63091 lengthening rules ←

chunk 33: 64019 cchvoz

→ 64077 iyaG uvaG

64019 Replace cch with z and v with UTh before nasal, . cchvozzUDanunAsikeca
64023 Delete n of root after znam. znAnnalopaH
64024 Non-idit halanta roots nexttolast before kGit. aniditAMhala::upadhAyAHkGiti
64025 daMz saJja svaJj before zap. daMzasaJjasvaJjAMzapi
64026 raJj raJjezca
64027 before ghaJ when meaning state or instrument. ghaJicabhAvakaraNayoH
64030 n of aJcu stays when it means worshipping nAJceHpUjAyAm
64034 zAs to i before aG or consonant kGit affix. zAsa::idaGhaloH
64036 han to ja hanterjaH
64037 Some roots lose final nasal before serious kGit anudAttopadezavanatitanotyAdInAmanunAsikalopojhalikGiti
64038 optionally before lyap. vAlyapi
64039 But not before ktic, and no lengthening. nakticidIrghazca
64048 Erase a before soft. atolopaH
64051 Ni to before iT-less . NeraniTi
64062 After vowelenders, han, grah and dRz, the sya sic sIyuT tAs that are before akartari get optionally an iT that behaves like ciN. syasicsIyuTtAsiSubhAvakarmaNorupadezejjhanagrahadRzAMvAciNvadiTca
64064 Erase A before iT . Atolopa::iTica
64065 I before yat Idyati
64066 ghu mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA to I before consonant kGit soft. ghumAsthAgApAjahAtisAMhali
64069 No before lyap. nalyapi
64070 Optionally mA to mi . mayateridanyatarasyAm
64071 Before luG laG lRG, aT. luGlaGlRGkSvaDudAttaH
64072 But vowel starters get AT. ADajAdInAm
64074 But not in connection with mAG. namAGyoge




(cchvozzUDanu) (!cc)

cch;voH z;UD anunAsike ca ONPANINI 64019
Replace cch with z and v with UTh before nasal, ( kvi, and serious kGit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 627

Example before naG, that starts with a nasal --

pracch + na → * pra + z + naprazna- "question"

(Notice that stozzcu did not change the n. That's because of exception zAt.)

Example before kta, which is a kGit, and starts with t, which is a serious --

pracch + kta grahijy pRcch + ta → * pRz + ta vrazca;bhrasja pRS + ta STunA pRSTa- "asked"

KAZIKA cha ity etasya sa-tukkasya, vakArasya ca sthAne yathAsaGkhyam zUTH ityetAvAdezau bhavataH, anunAsikAdau pratyayai parataH kvau jhalAdau ca kGiti. praznaH. viznaH. antaraGgatvAt che ca iti tuki kRte satukkasya zAdezaH. vakArasya UTH syonaH. siverauNAdike na pratyaye laghUpadhaguNAt pUrvamUTH kriyate. tatra kRte 'ntaraGgatvAd yaNAdezo nAnAzrayatvAt ca na vArNAdAGgaM balIyaH bhavati. kvau chasya zabdaprAT. kvabvaci ityAdinauNAdikaH kvip dIrghazca. goviT. vakArasya akSadyUH. hiraNyaSThyUH. asiddhaM bahiraGgamantaraGge iti nAjAnantarye iti pratiSidhyate. jhalAdau chasya pRSTaH. pRSTavAn. pRSTvA. vakArasya dyUtaH. dyUtavAn. dyUtvA. kGiti ityeva, dyubhyAs. dyubhiH. kecid atra kGiti iti na anuvartayanti. kathaM dyubhyAm, dyubhiH iti UThi kRte? diva ut iti taparatvAn mAtrAkAlo bhaviSyati. chazAM SaH ityatra chagrahaNaM na kartavyam. anena eva hi sarvatra zakAro vidhIyate. UThaSThitkaraNam etyadhatyUThsu 61189 iti vizeSaNArtham. vAha UTH 64139 ityayam api Thideva.

217 letters. -- 64.bse 802 -- popularity 5

53 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.

537 !v !y to /lopa before /val.

