvayug beforepause azvayuk f "the Yoker (alpha and beta Arietis)"

336 letters. -- 71Baug.bse 400 -- popularity 3

1176 /yuj "join"




(napuMsaka) (@nonf)

napuMsakasya jhal;acaH ONPANINI 71072
nonfunny gets num before zi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 739 num

A " nonfunny " is whatever does not end in a funny letter. "gets num" means we add n after its last vowel. For instance, manas- and phala- are nonfunny, neuter nounbases, so this ruleworks on them--

manas- n + zi → * manans + i sAntama manAnsi nazcApa manAMsi "minds"

phala- + zi → * phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni "fruits, results"

dadhi- + zi → * dadhin + i rAjAnam dadhIni "kinds of curds"

madhu- + zi → * madhun + i rAjAnam madhUni "kinds of honey"

kartR- n + zi → * kartRn + i rAjAnam kartRRni Natvam kartRRNi "fabbers"

mahat- n + zi → * mahant + i sAntama mahAnti "big"

zakRt- n + zi → * zakRnti "turds"

But nAman- ends in n, a funny letter, so we do not add a secend n to it --

nAman- + zi rAjAnam nAmAni "names"

Also catur- ends with r, a funny --

catur @n + jascatur + zi caturana catuAr + i ikoyaNaci catvAri "four"

KAZIKA napuMsakasya jhalantasya ca sarvanAmasthAne parato numAgamo bhavati. udazvinti. zakRnti. yazAMsi. payAMsi. ajantasya kuNDAni. vanAni. trapUNi. jatUni. napuMsakasya iti kim? agnicid brAhmaNaH. jhalacaH iti kim? bahupuri. bahudhuri. vimaladivi. catvAri. ahAni. ugito jhalantasya napuMsakasya paratvAdanena eva num bhavati. zreyAMsi. bhUyAMsi. kurvanti. kRSanti brAhmaNakulAni. bahUrji pratiSedho vaktavyaH. bahUrji brAhmaNakulAni. antyAt pUrvaM numam eke icchanti. bahUrJji brAhmaNakulAni.

491 letters. -- 71C.bse 1 -- popularity 11




(ikocivi) (!ikoc)

iko 'ci vibhaktau ONPANINI 71073
( neuter) i u (gets num) before vowel vibhakti.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 740 num

Example --

mRdu- + zI → * mRdunI n "two soft ones"

This is the only rule that can make a TAsup behave differently after a masculine and after a neuter --

mRdu m + Gas → .. → mRdos

mRdu n + Gas → * mRdunas

After adjectives, this n is optional, by tRtIyA-''diSu below, so we may say mRdos in the neuter too.

KAZIKA igantasya napuMsakasya aGgasya ajAdau vibhaktau numAgamo bhavati. trapuNI. jatunI. tumburuNI. trapuNe. jatune. tumburuNe. ikaH iti kim? kuNDe. pIThe. aci iti kim? uttarArtham. yadyevam, tatra eva kartavyam? iha tu karaNasya etat prayojanam, he trapo ityatra num mA bhUt, iti, na Gi-sambuddhyor iti nalopapratiSedhaH syAt. nanu ca na lumatAGgasyeti pratyayalakSaNe pratiSiddhe vibhaktireva na asti? etadeva ajgrahaNaM jJApakaM pratyayalakSaNapratiSedho 'tra na bhavati iti. tathA ca sambuddhiguNaH kriyate. vibhaktau iti kiM? taumburavaM cUrNam. iko 'ci vyaJjane mA bhUdastu lopaH svaraH katham. svaro vai zrUyamANe 'pi lupte kiM na bhaviSyati. rAyAtvaM tisRbhAvazca vyavadhAnAnnumA api. nuD vAcya uttarArthaM tu iha kiJcit trapo iti.

218 letters. -- 71C.bse 174 -- popularity 6

88 @Shorten @neuter @nounbase

743 /asthi- /dadhi- /sakthi- /akSi- to /anaG (before vowel /TAsup).

872 @Wee to (/guNa) before /Git

1106 /au




(tRtIyAdi) (!tRt)

tRtIyA-''diSu bhASita-puMskaM puMvad gAlavasya ONPANINI 71074
Before TAsup, (neuter i u) adjectives are masculine-like optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 741

In other words, the previous rule is compulsory on normal nouns. But, on adjectives, it is still compulsory before zI, but optional before Ge Gasi Gas Gi os.

zuci- n "clean" is an adjective. So, before Gas, we can say either --

zuci- n + Gas ikoci zucinas

or, by this rule --

zuci- n + Gas → * [ masculine-like ] zuci- n + Gas gherGiti zuce- + Gas GasiGasozca zuces ( same steps as kapes m )

However, as vAri- n is not an adjective, it gets ikoci compulsorily --

vAriNazH zucinaH "of clean water"

vAriNazH zuceH "of clean water"

