the sup groups ←

chunk 54: lists of tense replacers

→ formation of tense affixes

lists of tense replacements
liG replacements
Bent hard liG.
Bent soft liG.
laT replacements
laG replacements
liT replacements
loT replacements
loT replacement rules
Flat soft liG.
luT replacements.
formation of luT
split luT

(listsoftensereplacemen) (lists)

lists of tense replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1095

laT replacements

laG replacements

loT replacements

liG replacements

liT replacements

luT replacements

90 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 5 -- popularity 5

1104 @Flat @soft /liG.

(liGreplacements) (liG)

liG replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1096

flat hard liG

flat hard liG after a

bent hard liG

flat soft liG

bent soft liG

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)

91 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 20 -- popularity 4

(/Ita''') (/Ita)

bent hard liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1097

The bent tiG affixes, when they replace hard liG, turn into --

Ita''' IyAtAm''' Iran'''

IthAs''' IyAthAm''' Idhvam'''

Iya''' Ivahi''' Imahi'''


dviS + @hard liG tadviS + Ita'''dviSIta "he would hate"

Of course after a we get AdguNaH --

plava + liG taplava + Ita''' AdguNaH plaveta "he would jump"

dviS + karmaNi @hard liG tadviS + yak + tadviSya + Ita''' AdguNaH dviSyeta "he would be hated"

See also bent hard liG rules .

Back to liG replacements .

338 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 30 -- popularity 7

400 (@Bent) /liG gets {sIy(uT)}.

402 (/liG) /jha to /ran.

935 (@Stammer of) !nij !vij !viS to /guNa before /zlu.

1058 (/Natvam won't) replace @wordfinal.

(/sISTa''') (/sIS)

bent soft liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1098

When the bent affixes replace the soft liG tense, they turn into --

sISTa''' sIyAstAm''' sIran'''

sISThAs''' sIyAsthAm''' sIdhvam''' *

sIya''' sIvahi''' sImahi'''

(* sIdhvam''' will sometimes turn into SIDhvam by iNaSSIdhva.)

(See bent soft liG rules if you are curious about which rules form these affixes.)

These affixes have no G label, therefore they do trigger hardsoft and puganta, unlike the other liG replacers. (The flat liG affixes, hard and soft, get G from yAsuTpa, the hard bent get G from hard apit is Git , and the soft bent do not get any G from anywhere.)

Example --

plu + @soft liG taplu + sISTa''' hardsoft plo + sISTa''' kric ploSISTa "may he jump"

Also, being soft affixes that do not start with yac, they will get iT after seT roots --

vRdh + @soft liG tavRdh + sISTa''' ArdhadhAtukasyeD vRdh + isISTa puganta vardh + isISTa kric vardhiSISTa "may he prosper"

648 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 51 -- popularity 11

(laTreplacements) (laTr)

laT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1099

When the flat tiG replace laT, they stay unchanged --

tip tas jhi

sip thas tha

mip vas mas

The bent, however, turn into --

te''' Ate''' jhe'''

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

The jhi and jhe will be replaced

either with anti''' ante''' by rule jhontaH

or with ati''' ate''' by the two rules below jhontaH

The bents were changed by rules Tita and thAsasse.

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)

322 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 94 -- popularity 3

(laGreplacements) (laG)

laG replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1100

When the flat tiG affixes replace laG, they are affected by tasthastha, itazca or nityaGGitaH, and turn into --

t''' tAm''' jh'''

s''' tam''' ta'''

am''' va''' ma'''

The jh''' affix will turn into ant''' or into at''' by rules jhontaH ff. That ant''' always loses its t by saMyogAnta.

The bent tiG affixes that replace laG, however, stay unchanged --

ta AtAm jha

thAs AthAm dhvam

iT' vahi mahi

The jha will turn into anta''' or into ata''' by rules jhontaH ff.

Back to lists of tense replacements .

396 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 121 -- popularity 3

1108 Formation of @flat @hard /liG.

(liTreplacements) (liT)

liT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1101

When the flat replace liT, rule Nalatusus turns them into --

Nal atus us

thal athus a

Nal va ma

The bent, by rules irec and Tita, turn into --

ez Ate''' irec

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

155 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 181 -- popularity 3

1095 lists of tense replacements

(loTreplacements) (loTreplm)

loT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1102

When loT is replaced with the eighteen tiG, they turn into --

tu''' tAm''' jhu'''

hi''' tam''' ta'''

Ani''' Ava''' Ama'''

tAm'''' AtAm'''' jhAm''''

sva''' AthAm'''' dhvam''''

ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

Of course, because of jhontaH and its two exceptions,

jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''',

and jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.

See loT replacement rules to find out which rules made these affixes.

Back to lists of tense replacements .