1156 /pracch "ask"




(znAnnalopaH) (!znAn)

znAn@ na-lopaH ONPANINI 64023
Delete n of root after znam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 628

Roots with a nexttolast nasal sound, like bhanj hiMs, appear as bhaJj hiMs in modern dictionaries, but the dhAtupATha lists them as bhanj hins. So this rule can be reworded as --

' znamclass roots with a nexttolast nasal lose it when znam is added '

Examples --

bhanj + laT tipbhanj + znam + ti midaco bha + na + nj + ti → * bha + na + j + ti coHkuH bhanakti "breaks"

bhanj + laT jhi → .. → bhananjanti → * bhanajanti znasorallopaH bhanjanti nazcA bhaMjanti anusvA bhaJjanti "they break"

hiMs + laT tip → .. → hinasti "he hurts"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA znAd iti znam ayam utsRSTa-makAro gRhyate. tata uttarasya nakArasya lopo bhavati. anakti. bhanakti. hinasti. zakAravato grahaNam kim? yajJAnAm. yatnAnAm. supi ceti paratvAt kRte 'pi dIrghatve sthAnivadbhavAt nalopaH syAdeva. viznAnAm, praznAnAm ityatra lakSaNapratipadoktayoH pratipadoktasya eva ityevaM na bhavati.

381 letters. -- 64.bse 840 -- popularity 2




(aniditA) (!ani)

an-iditAM hala:: upadhAyAH kGiti ONPANINI 64024
Non- idit halanta roots (lose) nexttolast (nasal sound) before kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 629

So, before a kGit affix, roots like sraMs(u) dhvaMs(u) aJcu raJj dambh will turn into sras dhvas ac raj dabh --

sraMs + kta → * srasta- "broken"

aJcu + kvin → * ac + kvin vera ac''' "that leans to"

The root nand "rejoice, prosper" is unaffected by this rule because it is idit, ie, it has label i in the dhAtupATha. It appears there listed as --

(Du)nad(i) samRddhau 01.0070

and it gets num because of id-ito num dhAtoH. So we say --

nand + ktanandita- "he rejoiced"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA aniditAm aGgAnAM halantAnAm upadhAyAH nakArasya lopo bhavati kGiti pratyaye parataH. srastaH. dhvastaH. srasyate. dhvasyate. sanIsrasyate. danIdhvasyate. aniditAm iti kim? nandyate. nAnandyate. halaH iti kim? nIyate. nenIyate. upadhAyAH iti kim? nahyate. nAnahyate. kGiti iti kim? sraMsitA. dhvaMsitA. aniditAM nalope laGgikampyorupatApazarIravikArayorupasaGkhyAnaM kartavyam. vilagitaH. vikapitaH. upatApazarIravikArayoH iti kim? vilaGgitaH. vikampitaH. raJjerNau mRgaramaNa upasaGkhyAnaM kartavyam. rajayati mRgAn. janIjRRSknasuraJjo 'mantAzca iti mittvAdupadhAhrasvatvam. mRgaramaNa iti kim? raJjayati vastrANi. ghinuNi ca raJjerupasaGkhyAnaM kartavyam. rAgI. tyajarajabhaja iti nipAtanAd vA siddham. rajakarajanarajaHsUpasaGkhyAnaM kartavyam. rajakaH. rajanam. rajaH.

Small detail. The original rule does not say "delete nasal sound", it just says "delete n" (a trickle from the nalopa of the previous rule). That makes sense because the roots that are listed as sraMs raJj dambh in modern dictionaries appear as srans ranj danbh in the dhAtupATha. Listing them with n is fine, because the n will eventually turn into M J m by nazcA and anusvA.

654 letters. -- 64.bse 866 -- popularity 14




(daMzasaJja) (!daM)

daMza;saJja;svaJjAM zapi ONPANINI 64025
daMz saJja svaJj (lose their n) before zap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 630

Examples --

dazati "he bites"

sajati "clings to, sticks to"

pariSvajate "he hugs" ( with S from upasargAtsunoti )

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA daMza saJja SvaJja ityeteSAm aGgAnAM zapi parata upadhAyA nakArasya lopo bhavati. dazati. sajati. pariSvajate.

114 letters. -- 64.bse 943 -- popularity 1




(raJjezca) (!raJ)

raJjez ca ONPANINI 64026
raJj (loses J before zap)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 631

raJj + laT tipraJj + zap + tip → * rajati "dyes, paints"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA raJjezca zapi parataH upadhAyAH nakArasya lopo bhavati. rajati, rajataH, rajanti. pRthagyogakaranam uttarArtham.

