64077 iyaG uvaG ←

chunk 35: 64131 on wimpiness

→ 71009 sup replacement

64131 Stretch vasu kvasu. vasossamprasAraNam
64132 vAh- to Uh-. vAhaUTh
64133 zvan- yuvan- maghavan-, unless before a taddhita. zvayuvamaghonAmataddhite
64134 an to n. alloponaH
64136 optionally before Gi zI vibhASAGizyoH
64137 No after consonant plus v m. nasaMyogAdvamantAt
64138 ac''' . acaH
64142 viMzati loses its ti before Dit. tiviMzaterDiti
64143 Tail to . TeH
64144 n-enders before taddhita. nastaddhite
64145 But ahan- before Ta kha only. ahnaSTakhoreva
64146 u U to guNa orguNaH
64148 a A i I and GI. yasyetica
64149 sUrya tiSya puSya agastya matsya lose y . sUryatiSyAgastyamatsyAnAMya::upadhAyAH
64154 tR before iSTha Iyas. turiSThemeyassu
64155 tail to lopa. TeHx
64157 priya to pra, sthira to stha, sphira to spha, uru to var, bahula to baMh, guru to gar, vRddha to varS, tRpra to trap, dIrgha to drAgh, vRndAraka to vRnd . priyasthirasphirorubahulaguruvRddhatRpradIrghavRndArakANAmprasthasphavarbaMhigarvarSitrabdrAghivRndAH
64161 After consonant, light R to ra . raRtohalAderlaghoH
64169 The an of Atman- and adhvan- before kha. AtmAdhvAnaukhe
71001 Replace yu vu of affixes with ana aka. yuvoranAkau
71002 ph Dh kh ch gh of affix-start to Ayan ey In Iy iy. AyaneyInIyiyaHphaDhakhacchaghAmpratyayAdInAm
71003 jh to ant. jhontaH
71004 at after stammered adabhyastAt
71005 of jha after non-a. AtmanepadeSvanataH
71006 After zIG, ruT. zIGoruT


vasoH samprasAraNam ONPANINI 64131
Stretch ( wimpy) vasu kvasu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 651

So vasu becomes first us by this rule, and then, if any affix is added, it becomes uS by kric --

vidvas- + zas → vidus + as kric viduSas "sages"

vidvas- + matup → viduSmat- "that has sages"

vidvas- + GI → viduSI- "sagette"

But if the affix is weak and starts with a valAdi, this rule does not work, because vidvas- is not wimpy. In that case the s becomes wordfinal by svAdiSva, and turns into d by vasu;sraMsu --

vidvas- mn + bhis vasusraMsu vidvadbhis "by sages"

If the affix is strong, this rule won't work --

vid + vasu m + am ugidacA vidvans + am sAntama vidvAns + am nazcA vidvAMsam "sage"

vid + vasu m + su ugidacA vidvanss sAntama vidvAnss halGyA vidvAns saMyogAnta vidvAn "sage"

vid + vasu m + bhis vasusraMsu vid + vad + bhisvidvadbhis "by sages"

pecuspac + liT + jhipac + kvasu + zas → pecusas kric pecuSas "they that cooked, they cooked"


vAha:: UTh ONPANINI 64132
( wimpy) vAh- to Uh-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ 652

vAh- is only vAh before strong --

vizva- + vAh- + jasvizvavAhas "supporters of all"

wimpy vAh- turns into Uh- by this rule --

vAh- mf + zas → Uh- + asUhas "carriers"

This U will merge with a preceding A a into au, by ( ety;edhaty;UThsu --

vizva- + Uhas ety;edhaty;UThsu vizvauhas "supporters of all"


zva;yuva;maghonAm ataddhite ONPANINI 64133
( Stretch wimpy) zvan- yuvan- maghavan-, unless before a taddhita.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 653

Examples with zvan- "dog" --

zvan- + TA → zun + AzunA "with dog"

zvan- + GI → zun + IzunI- "bitch"

yuvan- "young"

yuvan + Gi → yu + un + Gi akassa yUn + GiyUni "about the young man"

maghavan- "munificent" (name of indra and other generous gods)

magha + va + n + Gas → magha + u + n + as AdguNaH magho + n + asmaghonas "of indra"

But with a taddhita affix, the va stays --

yuvan- + aN taddhiteSva yauvana- "youngness, youth"

Careful. There is also a nounbase maghavat-, same meaning as maghavan-, and this rule does not apply to it --

maghavat + Gasmaghavatas "of indra"


al-lopo 'naH ONPANINI 64134
( Wimpy) an to n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 654

