DEFINITIONS -------------------------------------------------- ←

chunk 66: short definitions

→ long definitions

pUjArtham means "to show respect".
The Tit tenses are laT liT luT lRT leT loT.
ff means "and following".
Add "only" to a rule when it does not make sense without "only".
The Git tenses are laG liG luG lRG.
vArttika is a second-rate rule.
The numbers are singular, dual and plural
former and latter
What means purpose or result is an aim.
An IT is an I attached in front.
variants of Ap
about the affix kap
About alternatively.
Some feminines get GI
original and replacement
Tenses are laT, lRT, luT, laG, liT, luG, loT, liG, lRG, leT.
num is n added after the last vowel
mf means m or f
zabyak tenses
iSan is san with iT.
weak affixes are the nounbase affixes that are not strong
persons are third person, second person, and first person
matvartha affixes mean the same as matup
yac means y or ac
aT is an a added in front
nuT is n added in front
Chop means "delete last letter".
ekAc is what has exactly one ac.
muk is an m added afterwards
The gaNapATha is a list of word groups
ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha


pUjArtham means "to show respect".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1222

There are many old grammarians mentioned by name in the rules. For instance, lopazzAkalyasya says "y to lopa, according to zAkalya".

In some cases, this "according to so-and-so" makes the rule optional. In other cases, it must be ignored, as the name of the grammarian is mentioned only pUjArtham (to show respect).


The Tit tenses are laT liT luT lRT leT loT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1223

These six, when replaced with a bent, are affected by Tita or thAsasse.


ff means "and following".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1224


Add "only" to a rule when it does not make sense without "only".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1225

Example. Rule rossupi says

"before sup, replace ru ",

but it actually means

"before sup', replace ONLY ru; do not replace any other r".

Such rules, to which "only" must be supplied to understand the sense, are called niyama rules or restrictive rules.

We know that a rule must be a niyama rule when it makes no sense without the ONLY. For instance, in the above case, the literal meaning "before sup, replace ru" makes no sense, because the previous rule already replaced all r, ru or not ru -- the literal meaning would made rossupi useless.

NOTE: in the epics, sometimes we find that a verse does not make sense unless we add "only" --

bhAryAmitrAz ca puruSA bhaviSyanti yugakSaye

This appears to be saying "when the end of the world is near, men will have their wife as friend", but that's nonsense, because even nowadays most men can count their wife as a friend, most as their best friend. Given the apocalyptic sense of the chapter, we have to conclude that the verse means "when the end of the world is near, men will have their wife as their only friend". Be careful with these.

Of course, it might that it's us that have the bad habit of adding "only" or "even" even if redundant. For instance, here --

dhArtarASTrasya sainyeSu bherINAnM nAsti nisvanaH " The drums in the army of dhRtaraSTra's son yield no sounds, "

an-AhatAH pANDavAnAnM nadanti paTahAH kila " while those of the pANDavas yield sounds without being struck. "

the English translation seems to be crying for an "even without being struck".

dhArtarASTrasya sainyeSu bherINAnM nAsti nisvanaH " The horns in the army of dhRtaraSTra's son yield no sounds, "

an-AhatAH pANDavAnAnM nadanti paTahAH kila " while those of the pANDavas yield sounds without being played. "


The Git tenses are laG liG luG lRG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1226

These four, when replaced with a flat, are affected by itazca, tasthastha and nityaMGitaH.

For instance, rule ( tasthas will work on these four tenses. Here it changes the mip that replaced liG --

dviS + liGdviS + mip tasthas dviS + am'''dviS + yAm'''dviSyAm "I would hate"

and here rule itazca changes the tip that replaced laG --

dviS + laGdviS + tip luGlaG adviS + tip itazca adviS + t''' puganta adveS + t halGyA adveS jhalAJjazonte adveD "he hated"


vArttika is a second-rate rule.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1227

To be precise, a vArttika is a correction or addition to pANini made by kAtyAyana, a grammarian that lived a few centuries after pANini.

Nearly every vArttika is supported by most grammarians, just like the pANini rules are. The only difference is that when you choose to disagree with a vArttika, you feel a bit less guilty than if you disagree with pANini. tasmai pANinaye namaH


The numbers are singular, dual and pluralmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1228

Each one of the thirty-nine affixes in the lists svaujas and tiptas belongs to one of three groups called singular, dual or plural.