66 letters. -- 64.bse 950 -- popularity 1




(ghaJicabhA) (!gha)

ghaJi ca bhAva-karaNayoH ONPANINI 64027
(Delete the J of raJj) before ghaJ when meaning state or instrument.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 632

As in --

rAga- "dyeing"

rAga- "painting tool"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA bhAvakaranavAcini ghaJi parato raJjeH upadhAyA nakArasya lopo bhavati. bhAve Azcaryo rAgaH. vicitro rAgaH. karaNe rajyate anena iti rAgaH. bhAvakaraNayoH iti kim? rajanti tasminniti raGgaH.

60 letters. -- 64.bse 971 -- popularity 1




(nAJceHpUjA) (!nAJ)

n%AJceH pUjAyAm ONPANINI 64030
n of aJcu stays when it means worshippingmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 633

Exception to aniditA. aJcu is a non- idit halanta and should always lose J before kGit, like here --

ud + aJc + kta aniditA ud + acta- coHkuH udakta- "(was) drawn up"

As in --

udaktam udakaGM kUpAt "water was drawn up from the well"

However, when aJcu means respecting, honoring, worshipping, its J stays even before kGit --

aJc + kta aJceHpUjAyAm aJcita- "respected, honored"

As in --

aJcitA asya guravaH "his gurus were honored"

Rule aJceHpUjAyAm sounds similar, so be careful.

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA aJceH pUjAyAm arthe nakArasya lopo na bhavati. aJcitA asya guravaH. aJcitam eva ziro vahati. aJceH pUjAyAm iti iD-AgamaH. pUjAyAm iti kim? udaktam udakaM kUpAt. uddhRtam ity arthaH. yasya vibhASA itIT-pratiSedhaH.

365 letters. -- 64.bse 986 -- popularity 2




(zAsa::ida) (!zAsa)

zAsa:: id aG;haloH ONPANINI 64034
( nexttolast of) zAs to i before aG or consonant kGit affix.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 634

This rule turns zAs into zis, then zis turns into ziS by zAsivasi.

Example before aG --

zAs + luG tipazAs + tipazAs + t''' sartti azAs + aG + t → * azis + a + t zAsi;vasi aziSat "he taught"

Example before kta, which is always kit and starts with t --

zAs + kta → * zis + ta- zAsivasi ziSta- STunA ziSTa- "was instructed, was taught"

Example before tas, when rule sArvadhAtukamapit made it Git --

zAs + laT tas → * zis + tas zAsivasi ziStas STunA ziSTas "both teach"

Counterexample before a vowel affix that is Git --

anu + zAs + laT jhi jakSi anu + zAs ( stammered ) + jhianu + zAs + ati'''anuzAsati "they forecast"

Counterexample before a consonant affix that is not kGit --

anu + zAs + laT tipanuzAsti "he forecasts"

KAZIKA zAsa upadhAyA ikArAdezo bhavati aGi parato halAdau ca kGiti. anvaziSat, anvaziSatAm, anvaziSan. halAdau kitiziSTaH. ziSTavAn. Giti AvAM ziSvaH. vayaM ziSmaH. ittve kRte zAsi;vasi;ghasInAM ca iti Satvam. aGhaloH iti kim? zAsati. zazAsatuH. zazAsuH. kvau ca zAsa ittvaM bhavati iti vaktavyam. AryAn zAsti iti AryazIH. mitrazIH. yasmAt zAseH aG vihitaH zAsu anuziSTau iti, tasya eva idaM grahaNam iSyate. AGaH zAsu icchAyAm iti asya na bhavati. AzAste. AzAsyamAnaH. kvippratyaye tu tasya api bhavati iti vaktavyam. AzIH, AziSau, AziSaH. kSiyA;''zIH;praiSeSu tiG AkAGkSamiti nipAtanAd vA siddham.

inria conjugation, last time I checked, said zAstas, not ziSTas, for "both teach". That was a bug. Hyderabad's verb forms generator agrees with pANini.

594 letters. -- 64.bse 1000 -- popularity 4

279 /iN' !stu !zAs !vR !dR !juS get {(k)ya(p)} to mean "should be".




(hanterjaH) (!hant)

hanter jaH ONPANINI 64036
han to ja (before hi''')mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 635

Only example --

han + loT siphan + hi''' → * jahi "kill!"

KAZIKA hanterdhAtoH jaH ityayam Adezo bhavati hau parata. jahi zatrUn.

36 letters. -- 64.bse 1052 -- popularity 2

1683 conjugation of /han




(anudAtto) (@graver)

anudAttopadeza;vanati;tanoty-AdInAm anunAsika-lopo jhali kGiti ONPANINI 64037
Some roots lose final nasal before serious kGitmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 636

Some of those roots are yam ram nam gam han van, and the tanAdi (a.k.a uclass). There are others. Other nasal-ender roots, such as zam, are not affected by this rule.

