21003 compounds ←

chunk 13: 23001 use of cases

→ 24037 root replacements

23001 When not expressed somehow else... anabhihite
23002 Object gets second. karmaNidvitIyA
23005 Use second to mean full time or distance. kAlAdhvanoratyantasaMyoge
23013 fourth means aim. caturthIsampradAne
23014 The object of a hidden action that expresses the purpose of another action . kriyArthopapadasyacakarmaNisthAninaH
23018 doer and tool get third. kartRkaraNayostRtIyA
23026 What goes with hetu gets sixth. SaSThIhetuprayoge
23027 pronouns get third too sarvanAmnastRtIyAca
23028 Thingfromwhich gets fifth. apAdAnepaJcamI
23035 What means "far away" or "near" gets second . dUrAntikArthebhyodvitIyAca
23036 Seventh means location saptamyadhikaraNeca
23037 The action that shows the circumstance of another action or sixth. yasyacabhAvenabhAvalakSaNam
23038 Sixth too. SaSThIcAnAdare
23041 Sixth and seventh can mean "among". yatazcanirdhAraNam
23047 when calling someone. sambodhaneca
23048 is an "Amantrita". sAmantritam
23049 "Calling" is the su . ekavacanaMsambuddhiH
23050 The rest take the sixth. SaSThIzeSe
24001 dvigu compounds are singular. dvigurekavacanam
24029 rAtra- ahna- aha- are masculine . rAtrAhnAhAHpuMsi


anabhihite ONPANINI 23001
When not expressed somehow else...mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 174

talkaround. The following rules (down to 23050 SaSThIzeSe) do not work when what they express is already expressed in some other way. For instance, rule kartRkara below says "add third to mean doer". But in fact the third is added only to the doer of what does not already mean the doer. Example --

When we make a sentence meaning "monkey wants sweetmeats" we can (by rule laHkarmaNi) make the verb mean the doer, that is, we make a verb, such as icchati, with a tip that shows that the monkey is the doer (as tip, like the monkey, is third person and singular).

Now rule kartRkara below says " doer gets third".

But this anabhihite talkaround says that kartRkara cannot work, because the tip already means the doer, and we cannot signal twice that something is a doer.

Therefore the word for monkey will not get third from that kartRkara rule.

In the same sentence, rule karmaNidvi will work on the object (the sweetmeats) because icchati does not mean the object. So we say --

modakAn icchati kapiH "monkey wants sweetmeats"

where karmaNidvi added second to the sweetmeats but kartRkara did not add third to the monkey.

Similarly, iStavat- "he wanted" means the doer, so we say --

modakAn iSTavAn kapiH "monkey wanted sweetmeats"

also with second in the object of root iS, and no third on the doer.

iSyante kapinA modakAH "monkey wants sweetmeats"

iSTAH kapinA modakAH "monkey wanted sweetmeats"


karmaNi dvitIyA ONPANINI 23002
Object gets second.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 175

The words that express the object of a verb or verblike get second. Example with a verb, gam + laT --

grAmaGM gacchati "goes to the village"

Example with a verblike, gam + ktavatu --

grAmaGM gatavAn "went to the village"

In these two sentences, grAmam got one of the second endings because it is the object of the root gam (it got the singular one, am, because one village is meant).

The big exception to this rule is: it will not work at all if the verb or verblike means the object. So the village does not get a second here, because gam + yak + laT means the object --

grAmo gamyate "the village is being gone to, someone goes to the village"

nor here, because gaM + kta means the object --

grAmo gataH "the village was gone to, someone went to the village"

And vAlini did not get a second here, because it is the object of han + kta, which means the object --

vAlini hate zAnta-jvarasH sugrIvaH "after vAlin was killed, sugrIva was relieved of anxiety"

(1) When the word is linked to abhitas, Rte, dhik, and some other words --

abhito grAmam "near the village"

grAmam Rte "except the village"

dhig grAmam "screw the village!"