These rules explain which affix belongs to which group --

tAnyeka -- list tiptas goes all singlar dual plural singular dual plural and so on

supaH -- so does list svaujas

These rules explain when to use which group --

bahuSubahuvacanam -- use plural for three or more

dvyekayordvivacanaikavacane -- use dual for two and singular for one

Inria uses the abbreviations sg du pl.


former and lattermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1229

All compounds except the dvandvas are made of two halves, the former and the latter.

Examples --

rAjapuruSas "officer, policeman" is made from the former rAjJas "king's" and the latter puruSas "man".

rAjapuruSazAlA "police station" is made from the former rAjapuruSANAm "of policemen" and the latter zAlA "building".


What means purpose or result is an aim.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1230

In the following examples, the darzana- naraka- putra- mukti- mRtyu- mukti- nounbases express purpose or result, and get Ge because of caturthIsaMpradAne --

Here darzanam (seeing the king) is the purpose of the action of going to the city --

nRpasya darzanAya puraGM gacchati "He's going to the city to see the king."

And here narakas (being in hell) is the result of the action of being angry --

narakAya krodhaH "Anger leads to hell."

Some more examples --

yajate putrAya "He sponsors rituals in order to have a son."

yuddham agacchan mRtyave "they went to war and got killed"

Such expressions do not clarify if the purpose was achieved or not --

viSNum avandata muktaye "praised viSNu for liberation; praised viSNu and got liberated"

It is sort of odd pANini fails to mention that what means purpose or result is an aim. Some rule such as phalesamMpradAnam seems to be missing. My guess is that pANini did not bother to state such a rule because in his time the fourth was used so often to express result that his students did not need to be taught about it.

In modern usage, when a fourth is used, it almost always means purpose or result.


An IT is an I attached in front.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1231

For instance, tip gets IT (turns into Itip) in abravIt, bravIti, AsIt, adrAkSIt.

These I come from bruva::IT, astisicopRkte, yaGovA and other rules.


variants of Apmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1232

The term A(p) means

" any of the three feminine affixes TAp, cAp, DAp ".

Of those, TAp is very common. It is made by rule ajAdyataSTAp.

The other two work the same way, but are seldom found. The differences are --

cAp has c label to make citaH work.

DAp has D label to make TeH work.


about the affix kapmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1233

Rule zeSAdvibhASA says that the ka(p) affix may be added to most longhorns, with no change of meaning.

Examples. Compounding kRSNa- + zmazru- we can either get --

kRSNa-zmazruH "black-bearded, Blackbeard"


kRSNa-zmazrukaH "black-bearded, Blackbeard"

And compounding sa- and agni- we get either sAgni- or sAgnika-. Here these appear with su added --

vAyusH sabhUmisH sAgniH "earth wind and fire"

vAyusH sabhUmisH sAgnikaH "earth wind and fire"

This kap is compulsory after certain words such as uras-. See uraHprabhRti.

It is also compulsory after R-enders and the nadI. See nadyRtazca.

When kap is optional, it is uncommon, except metri causa.


About alternatively.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1234

I use alternatively to mean "but if we don't apply this optional rule".

Example. The optional rule vAvasAne says that, before pause, we may replace suhRd with suhRt if we like. So, after saying that, I show an example of the rule working, and an example of the rule not working --

Optionally replace d with t before pause. Example --

suhRd + @pausesuhRt "friend"

Alternatively --

suhRd + @pausesuhRd "friend"


Some feminines get GImmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1235

GI is a feminine affix. It has some variants, like GIS and GIp, that have different accent.

Whatever ends in R n gets GI ( RnnebhyoGIp).

The ugit get GIp ( ugitazca). This includes whatever ends in zatR matup vasu, and all adjectives that end in s t.

A few of the a-enders get GI when feminine instead of the usual Ap (rules jAtera ff).


original and replacementmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1236

The original (sthAnin-, sthAna-) is whatever a rule replaces.

The replacement (Adeza-) is whatever the original is replaced with.

Example. When rule ikoyaNaci turns madhu::atra into madhvatra, the u is the sthAnin ( original), and the v is the Adeza ( replacement).

Careful. There is ANOTHER word Adeza, which means "grammatical lists such as tiptas, svaujas, and the dhAtupATha". It appears in AdezapratyayayoH and ithe rules.