Examples before kit affixes that start with t, a serious --

han + kta → * hata- "was killed"

gam + kta → * gata- "gone; went"

gam + ktvA → * gatvA "after going"

man + ktin → * mati- "opinion"

tan + ktavatu m + su → * ta + tavat + s → .. → tatavAn "he extended"

Examples before tas tha that are Git by hard apit is Git --

han + laT tas → * hatas' "they two kill"

han + laT tha → * hatha "y'all kill"

See also optional exception vAlyapi right below and exception naktici below it.

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

KAZIKA anudAttopadezAnAm aGgAnAM vanateH tanotyAdInAM ca anunAsikalopo bhavati jhalAdau kGiti pratyaye parataH. yamu yatvA. yataH. yatavAn. yatiH. ramu ratvA. rataH. ratavAn. ratiH. anudAttopadezA anunAsikAntA yamiraminamigamihanimanyatayaH. vanati vatiH. ktino rUpam etat. ktici tu nakticidIrghazca 64039 iti bhavati. anyatra jhalAdAviTA bhavitavyam. tanotyAdayaH tataH. tatavAn. sanoterAtvaM vakSyati. kSaNu kSataH. kSatavAn. RNu RtaH. RtavAn. tRNu tRtaH. tRtavAn. ghRNu ghRtaH. ghRtavAn. vanu vataH. vatavAn. manu mataH. matavAn. Giti atata. atathAH. anudAttopadezavanatitanotyAdInAm iti kim? zAntaH. zAntavAn. tAntaH. tAntavAn. dAntaH. dAntavAn. anunAsikasya iti kim? pakvaH. pakvavAn. jhali iti kim? gamyate. ramyate. kGiti iti kim? yantA. yantavyam. upadezagrahaNaM kim? iha vayathA syAt, gatiH. iha ca mA bhUt, zAntaH, zAntavAniti.

The original rule says that the roots that are marked with a grave accent in the dhAtupATha belong to this group of nasal-losing roots. I didn't translate that part, however, because I don't know how to check if a root has grave or not. If you know how to do that, please tell me.

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... maybe recoversome quetionsfrom below ...

730 letters. -- 64.bse 1062 -- popularity 14




(vAlyapi) (!vAl)

vA lyapi ONPANINI 64038
(Those roots lose nasal) optionally before lyap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 637

Optional exception to the previous rule. The roots that lose final nasal by the above rule before all serious kGit, may keep it before lyap.

Example. gam root ordinarily loses m before all serious kGit, including ktvA and its replacement lyap --

gam + ktvA anudAttopadeza gatvA "went and"

AG + gam + ktvAAgam + lyap anudAttopadeza Aga + lyap hrasvasyapi Agatya "came and"

Yet if there is a preverb, we may keep the m by this rule --

AG + gam + ktvAAgam + lyapAgamya "came and"

or lose it as usual --

AG + gam + ktvA anudAttopadeza Aga + lyap hrasvasyapiti Agatya "came and"

A quick search for Agamya and Agatya on the indology mahAbhAratam shows that Agamya is more common there, but both are used.

KAZIKA lyapi parataH anudAttopadeza-vanatitanotyAdInAm anunAsikalopaH vA bhavati. vyavasthitavibhASA ca iyam, tena makArAntAnAM vikalpo bhavati, anyatra nityam eva lopaH. prayatya, prayamya. praratya, praramya. praNatya, praNamya. Agatya, Agamya. Ahatya. pramatya. pravatya. prakSatya.

471 letters. -- 64.bse 1126 -- popularity 2

53 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.




(nakticidI) (/ktic)

na ktici dIrghaz ca ONPANINI 64039
But not before ktic, and no lengthening.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 638

Exception to anudAttopadeza and to anunAsikasyakvi. Even though ktic is a serious kGit, it does not make the roots yam ram nam gam han van, uclass, etc, drop their nasal nor lengthen their root-vowel. So we say --

yam + ktic nazcA yaMti- anusvA yanti- f "restraining, supporting"

KAZIKA ktici parato 'nudAttopadezAdInAm anunAsikalopaH dIrghazca na bhavati. yantiH. vantiH. tantiH. anunAsikalope pratiSiddhe anunAsikasyakvijhaloHkGiti iti dIrghaH prApnoti, so 'pi pratiSidhyate.