KAZIKA tRtIyAdiSu vibhaktiSvajAdiSu bhASitapuMskam igantaM napuMsakaM gAlavasyAcAryasya matena puMvad bhavati. yathA puMsi hrasvanumau na bhavataH, tadvadatra api na bhavataH ityarthaH. grAmaNIH brAhmaNaH. grAmaNi brAhmaNakulam. grAmaNyA. brAhmaNakulena, grAmaNinA brAhmaNakulena. grAmaNye brAhmaNakulAya, grAmaNine brAhmaNakulAya. grAmaNyo brAhmaNakulAt, grAmaNino brAhmaNakulAt. grAmaNyo brAhmaNakulasya, grAmaNino brAhmaNakulasya. grAmaNyor brAhmaNakulayoH, grAmaNinor brAhmaNakulayoH. grAmaNyAM brAhmaNakulAnAm, numacira iti pUrvavipratiSedhena nuT, grAmaNInAM brAhmaNakulAnAm. grAmaNyAM brAhmaNakule, grAmaNini brAhmaNakule. zucirbrAhmaNaH. zuci brAhmaNakulam. zucaye brAhmaNakulAya, zucine brAhmaNakulAya. zucer brAhmaNakulAt, zucino brAhmaNakulAt. zucer brAhmaNakulasya, zucino brAhmaNakulasya. zucyor brAhmaNakulayoH, zucinor brAhmaNakulayoH. zucau brAhmaNakule, zucini brAhmaNakule. tRtIyAdiSu iti kim? grAmaNinI brAhmaNakule. zucinI brAhmaNakule. bhASitapuMskam iti kim? trapuNe. jatune. iha kasmAn na bhavati, pIlurvRkSaH, pIlu phalam, pIlune phalAya iti? samAnAyAmAkRtau yad bhASItpuMskaM tulye pravRttinimatte tasya puMvadbhAvaH. iha tu vRkSAkRtiH pravRttinimittaM puMsi zabdasya, phalAkRtirnapuMsake. tadetadevaM kathaM bhavati bhAsitapuMskam iti? bhASitaH pumAn yasminnarthe pravRttinimitte sa bhAsitapuMskazabdena ucyate, uadyogAdabhidheyam api yad napuMsakaM tadapi bhASitapuMsakam. tasya pratipAdakaM yac chabdarUpaM tadapi bhASitapuMskam iti? ikaH ityeva, kIlAlapA brAhmaNaH. kIlAlapaM bAhmaNakulam. kIlAlapena brAhmaNakulena. aci ityeva, grAmaNibhyAM brAhmaNakulAbhyAm.

360 letters. -- 71C.bse 284 -- popularity 2




(/TAsup) (/TAs)

TAsup means TA to sup'mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 742

So the TAsup are the last twenty-one affixes of the list svaujas.

In other words, all the sup are TAsup except the first six, svaujas and amauTchaS.

117 letters. -- 71C.bse 418 -- popularity 4

740 (@neuter) !i !u (gets /num) before @vowel /vibhakti.

741 Before /TAsup, (neuter !i !u) adjectives are masculine-like optionally.

743 /asthi- /dadhi- /sakthi- /akSi- to /anaG (before vowel /TAsup).

823 Delete the !na otherwise.




(asthidadhi) (/dadhi)

asthi;dadhi; sakthy;akSNAm anaG udAttaH ONPANINI 71075
asthi- dadhi- sakthi- akSi- to anaG (before vowel TAsup).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 743

(Exception to ikocivibhaktau, that would have added n.)

The four neuter nounbases asthi- "bone", dadhi- "curds", sakthi- "thigh", akSi- "eye" replace their i with an before the TAsup that start with a vowel.

Most of the time, alloponaH will erase the a. Examples --

dadhi- + TA → * dadhan + A alloponaH dadhnA

akSi- + TA → * akSan + TA alloponaH akSnA STunA akSNA

When these are not neuter because they are at the end of a compound, the rule still works --

priyadadhnA brAhmaNena "by a brahmin that likes curds"

KAZIKA asthi dadhi sakthi akSi ityeteSA napuMsakAnAM tRtIyAdiSu ajAdiSu vibhaktiSu parato 'naGityayam Adezo bhavati, sa ca udAtto bhavati. asthnA. asthne. dadhnA. dadhne. sakthnA. sakthne. akSNA. akSNe. asthyAdaya AdyudAttAH, teSAm anaGAdezaH sthAnivadbhAvAdanudAttaH syAtiti udAttavacanam. tatra bhasaMjJAyAm allope kRte udAttanivRttisvareNa vibhaktirudAttA bhavati. etairasthyAdibhir napuMsakairanapuMsakasya api aGgasya tadantagrahaNam iSyate. priyAsthnA brAhmaNena. priyadadhnA. tRtIyAdiSu iti kim? asthinI. dadhinI. aci ityeva, asthibhyAm. dadhibhyAm.

357 letters. -- 71C.bse 455 -- popularity 2

455 (/Thak after a [@third]-ender means) "well made".

1205 special nounbases
















71009 sup replacement ←

chunk 37: 71027 yuSmad and asmad

→ 71078 /zatR with /num