Tenses are laT, lRT, luT, laG, liT, luG, loT, liG, lRG, leT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 1237 tense

These ten can be split into four groups --

Present tense --


Future tenses --

lRT, luT

Past tenses --

laG, liT, luG

Might-be tenses (see also Wikipedia on Irrealis mood) --

loT, liG, lRG, leT

Of those, laT liT luT lRT leT loT are Tit tenses,

and laG liG luG lRG are Git tenses.

Rules itazca, tasthastha, nityaGGitaH only work on replacements of Git tenses.

Rule Tita only works on replacements of Tit tenses.

See also inria codes for tenses .


num is n added after the last vowelmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1238 num

Rule midaco says that n(um) means "n added after last vowel".

So, when rule nonfunny teaches that "phala and manas get num", that means we must add n after their last vowel, this way --

phala- + num + ziphalan- + zi → .. → phalAni "results"

manas- + num + zimanans- + zi → .. → manAMsi "minds"


caesurammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1239

A caesura (pronounced "seizure" in English, kaisura in Latin) is a special point in a verse that should not be straddled between two vowels of the same word.

Or, explained in another way, a caesura is a point in a verse where you MIGHT pause if it were prose, but at which you won't usually pause in verse. Call it an "imaginary pause" if you like.

In old times, a zloka was usually recited as two verses of sixteen syllables each. The point between the eight and ninth vowels of each verse was a caesura. This means that the eight vowel was almost always the last vowel of a word, but the reciting was not ordinarily paused after that word.

In these times of kaliyuga, however, most zloka stanzas are recited with a full pause at the middle of each verse. So the zloka may be said, nowadays, to consist of four verses of eight syllables each.


mf means m or fmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1240

When a nounbase is flagged with mf, this means there are two nounbases, one m and one f, with the same form and the same meaning. So if I say that rAjan is mf, that's just short for "there are two nounbases, a rAjan m and a rAjan f, with the same meaning".

rAjan- m + su → .. → rAjA "king"

rAjan- f + su RnnebhyoGIp rAjan- + GI + su → .. → rAjJI "queen; wife of king"

Almost all nounbases that mean living beings are mf. Therefore, very few neuters mean living beings. The converse is not true.


adjectivesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1241

An adjective is a set of three nounbases with the same letters, one m one f and one n. They always describe some other noun (which is not an adjective), and you must use the nounbase that has the same gender as that other noun.

Examples: zuci- "clean" and tad- "that" are adjectives --

zucir vAyus saH "that clean air"

zuci vAri tat "that clean water"

zucir nadI sA "that clean river"

Counterexample: rUpam "form, shape, beauty" is always a neuter, even when it goes together with other noun --

sumahad rUpam "humongous shape"

Compounds ending in rUpa- (like surUpa-, mahArUpa-) or on any noun whatsoever may be adjectives or not.

In dictionaries, these are marked with the letters " mfn", "mnf" or "adj".

The noun that they describe does not need to appear in the sentence --

kam azvam apazyaH "what horse did you see?"

zvetam "the white one"

there is no need to say in full zvetam azvam apazyam "I saw the white horse".


zabyak tensesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1242 vikaraNa

The zabyak tenses are --




and liG when it is hard.

The doer affixes and nondoer affixes that replace these four make the root get zap, yak, or the affixes listed at verb classes , such as zlu zyan.

Those yak, zap, zlu etc won't appear before the other tenses.


iSan is san with iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1243 iT

Being a valAdi soft, san gets iT sometimes. When it does, kric works --

san + iT Adyantau i + san kric iSan

As in

car + san + laT tip ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH car + isan + tip sanyaGoH cacarisati sanyataH cicarisati kric cicariSati "wants to move"

Of course the kric rule, being in the tripAdI, always works last of all. But to save space, I'll often write such things this way --

car + san + laT tipcar + iSan + tip sanyaGoH cacariSati sanyataH cicariSati "wants to move"


weak affixes are the nounbase affixes that are not strongmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1244

The nounbase affixes are those that come right after nounbases, namely: the sup, the feminine affixes, and the taddhita.

All of those are said to be weak, except the strong affixes.