206 letters. -- 64.bse 1142 -- popularity 2




(atolopaH) (!atol)

ato lopaH ONPANINI 64048
Erase a before soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 639

Examples. The root han sometimes turns into vadha, that ends in a. Also, all the sananta roots end in a. These a are lost before soft affixes such as sic, soft liG, u', a', tRc, tumun, tavya --

han + luG luGica vadha + tip luGlaG avadha + tipavadha + t'''avadha + sic + t → * avadh + s + tavadh + s + It''' iTa::ITi avadhIt

han + @soft liG jhihan + yAsus''' hanovadhaliGi vadha + yAsus → * vadhyAsus "may they kill"

yuyutsa + u' → * yuyutsu- "that want to fight"

cikIrSa + tRc ArdhadhAtukasyeD cikIrSa + itRc → * cikIrSitR- "one that wants to make"

(Remember that kR is aniT, but cikIrSa is seT, by ekAca::u)

cikIrSa + tumun → .. → cikIrSitum "to want to make"

cikIrSa + tavya n + jas → .. → cikIrSitavyAni "things that are wanted to be made, items in demand"

KAZIKA akArAntasya ArdhadhAtuke lopo bhavati. cikIrSitA. cikIrSitum. cikIrSitavyam. dhinutaH. kRNutaH. ataH iti kim? cetA. stotA. taparakaraNaM kim? yAtA. vAtA. ArdhAdhAtuke iti kim? vRkSatvam. vRkSatA. vRddhidIrghAbhyAm ato lopaH pUrvavipratiSedhena. cikIrSakaH. jihIrSakaH. cikIrSyate. jihIrSyate.

491 letters. -- 64.bse 1159 -- popularity 10




(NeraniTi) (!Ne)

Ner an-iTi ONPANINI 64051
Ni to ( lopa) before iT-less ( soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 640 iT

Exception to the rules that replace Nic with iyaG, yaN, guNa, vRddhi, or long. Before iT-less soft affixes, the Nic is dropped.

Example before Nvul --

kR + Nic + Nvul ata_upa kAr + i + Nvul yuvoranAkau kAr + i + aka → * kAraka-

Examples before yak --

kR + causative Nic + yak + laT takAri + ya + takAri + ya + te''' → * kAryate "is being caused to make"

cur + karmaNi laT ta satyApa cur + Nic + yak + ta → .. → cori + yak + te''' → * coryate "is being stolen"

This Nic however will not disappear, because tAs got iT in front --

kAri + luT tipkAri + tAs + tipkAri + tA ArdhadhAtukasye kAri + itA hardsoft kAre + itA ecoya kArayitA "he'll make (him) do (it)"

(Remember that kAri is seT because ekAca_u says so)

KAZIKA aniDAdAv ArdhadhAtuke Ner lopo bhavati. iyaG-yaN-guNa-vRddhi-dIrghANAm apavAdaH. atatakSat. ararakSat. Azizat. ATiTat. kAraNA. hAraNA. kArakaH. hArakaH. kAryate. hAryate. jJIpsati. aniTi iti kim? kArayitA. hArayitA.

443 letters. -- 64.bse 1240 -- popularity 7

251 /cli to /caG after [/Ni]-enders, !zri !dru !sru !kam before /kartari.

344 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.

520 (@Reduplicate) before /caG

641 After vowelenders, /han, /grah and /dRz, the /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs that are before /akartari get optionally an /iT that behaves like /ciN.

881 Shorten the @nexttolast before /Ni before /caG.

882 (Optionally @nexttolast) !R !RR to !R (before /Nic plus /caG).




(syasicsIyu) (/ciNv)

sya;sic;sIyuT;tAsiSu bhAva;karmaNor upadeze 'j;jhana;graha;dRzAM vA ciNvad iT ca ONPANINI 64062
After vowelenders, han, grah and dRz, the sya sic sIyuT tAs that are before akartari get optionally an iT that behaves like ciN.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 641 iT

Example. To say "it will be piled up (the fire)", we will ordinarily join ci + sya + ta. Usually, the sya won'tt get iT, because ci is aniT. And the resulting iSya of course triggers hardsoft --

ci + karmaNi lRT taci + sya + taci + sya + te''' hardsoft ce + sya + te kric cayiSyate "it will be piled up"