By yacibham, a nounbase is wimpy before weaks that start with a vowel or y, like Gas, Am, Ge. So --

nAman- + Gas → nAmn + asnAmnas "of the name"

rAjan- + Am → rAjn- + Am stozz rAjJAm "of kings"

takSan- + Ge → takSn- + e Natvam takSNe "to carpenter"

See optional exception vibhASAGizyoH and compulsory exception nasaMyogAdvamantAt below.


vibhASA Gi;zyoH ONPANINI 64136
( alloponaH works) optionally before Gi zImmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 655

Optional exception. Usually, alloponaH deletes a here --

nAman n + Gi → .. → nAmni "in a name"

nAman n + zI → .. → nAmnI "two names"

rAjan m + Gi → .. → rAjJi "about a king"

But if we take this option, then we get --

nAman n + Gi → nAmani "in a name"

nAman n + zI → nAmanI "two names"

rAjan m + Gi → rAjani "about a king"


na saMyogAd va;m-antAt ONPANINI 64137
No ( alloponaH) after consonant plus v m.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 656

Exception to alloponaH -- wimpy van and man keep their "a" after consonants.

So we have no alloponaH in --

carman- + Ge Natvam carmaNe

Atman- + zas OR Gas OR GasiAtmanas

parvan- + Gi Natvam parvaNi

vezman- n + au napuMsakAcca vezmanI "two houses"

This rule is very easy to remember, because if we forget to not apply the alloponaH, we get carmNe Atmnas parvNi. Icky.

Notice that we still get allopo after a cluster that ends in other consonants --

takSan + Ge → .. → takSNe "to carpenter"

takSan + Gi → .. → takSNi "about the carpenter"

takSan + Gi → .. → takSaNi "about the carpenter" ( optionally by vibhASAGi )


acaH ONPANINI 64138
( Wimpy) ac''' (loses a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 657

ac is the aJcati root (aka aJc(u) or ac'''), with kvin added. Before a wimpy it becomes ac(u) by aniditA. Then becomes c(u) by this rule. A short before that c will lengthen by cau.


dadhi + aJcati + kvin + TA aniditA dadhi- + ac''' + TA → dadhi + c cau dadhI + cdadhIcA "by the sage dadhyac-"

So this dadhyaJc- compound nounbase ends up having three forms --

dadhyaJc- when it's before strong (which makes dadhyAG with strong su, see kvinpra)

dadhyag- when it's a word

dadhIc- when it's wimpy


ti viMzater Diti ONPANINI 64142
( Wimpy) viMzati loses its ti before Dit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 658

Example --

viMzateH pUraNaH "the one that completes twenty" tasyapU viMzati- "twenty" + DaT → viMza- + DaT TeH viMza- "twentieth"


Tail to ( lopa before Dit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 659

Whatever has D label is a Dit. Like the affixes Dati, (D)vu(n).

Examples --

kim- + Dati + jas → k + ati + as SaDbhyoluk kati "how many?"

triMzat- + Dvun → triMz + vu yuvoranAkau triMz- + akatriMzaka- "having thirty parts; bought for thirty"


nas taddhite ONPANINI 64144
( Wimpy) n-enders (lose tail) before taddhita.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 660

Examples --

agnizarman- + iJ → agnizarm + iJ taddhiteSva Agnizarmi- "son of agnizarman"

madrarAjan- + Tac → madrarAja-

pra + adhvan- + ac' → pra + adhv + acprAdhva-

See exception ahnaSTakhoreva below.


ahnaS Ta;khor eva ONPANINI 64145
But ahan- (loses tail) before Ta kha only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 661

Exception to nastaddhite. The an of ahan stays before all taddhita except Tac and kha.

So, before the ThaJ from tenanirvRttam, the an stays --

ahnA nirvRttamahan + ThaJ ThasyekaH ahan + ikaJ taddhiteSva Ahan + ikaJ alloponaH Ahnika- "daily"

But before Tac, nastaddhite works normally --

mahat- + rAjan- Anmahatassa mahA- + rAjan- rAjAhassa mahA + rAjan + Tac nastaddhite mahArAja- "great king"

trINy ahAni samAhRtAni taddhitArtho tri- + ahan- rAjAhassakhibhyaSTac tri- + ahan- + Tac nastaddhite tri + ah + a ikoyaNaci tryaha- "group of three days"

and before kha too --

dve ahanI adhISTo "instructed for two days" vyuSTAdibhyoN dvi- + ahan- + kha AyaneyI dvi + ahan + Ina nastaddhite dvi + ahIna- ikoyaNaci dvyahIna-


or guNaH ONPANINI 64146
(Before taddhita,) u U (of wimpy) to guNammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 662

Examples --

kuru- + Nya → kuro- + Nya → .. → kauravya- "son of kuru"

kuru- + aN → kuro- + aN → .. → kaurava- "son of kuru"

pANDu- + aN → pANDo- + aN → .. → pANDava- "son of pANDu"

kuru- + TAkuruNA


y;asy' ..eti ca ONPANINI 64148
a A i I (of wimpy to lopa before taddhita) and GI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 663

Any wimpy that ends in a A i I loses it before GI and before taddhita.