Examples --

aN (a taddhita) is always weak

GI (a feminine affix) is always weak

Gi zI TA bhis ( sup affixes) are always weak

su is weak after a neuter (but it then gets deleted by svamorna), and strong after m f.

jas is always strong (after a neuter it turns into zi, which is strong by zisa; otherwise it is strong by suDa).

zi is always strong (nvm if it replaced jas or zas earlier)

zas is weak after m and f, but strong after a neuter, when it turns into zi


persons are third person, second person, and first personmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1245

These are explained at --


asmady uttamaH

zeSe prathamaH

Summarizing those rules: whatever includes you but not me in the meaning is second person, whatever includes me is first person, and everything else is third person.

Please notice that what Western grammarians call third person, second person, first person is called by Sanskrit grammarians prathamaH madhyamaH uttamaH, which literally translates into "first middle last". That's why when Indian grammarians make lists of verbs, they use the order pazyati pazyasi pazyAmi -- he sees, you see, I see. Which is the reverse of european grammarians usage.


matvartha affixes mean the same as matupmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1246

That is, they mean "this has" or "there is in this". They are --









go + matupgomat- "that has cattle"

saras + vatupsarasvat- "that has lakes"

bala- + ini yasyetica balin- "that has strength, strong"

yoga + inyogin- "that has yoga or magic, yogi, sorcerer"

yazas- + vinyazasvin- "that has fame"

tapas- + vintapasvin- "that has pain; ascetic; poor little thingy"

Of those, matup vatup vin and vini are valAdi, and trigger tasaumatvarthe.


yac means y or acmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1247

In other words, yac are all letters except the val. What is not a valAdi is a yajAdi.


aT is an a added in frontmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1248

Rule midaco says so.

Example. When rule luGlaG teaches "kSip gets aT before laG", that makes akSip, not kSipa --

kSip + laG tip luGlaG kSip with aT + tip midaco akSip + tipakSip + t''' za akSipat "threw"


nuT is n added in frontmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1249

See Adyantau.

Example. Rule hrasva;nady;AponuT says that Am gets n(uT). That replaces Am with nAm.


Chop means "delete last letter".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1250

For instance, rule nityaMGitaH teaches "chop vas and mas". This deletes the s, or, in other words, replaces vas mas with va ma.


ekAc is what has exactly one ac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1251

Example. Rule ekAca:: upadeze 'nudAttAt says that some ekAc roots are aniT. Therefore the roots that are not ekAc, such as pAci and yuyutsa, are all seT.

What is not ekAc is anekAc.


muk is an m added afterwardsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1252

When something gets m(uk), it gets an m added at the end. The k means "add at end" (see Adyantau), and the u is padding.

As for instance, rule Anemuk says that plava, dRzya get muk before zAnac. That turns plava into plavam, dRzya into dRzyam --

plu + laT laTazza plu + zAnacplava + zAnac Anemuk plavam + AnaplavamAna- "that jump, jumping"

dRz + yak + zAnac n + jas Anemuk dRzyamAna + jasdRzyamAnAni "that are being seen" ( like phalAni )


The gaNapATha is a list of word groupsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1253

The gaNapATha is a list of word groups mentioned by pANini. For instance, rule ajAdyataSTAp mentions the ajAdi "aja-and-so-on" group. Those words are listed in the gaNapATha list.

There is a modernized version of that list at ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha .


ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapAThammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1254

You can find a list of gaNapATha groups at --

gaNapATha astadhyayidotcom

As for instance, the group number 45 in that list reads --

ajAdiH 4.1.4 | ajA | eDakA | kokilA | caTakA | azvA | mUSikA | bAlA | hoDA | pAkA | vatsA | mandA | vilAtA | pUrvApihANA | pUrvApahANA | aparApahANA | samMbhastrAjinazaNapiNDebhyaH phalAt | sadackANDaprAntazataikebhyaH puSpAt | zUdrA cAmahatpUrvA jAtiH | kruJcA | uSNihA | devavizA | jyeSThA | kaniSThA | madhyamA | puMyoge'pi | mUlAnnaJaH | daMSTrA ||

The ajAdiH is the name of the group. The 4.1.4 link after that refers to rule 41004 ajAdyataSTAp, which mentions that ajAdi group.

The groups that are marked with the word AkRtigaNa were not started by pANini, but are contributions by later grammarians.

DEFINITIONS -------------------------------------------------- ←

chunk 66: short definitions

→ long definitions