However, if we choose to apply this rule, we add iT to sya. The resulting iSya is ciNvadiT, that is, it has some of the effects of ciN. So this iSya will have N label, as if it were ciN, and we get --

ci + karmaNi lRT taci + sya + taci + sya + te''' → * ci + ( ciN-like iSya) acoJNiti cai + iSya + te kric cayiSyate "it will be piled up"

Similarly, with normal sya --

dRz + sya + akartari te''' → .. → drakSyate "it will be seen"

and with an iSya that has label N --

dRz + sya + akartari te''' → * dRz + iSya(N) + te → .. → darzayiSyate "it will be seen"

Besides adding N label, the ciNvadiT affixes iSya iSic iSIyuT itAs have other four ciN-like side effects --

they add y after A ( AtoyukciNkRtoH),

turn han into ghan ( hohanter),

lengthen the short of mitNic roots ( ciNNa),

and erase Nic (by NeraniTi).

For examples of these, see the kAzikA and candravasu.

KAZIKA sva sic sIyuT tAsi ity eteSu bhAva-karma-viSayeSu parata upadeze ajantAnAm aGgAnAM han graH dRz ity eteSAM ca ciNvat kAryaM bhavati vA. yadA ciNvat tadA iDAgamo bhavati. kasya? sya;sic;sIyuT;tAsInAm eva iti veditavyam. te hi prakRtAH. aGgasya tu lakSya-virodhAt na kriyate. kAni punar asya yogasya prayojanAni? ciNvad-vRddhir, yuk ca, hantez ca, ghatvaM, dIrghaz ca ukto yo mitAM vA ciNIti. iT ca asiddhas tena me lupyate Nirnityaz ca ayaM val-nimitto vighAtI. ajantAnAM tAvat cAyiSyate, ceSyate. acAyiSyata, aceSyata. dAyiSyate, dAsyate. adAyiSyata, adAsyata. zAmiSyate, zamizyate, zamayisyate. azAmiSyata, azamiSyata azamayiSyata. han ghAniSyate, haniSyate. aghAniSyata, ahaniSyata. graH grAhiSyate, grahISyate. agrAhiSyata, agrahISyata. graho 'liTi dIrghaH iti prakRtasya iTo dIrghatvam. dRz darziSyate, drakSyate. adarziSyata, adrakSyata. sici ajantAnAm acAyiSAtAm, aceSAtAm. adAyiSAtAm, adiSAtAm. azAmiSAtAm, azamiSAtAm, azamayiSAtAm. han aghAniSAtAm, avadhiSAtAm, ahasAtAm. grah agrAhiSAtAm, agrahISAtAm. dRz adarziSAtAm, adRkSAtAm. sIyuTi ajantAnAm cAyiSISta, ceSISTa. dAyiSISTa, dAsISTa. zAmiSISTa, zamiSISTa, zamayiSISTa. han ghAniSISTa, vadhiSISTa. graH grAhiSISTa, grahISISTa. dRz darziSISTa, dRkSISTa. tAsAvajantAnAm cAyitA, cetA. dAyitA, dAtA. zAmitA, zamitA, zamayita. han ghAnitA, hantA. graH grAhitA, grahItA. dRz darzitA, draSTA. syasicsIyuTtAsiSu iti kim? cetavyam. dAtavyam. bhAvakarmaNoH iti kim? ceSyati. dAsyati. upadeze iti kim? kAriSyate iti guNe kRte rapara-tve ca na prApnoti, upadeza-grahaNAd bhavati. ajjhanagrahadRzAm iti kim? paThiSyate. aGg%AdhikAra-vihitaM kAryam iha atidizyate, tena haniNiGAmAdezA na bhavanti. haniSyate, ghAniSyate. eSyate, AyiSyate. adhyeSyate, adhyAyiSyate. hano vadha liGi, luGi ca, iNo gA luGi, vibhASA luG;lRGoH ity ete vidhayo na bhavanti.

805 letters. -- 64.bse 1278 -- popularity 3

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(Atolopa) (!Atol)

Ato lopa:: iTi ca ONPANINI 64064
Erase A (of a root) before iT (and before vowel kGit soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 642 iT

Before vowel kit soft --

dhA + liT jhi → .. → dadhA + atus → * dadhatus "both gave"

dhmA + liT jhi → .. → dadhmA + us → * dadhmus "they blew"

Before iT --

pA + liT thalpapA + iT + thalpapitha "you drank"

Before vowel Git soft --

pra + dA + aG' f → * pra + d + aG' ajAdyataSTAp pra + d + a + AppradA- f "gift"

KAZIKA iTyajAdAvArdhadhAtuke kGiti ca AkArAntasya aGgasya lopo bhavati. iTi papitha. tasthitha. kiti papatuH. papuH. tasthatuH. tasthuH. godaH. kambaladaH. Giti pradA. pradhA. ArdhadhAtuke ityeva, yAnti. vAnti. vyatyare. vyatyale. rAter lAtezca laGi iTi rUpam. aci ityeva, glAyate. dAsIya.