(2) When an adjective is used as an adverb --

zIghramM pataty ulkA "the meteor falls quickly"

The adverbial usage is seldomish in the epics, as, in that sense, they will say zIghrA pataty ulkA more often than not.


kAl%Adhvanor atyanta-saMyoge ONPANINI 23005
Use second to mean full time or distance.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 176


divasamM paThati "recites all day long"

yojananM dhAvati "runs five miles"


caturthI sampradAne ONPANINI 23013
fourth means aim.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 177

As in --

gAmM brAhmaNAya dadAti "gives a cow to the brahmin"

nIlaJM cikSepa zailAgraGM kumbhakarNAya dhImate "nIla threw a boulder at the nimble Potears"

Here brAhmaNa- and kumbhakarNa- got fourth ending because they are aims --

brAhmaNa- + Ge GeryaH brAhmaNa- + ya supica brAhmaNAya "to the brahmin"

In spite of this sUtra, an aim takes sixth way more often than fourth --

gAmM brAhmaNasya dadAti "gives a cow to the brahmin"

nIlaJM cikSepa zailAgraGM kumbhakarNasya dhImataH "nIla threw a boulder at the nimble Potears"

But that won't work with the aim of namas, which always has sixth --

onM namo bhagavate nArAyaNAya "salutation to the holy nArAyaNa"

onM namo prajApatibhyaH "salutation to the prajApatis"

See also what means purpose or result is an aim .


kriyA-'rth%opapadasya ca karmaNi sthAninaH ONPANINI 23014
The object of a hidden action that expresses the purpose of another action (gets fourth).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 178

This rule may be roughly paraphrased as --

udakAya gacchAmi "I go for water" means udAkaM hartuGM gacchAmi "I go to fetch water". Or to drink water, or to buy water, or some other action that is clear by context. That "hartum" word was hidden.

Here the hidden action is the word (hartum "to fetch" etc) meaning the purpose of the going, and the object of that hartum is the water. Ordinarily udaka- gets second because it is the object of hartum, but, this rule says, it the hartum is removed from the sentence, then udaka- gets fourth.

In a sentence like tamAlaGM kretuGM gacchAmi, if we delete the word kretum, the word tamAlam must replace its second with fourth.

The rule is necessary because it is an exception to a general principle of Sanskrit grammar: we can delete any word that is clear from context without changing the other words of the sentence.


kartR;karaNayos tRtIyA ONPANINI 23018
doer and tool get third.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 179

Examples with doer.

Here rAma and monkeys got third because they are the doers of dRz and svap --

rAmeNaivArNavo dRSTaH "only rAma saw the sea"

supyate kapibhir drume "monkeys sleep on a tree"

And here hanumat- got third because he's the doer of tud "harass" --

tudyamAnA hanumatA rAkSasAs te dravanti ca "and those demons run, harassed by hanumAn"

Examples with tool.

akSipad dhanuSA bANam "he shot arrow with bow"

vRkSamM parazunA 'cchinat "he cut down tree with axe"

Here the nounbases dhanus- and parazu- got third ending TA added. The s of dhanus- got kric, and parazunA was affected by AGonA.

Because of exception anabhihite, this rule does not work when the verb or verblike means the doer.

Counterexamples where a doer does not get third --

dRSTavAn arNavaM rAmaH "rAma saw the sea"

plavante makarA nidhau "sharks swim in the sea"

Here the doers rAmas and makarAs did not get third because dRSTavAn and plavante already mean the doer.

rAmo 'zocan mRte rAjJi "rAma wept when the king had died"

Here the last two words, mRto rAjA "king has died", got seventh by rule yasyacabhAvenabhAvalakSaNam.


SaSThI hetu-prayoge ONPANINI 23026
What goes with hetu gets sixth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 180

To express the cause of an action, we may use that word with sixth, and hetu- "cause" with sixth --

annasya hetor vasati "he lives there because of the food"


sarvanAmnas tRtIyA ca ONPANINI 23027
pronouns get third too (with hetu-)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 181

According to the previous rule SaSThIhetuprayoge, we may say kasya hetor vasati for "why does he live there?", with kim- and hetu- carrying Gas. But according to this rule, we may also add TA to both --

kena hetunA vasati "why does he live there?"


apAdAne paJcamI ONPANINI 23028
Thingfromwhich gets fifth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 182

As in --

vRkSAd rAmo 'varohati "rAma descends from the tree"

here the tree got to be a thingfromwhich by dhruvamapAyepAdAnam because the monkey is moving away from it.