Examples before GI --

vyAghra- f + GIvyAghrI- "tigress"

sakhi- f + GIsakhI- "female friend; sister-in-law"

vRka- f + GIvRkI- "wolvess"

Examples before non- valAdi taddhita --

akSa- + Thak ThasyekaH akSa- + ika (k) kitica AkSi- + ika → AkSika "gambler"

dazarathasya + iJ supodhA dazaratha + iJ taddhiteSva dAzaratha + iJ → dAzarathi- "son of dazaratha"

vinatA + Dhak AyaneyI vinatA + eyak kitica vainatA + eya → vainateya- "son of vinatA"


sUrya-tiSy%Agastya-matsyAnAM ya:: upadhAyAH ONPANINI 64149
sUrya tiSya puSya agastya matsya lose y (before taddhita or GI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 664

Example --

matsya- @f Sidgau matsya- + GIS yasyetica matsyI- → matsI- "female fish"

This works also on the derivatives of these nounbases, such as saurya- (from sUrya- + aN) --

saurya + GI → saura + I yasyetica saurI- f "solar"


tur iSTh%em´eyaHsu ONPANINI 64154
tR (to lopa) before iSTha(n) Iyas(un).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 665

Example. The root ji means "be victorious, conquer". Adding tRc or tRn we get jetR- "victor, conqueror". Adding iSThan to that we get jayiSTHa-, which has no tR, and means "best victor". In detail --

vi + ji + tRn + iSTha(n) hardsoft vi + je + tR + iSTha- → vi + je + iSTha- ecoya vijayiSTha- "best conqueror"

This is one of the few situations where a lopa replaces two letters. Usually a lopa would only replace the R, by alontyasya.

Even though the original rule mentions the affix iman, there are no examples of iman appearing after a tRc tRn ender, so I did not bother to mention iman in my translation. It is mentioned in the original rule just so that it will trickle down to the next rule, TeHx.


TeH x ONPANINI 64155
(Before iSThan iman Iyasun,) tail to lopa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 666

(Please see about the letter x in rules .)

Examples --

paTu- "sharp" + iSTha(n) → paT + iSThapaTiSTha- "sharpest, very sharp"

paTu- + iman → paT + imanpaTiman- m "sharpness" (same as paTutva-)

paTu- + Iyas(un) → .. → paTIyas- "sharper"


priya;sthira;sphiroru;bahula; guru;vRddha;tRpra;dIrgha;vRndArakANAM pra;stha;spha;var;baMhi; gar;varSi;trab;drAghi;vRndAH ONPANINI 64157
priya to pra, sthira to stha, sphira to spha, uru to var, bahula to baMh, guru to gar, vRddha to varS, tRpra to trap, dIrgha to drAgh, vRndAraka to vRnd (before iSThan iman Iyasun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 667

Examples --

guru + iSTha(n) → gar + iSThan → gariSTha- "very important"

guru + iman → gar + imangariman- "weightiness, weight, importance"

guru + Iyas(u) → gar + Iyasun → gar + → garIyas- "very important"

(Only the pRthvAdi get iman.)

See the kAzikA for the other examples.


ra Rto halAder laghoH ONPANINI 64161
After consonant, light R to ra (before iSThan iman Iyasun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 668

Examples --

pRthu- + iSThan → prathu + iSTha TeHx prathiSTha- "very sharp"

pRthu- + iman → prathu + iman TeHx prathiman- "sharpness"

This rule only applies to six words --

pRthumM mRdumM bhRzaJM caiva kRzaJM ca dRDham eva ca |

paripUrvaM vRDhaJM caiva SaD etAn ra-vidhau smaret ||


AtmAdhvAnau khe ONPANINI 64169
The an of Atman- and adhvan- (stays) before kha.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 669

Exception to nastaddhite.