Incidentally, the A of znA and of A roots will also be erased before some hard affixes (as in krINanti "they buy", dadati "they give", dadhati "they put"), but that's because of another rule, znAbhya.

330 letters. -- 64.bse 1482 -- popularity 8

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53 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.

208 (/iG to) /gAG before /liT.

252 After /asyati !vac !khyA. (/cli to) /aG (before /kartari).

287 !jJA, !prI, !kRR and @nexttolast /ik get {(k)a} (to mean the doer).

296 [@preverb]-less !A @root gets {(k)a} (when @latter after its @object)

297 /sthA when @latter (gets !ka)

1170 /sthA "stop, stay, stand"




(Idyati) (!Idy)

Id yati ONPANINI 64065
(A to) I before yatmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 643

Example --

dA "give" + yat → * dI + yat hardsoft deya- "givable, that should be given"

This I will always turn into e by hardsoft, so you may if you like remember this rule as --

' A to e before yat '

Examples --

hA "avoid" + yat → * heya- "avoidable, that must be avoided"

gai "sing" + yat Adeca_u gA + yat → * geya- "singable"

pA "drink" + yat → * peya- "drinkable"

as in --

kAka-peyA nadI "the river is very shallow"

heyanM duHkham an-Agatam "future pain can and must be avoided"

KAZIKA IkAraH Adezo bhavati AkArantasya aGgasya yati parataH. deyam. dheyam. heyam. steyam.

317 letters. -- 64.bse 1524 -- popularity 2

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(ghumAsthAgA) (!ghu)

ghu;mA;sthA; gA;pA;jahAti; sAM hali ONPANINI 64066
ghu mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA to I before consonant kGit soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 644

Examples

with gA from gai "sing" --

gai + kta Adeca_u gA + kta → * gIta- "sung, song"

with the ghu roots dA dhA --

dA + yak + laT te''' → * dIyate "it is given"

abhi + dhA + yak + laT te''' → * abhidhIyate "it is called"

dA + yak + loT tAm'''' → * dIyatAm "let it be given!"

When used without a doer, dIyatAm is a doerless loT . It is a polite alternative to dehi "gimmi!" more often than not.

KAZIKA ghusaMjJAkAnAm aGgAnAM, mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA ityeteSAM halAdau kGiti pratyaye parataH IkArAdezo bhavati. dIyate. dhIyate. dedIyate. dedhIyate. mIyate. memIyate. sthIyate. teSTHIyate. gIyate. jegIyate. adhyagISTa, adhyagISAtAm, adhyagISata. pIyate. pepIyate. pAteriha grahaNaM na asti, lugvikaraNatvAt. pAyate ityeva tasya bhavati. hIyate. jehIyate. jahAteriha nirdezAt jihAter grahaNaM na bhavati. hAyate. So 'ntakarmaNi. avasIyate. avasesIyate. hali iti kim? dadatuH. daduH. Ato lopAddhi paratvAdItvam syAt. etadeva halgrahaNaM jJApakam asmin prakaraNe vipratiSedhena asiddhatvaM bhavati. kGiti ityeva, dAtA. dhAtA.

259 letters. -- 64B.bse 1 -- popularity 8

67 After /gAG and /kuTAdi what is not /JNit is /Git.

209 (/iG to /gAG) optionally before /luG /lRG.

645 No (!!ghumAsthA) before /lyap.

1170 /sthA "stop, stay, stand"

1180 /dA "give", /dhA "put"

1420 root changes before /yak and @soft /liG




(nalyapi) (!naly)

na lyapi ONPANINI 64069
No ( ghumAsthA) before lyap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 645

pra + dA + lyap → * pradAya "gave and"

ava + sthA + lyap → * avasthAya "understood and"

KAZIKA lyapi pratyaye parataH ghumAsthAgApAjahAtisAM yaduktaM tanna. pradAya. pradhAya. pramAya. prasthAya. pragAya. prapAya. prahAya. avasAya.