Also in --

na bibheti vRkAd rAmaH "rAma isn't afraid FROM the wolf"

the nounbase vRka- got Gasi (see TAGasi) because the wolf is a thingfromwhich (rule bhItrArthAnA says so).


dUrAntik%Arthebhyo dvitIyA ca ONPANINI 23035
What means "far away" or "near" gets second (or third or fifth).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 183

So here dUra- and antika- get am, a second --

grAmasya dUram "far away from the village"

antikaGM grAmasya "near the village"

By other rules, we may also use fifth Gasi --

grAmasya dUrAt "far away from the village"

antikAd grAmasya "near the village"

or third TA --

grAmasya dUreNa "far away from the village"

antikena grAmasya "near the village"


saptamy adhikaraNe ca ONPANINI 23036
Seventh means location (and goes with distant and near)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 184

Example of location --

Asta sa biDAlaH kaTe "that cat sat on the mat"

Example with distant or near --

dUre grAmasya "far from the village"

Besides these two senses, the seventh is used in many other situations not listed by pANini, but explained in the vArttikas. Among these --

object of feelings --

putre snehaH "affection for a son"

sAdhur devadatto mAtari "devadatta is good to his mom"

purpose --

hanti carmaNi zArdUlanM dantayor hanti kuJjaram "one kills the tiger for his skin the elephant for his tusks"

circumstance (see yasyacabhAvenabhAvalakSaNam) --

RddheSu bhuJjAneSu daridrA Asate "when the rich eat, the poor sit"


yasya ca bhAvena bhAvalakSaNam ONPANINI 23037
The action that shows the circumstance of another action (gets seventh) or sixth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 185

This rough translation of the rule works most of the time --

' Add seventh to an action to mean "when", "after", "if", "supposing", "whenever" or such. '

This example will clarify --

gato biDAlaH "cat left" is an action

nRtyanti mUSikAH "mice dance" is another action

To make the sentence "cat left" show in which circumstances mice dance,

We can replace its first endings with seventh endings --

gate biDAle

Or sixth endings --

gatasya biDalasya

And then we can say --

gate biDale nRtyanti mUSikAH "when the cat has left the mice dance"

gatasya biDalasya nRtyanti mUSikAH "when the cat has left the mice dance"

These sentences that show circumstance, such as gate biDAle, are called " locative absolutes" or " genitive absolutes". I don't like those words, so I sometimes tell my students in class "the words hate zuni here are a yasyaca".

zuni hate gatam alarkaviSam "dead dog, no more rabies"

amerikadezaGM gatasya biDalasya nRtyanti mUSikAH "when the cat has gone to America the mice dance"

biDAlo hanyate ca "and the cat is being killed"

biDAle hanyamAne ca: anRtyan mUSikA bhRzam "and while the cat was being killed the mice danced a lot"

hate yudhiSThire pArtho hanyAt sarvAn hi no dhruvam

"because if yudhiSThira were slain, arjuna would kill all of us for sure"


SaSThI c' .An-Adare ONPANINI 23038
Sixth too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 186

Previous rule says that we may use seventh to mean "if", "when", "after" --

biDale gate "after the cat left, when the cat is gone"

goSu duhyamAnAsu gataH "he left when the cows were being milked"

goSu dugdhAsv AgataH "he came back when the cows were already milked"

This rule clarifies that the sixth works too --

biDalasya gatasya "after the cat left, when the cat is gone"

gavanM duhyamAnAnAGM gataH "he left when the cows were being milked"

gavAnM dugdhAnAm AgataH "he came back when the cows were already milked"


yatazca nirdhAraNam ONPANINI 23041
Sixth and seventh can mean "among".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 187

As in --

gavAGM kRSNA sampannakSIratamA "among cow breeds, the German Black Pied has the highest milk production"

goSu kRSNA sampannakSIratamA "among cow breeds, the German Black Pied has the highest milk production"


saMbodhane ca ONPANINI 23047
(Use the first) when calling someone.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 188

So the nounbase guru "teacher" gets su au jas when it is used just to call the attention of the teacher(s).

guru + su hrasvasyaguNaH guro + s eGhra guro "hey teacher"

guru + au prathamayo gurU "hey (you two) teachers"

guru + jas jasica guro + as ecoya guravas "hey (you 3+) teachers"

In the case of su, the su used to call is said to be a " calling su", and there are rules that work on the calling su obnly, sucgha s hrasvasyaguNaH. Yet, there are no special rules when au and jas are used to call, they just work like the ordinary au jas.

As in --

guro trAyasva mAm "hey teacher, protect me!"

gurU abhivAdaye "hey ( 2 ) teachers, I salute you!"

alamM bAla-pIDayA guravaH "hey ( 3+ ) teachers, leave 'em kids alone!"