365 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 200 -- popularity 8

(loTreplacementrules) (loTreplr)

loT replacement rulesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1103

The eighteen loT replacements are made by these rules --

ADuttamasyapicca makes the A of Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' Avahai''' Amahai''', and makes them pit

AmetaH makes tAm'''' jhAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm''''

eruH makes tu''' jhu'''

eta::ai makes the ai of ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

loTolaGvat makes Ava''' Ama''' tAm''' tam''' ta'''

merniH makes Ani'''

savAbhyAMvAmau makes sva''' and dhvam''''

serhyapicca makes hi''', and makes it apit

359 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 280 -- popularity 1

(/yAt'''') (/yAt'''')

flat soft liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1104

The nine flat tiG, when they replace soft liG, turn into --

yAt'''' yAstAm''' yAsus'''

yAs'''' yAstam''' yAsta'''

yAsam''' yAsva''' yAsma'''

The root will get no zap etc because these are soft, and will get no hardsoft or puganta because these are Git (by yAsuTpa). The affixes will never get iT because they start with y.

Examples --

bhU + @soft liG mipbhU + yAsam'''bhUyAsam "may I be"

bhU + @soft liG tipbhU + yAt'''bhUyAt "may he be"

Back to lists of tense replacements .

369 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 323 -- popularity 4

203 /han to /vadha before (@soft) /liG.

906 Lengthen before /yak, /kyaG, /yaG, @soft /yAsuT.

1096 /liG replacements

(/tAsmi) (/tAs)

luT replacements.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1105

To make the luT verbs, add these after the root --

tA tArau tAras

tAsi tAsthas tAstha

tAsmi tAsvas tAsmas

tA tArau tAras

tAse tAsAthe tAdhve

tAhe tAsvahe tAsmahe

These are not luT replacers, but the tAs affix that follows the root, joined with the luT replacer. For instance, tAras is tAs plus jhi. The tAs affix will cause hardsoft or puganta of the root.

So, whenever I write --

plu + loT jhiplu + tAras hardsoft plotAras "they will jump"

that's just short for --

plu + loTplu + jhiplu + tAs + jhi hardsoft plo + tAs + jhi → .. → plotAras

As tAs is a valAdi soft, these will sometimes get iT --

bhU + loT jhibhU + tAras ArdhadhAtukasyeD bhU + itAras hardsoft bho + itAras ecoya bhavitAras "they will be"

budh + tAras ArdhadhAtukasyeD budh + itAras puganta bodh + itArasbodhitAras "they will realize"

If these doesn't get iT, sometimes the t of tAs will combine with the last consonant of the root --

dRz + tAras sRjidRzo draz + tAras vrazca;bhrasja draS + tAras STunA draSTAras "they will see"

budh + tAras puganta bodh + tAras jhaSastatho bodh + dhAras jhalAMjazjhazi boddhAras "they will realize"

chid + tAras kharica chit + tAras puganta chettAras "they will split"

See also split luT .

See also formation of luT if you're curious.

808 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 433 -- popularity 14

(formationofluT) (formationlu)

formation of luTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1106

When tAs is before a tiG, these rules might change the tiG --




and these rules might change the tAs --





tAs will combine with the root in the same way it combines with tavya tRc tumun, which are also non- kGit softs that start with t. So we have kharica in these four --

chid + tavya hardsoft ched + tavya kharica chettavya- "that should be split"

chid + tRc → .. → chettR- "splitter"

chid + tumun → .. → chettR- "to split"

chid + tAras → .. → chettAras "they will split"

367 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 484 -- popularity 2

3 next pages for chris

(@splitlut) (@spl)

split luTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1107

According to pANini, the expressions kartA, kartArau, kartAras, kartAsmas, etc, when they mean "he will make", "both will make", "they will make", "we will make", are verbs made by joining the root kR and the tense luT. So they are single words --

kR + luT tipkR + tA hardsoft kartA "he will make"

kR + luT mipkR + tAsmi hardsoft kartAsmi "I will make"

Now, you will have notice that the verbs kartA, kartArau, kartAras sound exactly like these nouns made with the tRc affix --

kartR- + sukartA "maker"

kartR- + aukartArau "two makers"

kartR- + jaskartAras "makers"

And that there is a sentence kartAsmi made from two words --

kartA + asmi akassa kartAsmi "I am the maker"

This is no coincidence, because sentences like jetAras "they will win" evolved historically from phrases made from jetR-, like jetAras "they are the winners", with change of meaning.

Yet, according to pANini rules, nowadays you may not use the nounbase jetR- to mean "will win". Thre noun jetA must mean "winner" and the verb jetA must mean "he will win". Therefore, the following sentences suck when you use them to mean "I will win" --

asmi jetA

ahaM jetA


jetA zatrum aham

I call those "split luT". They are not kosher, but you will find them sometimes in the epics --

tadA devAsure yuddhe jetAhanM tvAM zatakrato

"Then I shall defeat you in a war between devas and asuras, indra."

The nounbase jetR- can still be used kosherly to mean "winner". Unlike the luT verb, it agrees in gender with its doer --

jetrI sA "she's the winner, she has already won"

kRtaka-krIDanaka-kartR yantram "maker of plastic toys, 3D-printer"

and its object gets sixth, not second --

jetA zatror aham "I'm the conqueror of my enemy, I kicked his ass"

1277 letters. -- 905tensereplacers.bse 502 -- popularity 3

3 next pages for chris

the sup groups ←

chunk 54: lists of tense replacers

→ formation of tense affixes