Atmane hitaH Atman;vizvajana Atman- + kha AyaneyI AtmanIna "suitable for oneself"


yu;vor an'-.Akau ONPANINI 71001
Replace yu vu of affixes with ana aka.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 670

So, lyu is just short for (l)ana, and Nvul is short for (N)aka(l). As in --

nI + (N)vu(l) → nI + (N)aka(l) acoJNiti nai + aka ecoya nAyaka- "leader, carrier"

nand + lyu → nand + (l)ananandana- "gladdener, son"


Ayan;ey;In; Iy;iyaH pha;Dha;kha; ccha;ghAM pratyayAdInAm ONPANINI 71002
ph Dh kh ch gh of affix-start to Ayan ey In Iy iy.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 671

So we change --

ph → Ayan

Dh → ey

kh → In

ch → Iy

gh → iy

as in

vinatA + Dhak → vinatA + eyak kitica vainatA + eya yasyetica vainateya- "son of vinatA"

gArgya- + phak → gArgya + Ayanak → .. → gArgyAyaNa-


jho 'ntaH ONPANINI 71003
jh to ant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 672

This rule replaces the jh of affixes with ant.

The affixes that have jh are jhi, jha and their replacements.

Be very careful. This rule replaces the jh letter only, NOT the whole affix. So, the a i of jha jhi stay in place, and the result of the rule is changing --

jhi into anti'''

jhu''' into antu'''

jh''' into ant'''

jha into anta'''

jhe''' into ante'''

The rule works in all tenses. Examples --

nI + laT jhinaya + jh + i → naya + ant + i atoguNe nayanti "they lead"

dviS + loT jhidviS + jhu''' → dviS + antu'''dviSantu "make them hate"

yA + laG jhi luGlaG ayA + jhiayA + jh''' → ayA + ant''' akassa ayAnt saMyogAnta ayAn "they went"

See also the two exceptions right below --

(jh to) at after stammered

(jh) of jha (to at) after non-a.


ad abhyastAt ONPANINI 71004
(jh to) at after stammeredmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 673

Exception to jhontaH -- after stammered, the jh coming from jhi or from jha turns into at, not into ant.

The ati''' atu''' at''' ata''' ate''' affixes are replacements of jhi jha made by this rule or by the next rule, AtmanepadeSvanataH.

There are two sorts of stammered that can have jhi jha after them -- the zlu-enders (like juhu, bibhI), and the seven roots mentioned in jakSityAdayaSSaT (like jAgR, daridrA).

After these, jhi jha jhe''' jhu''' jh''' turn into ati''' ata''' ate''' atu''' at'''. Examples --

bhI + laT jhibibhI + jhi → bibhI + ati'''bibhyati "they are afraid"

dA + laT jhi → .. → dadA + jhi → dadA + ati znA;'bhyastayorAtaH dadati "they give"

bhR + laT jha → .. → bibhR + jha Tita bibhR + jhe → bibhR + ate ikoya bibhrate "they bear"

jAgR + laT jhi → .. → jAgR + ati''' ikoya jAgrati "they are awake"

These forms are confusing for beginners, as they look as if they were singulars of a zapclass. For comparison, here are the singulars --

bhI + laT tip puganta bhe + tip → .. → bibheti "is afraid"

dA + laT tip → .. → dadA + tipdadAti "gives"

bhR + laT ta → .. → bibhR + tabibhR + te'''bibhRte "bears"

jAgR + laT tip hardsoft jAgarti "is awake"


AtmanepadeSv an-ataH ONPANINI 71005
(jh) of jha (to at) after non-a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 674

The previous rule says that the flat ending jhi and its replacements turn their jh into at, not ant, only when they follow a stammered.

The bent ending jha is quite different. jha and its replacements turn jh into ant only when they are after a (e.g. when the root got zap za zyan yak sya yaG etc etc). Everywhere else we get at, not ant.

Examples --

dviS + laT jha Tita dviS + jhe''' → dviS + ate'''dviSate "they hate"

dviS + laG jha → dviS + ata''' luGlaG adviSata "they hated"

hu + laT jhahu + zlu + jha zlau juhu + jhajuhu + jhe''' → juhu + ate''' huznuvossA juhvate "they pour"

rudh + laT jharudh + znam + jha midaco runadh + jha znasora rundh + jha Tita rundh + jhe''' → rundh + ate'''rundhate "they obstruct"

kR + laG jha → .. → akurvata "they did"

dviS + loT jhadviS + atAm''''dviSatAm "let them hate"


zIGo ruT ONPANINI 71006
After zIG, (this at from jha gets) ruT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 675

So after zIG, ata''' becomes rata, ate''' becomes rate, and AtAm'''' becomes ratAm.

All examples --

zI + laG jhaze + jha luGlaG aze + jhaaze + ata''' → azerata "they slept"

zI + laT jhaze + jha Tita ze + jheze + ate''' → zerate "they sleep"

zI + loT jhaze + jhaze + atAm'''' → zeratAm "let them sleep"

zIG + liG jhaze + jhaze + Iran''' ecoya zayIran "they would sleep"

zIG + luG jha → .. → azayiSata "they slept"

64077 iyaG uvaG ←

chunk 35: 64131 on wimpiness

→ 71009 sup replacement