Notice that because of rule ekavacanaMsa, the guru- + su that is used to call adds up to guro, but the same guru- + su when not used to call adds up to gurus, as in --

gurus trAyate mAm "the teacher is protecting me"

However, the au used to call always makes the same word as the normal au --

gurU plavete "two teachers jump"

Same can be said of jas --

plavante guravaH "teachers jump"


sA ''mantritam ONPANINI 23048
(That first used to call or address) is an " Amantrita".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 189

Example. Here the word azva is used to call a horse. This word is not grammatically linked to any sentence --

ehy azva "come, horse!"

And here the word azvas is part a sentence --

aity azvaH "the horse is coming"

The first azva is used to call, and has a su affix. This su affix is Amantrita and disappeared (because of a rule that zaps an Amantrita su after an a).

azva- + Amantrita su eGhras azva "hey horse!"

The second azvas is the doer of the verb aiti. It is not used to call, and has a su affix. This su affix is not Amantrita (and turned into H by rules sasaju and kharava).

azva- + ordinary suazvas "a horse" beforepause azvaH

Besides being used to call, the Amantrita is also used to address, this way --

udeti sUryaH "the sun is rising"

udeti suhRt sUryaH "the sun, my friend, is rising"

udeti rAjan sUryaH "the sun, your Majesty, is rising"


ekavacanaM sambuddhiH ONPANINI 23049
" Calling" is the su (used to call).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 190

There are two sorts of su --

the normal su, that comes from first ending by default

and the calling su (or " calling" for short), that comes from sambodhaneca.

So the calling is a special sort of su. The endings au and jas are never calling, no matter if they are used to call or not.

Some rules apply only to the calling su, others only to the normal su, and others to both. Because of those rules, most words used to address ONE person of thing sound different than when they get su inside a normal sentence.

Examples of words with normal su --

azvas "a horse"

azvA "a mare"

gurus "a teacher"

kapis "a monkey"

vyAghrI "a tigress"

vadhUs "a young lady"

Examples of words with calling su --

azva "hey horse"

azve "hey mare"

guro "hey teacher"

kape "hey monkey"

vyAghri "hey tigress"

vadhu "hey young lady"

The rules that formed these words were eGhrasvA, sambuddhauca, hrasvasyaguNaH, ambArtha and maybe others.

In a few cases, the normal su and the calling su end up making the same word --

zrIH "hey goddess of wealth"

zrIs tvAm anugRhNAti "the goddess of wealth smiles on you"


SaSThI zeSe ONPANINI 23050
The rest take the sixth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 191

A nounbase gets sixth when it expresses a relationship that is not object, etc (not any of the role relationships taught above, since 23002 karmaNidvi).

The main example of this is the relationship of owner and owned. See owner gets sixth for examples.


dvigur ekavacanam ONPANINI 24001
dvigu compounds are singular.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 192

Exception to dvyeka and bahuSu.

Example. The compound dvigu- means a couple of cows, and it is made from the phrase dve gAvau "two cows". It is a dvigu-type compound, and this rule makes it singular. So it gets su, not au --

dve + gAvau "two cows" → dvi + go- + sudvi + gu + sudvigus "a pair of cows"

Counterexample --

If we were to compound together sapta and RSayaH to mean a group of seven prophets, then we would get a dvigu.

But if the compound is a tag, used to mean the Big Dipper, then it is not a dvigu and retains the plural --

saptarSayaH "the Seven Seers, the Big Dipper"


rAtr';.Ahn';.AhAH puMsi ONPANINI 24029
rAtra- ahna- aha- are masculine (in a tatpuruSa or dvandva).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 193

These rAtra- ahna- aha- are replacements of rAtri- f. and ahan- n. inside compounds (made by rAjAhas;sakhibhyaS Tac, ahassarvY, and other rules). So, they would ordinarily keep their gender in a tatpuruSa or dvandva. But by this exception, we say instead --

dvi + ratri + su → .. → dvirAtras m "group of two nights"

tri + ahan- + su → .. → tryahas m "group of three days"

pUrvarAtras m "the first half of the night"

trINy ahAni samAhRtAni rAjAhas;sakhibhyaSTac tri- + ahan- + Tac ahnaSTakhoreva tri + ah + a ikoyaNaci tryaha- "group of three days"

21003 compounds ←

chunk 13: 23001 use of cases

→ 24037 root replacements