56 letters. -- 64B.bse 53 -- popularity 1

646 Optionally !mA to !mi (before /lyap).




(mayateri) (!may)

mayater id anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 64070
Optionally mA to mi (before lyap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 646

So ordinarily --

apa + mA + lyap nalyapi apamAya "measured and"

but if we take this option --

apa + mA + lyap → * apa + mi + ya hrasvasyapiti apamitya "measured and"

KAZIKA mayater ikArAdezo vA bhavati lyapi parataH. apamitya, apamAya.

95 letters. -- 64B.bse 65 -- popularity none




(luGlaGlRGkSva) (!luGl)

luG;laG;lRGkSv aD udAttaH ONPANINI 64071
Before luG laG lRG, ( root gets) aT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 647

This works when the root starts with a consonant -- for vowelstarters, see the exception AD-aj-AdInAm below.

Examples --

bhU + luG tip → * abhU + tip itazca abhUt "there was"

pac + laG sip → * apac + sipapac + s''' kartarizap apacas "you cooked"

dviS + lRG mip → * adviS + mipadviS + am'''adviS + sya + am puganta adveS + sya + am SaDhoHkassi adveksya + am atoguNe adveksyam kric advekSyam "I would have hated"

KAZIKA luG laG lRGityeteSu parato 'Ggasya aDAgamo bhavati, udAttazca sa bhavati. luG akArSIt. ahArSIt. laG akarot. aharat. lRG akariSyat. ahariSyat.

The k in the rule comes from GNoHkukTukzari.

289 letters. -- 64B.bse 70 -- popularity 83




(ADajAdI) (!AD)

AD aj-AdInAm ONPANINI 64072
But vowel starters get AT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 648

Exception to luGlaG. Vowel-starter roots get AT, not aT, before luG laG lRG.

This roughly means thatwe must replace the start vowel of the root with vRddhi.

Examples with i I starters. As i I are ik vowels, ATazca will work here --

iS + laG tip → .. → iccha- + t''' → * [ AT + iccha ] + t ATazca aiccha + taicchat "wanted"

IkSa- + t'''aikSat "saw"

Examples with A-a-starters --

as + laG mip → * AT + as + mip akassa As + mip tasthas Asam "I was"

As + laG ta → * AT + As + ta akassa Asta "he sat"

Ap + laG tip → * AT + Ap + tip → .. → AT + Ap + znu + t'''Apnot "he got"

Example with an R-starter --

R + luG → * AT + R + luG ATazca A + luG uraNra Ar + luG sartti;zAsty;a Ar + aG + luG → .. → Arat "he went"

KAZIKA AD-Agamo bhavati ajA-''dInAM luGlaGlRGkSu parataH, udAttaz ca sa bhavati. aikSiSTa. aihiSTa. aubjIt. aumbhIt. laG aikSata. aihata. aubjat. aumbhat. lRG aikSiSyata. aihiSyata. aubjiSyat. aumbhiSyat. iha aijyata, aupyata, auhyata iti laGi kRte lAvasthAyAm aD-AgamAd antaraGga-tvAl lAdezaH kriyate, tatra kRte vikaraNo nityatvAd aD-AgamaM bAdhate. zabdAntara-prApter aD-Agamasya anitya-tvam, kRte hi vikaraNAntasya aGgasya tena bhavitavyam, akRte tu dhAtu-mAtrasya zabdAntarasya prApnuvan vidhir anityo bhavati. nanu zabdAntarAd iti vikaraNo 'nityaH? vikaraNe kRte samprasAraNam aD-AgamAn nityatvAd eva bhavati, samprasAraNe ca kRte 'jAdy-aGgaM jAtam iti ADajAdInAm ity AD-AgamaH.

407 letters. -- 64B.bse 130 -- popularity 12




(namAGyoge) (@inj)

na mAG-yoge ONPANINI 64074
But not in connection with mAG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 649

The rules luGlaG and AD-aj-AdInAm above add aT or AT in front of a root that carries luG or laG. By this exception, aT AT won't be added when mAG is connected by sense to the verb.

mAG is used to dissuade or prohibit, as in --

u mA tapaH kArSIH "oh, don't practice austerities!"

mA ca roSaGM kRthAsH saumya mayi zatrunibarhaNa "and don't get angry with me, handsome warrior!"

mA tvamM bhiru vRkAd bhaiSIH | rakSiSyati dhanur mama "Don't be afraid of the wolf, kiddo, my bow will keep you safe."

In these examples, the luG verbs did not get luGlaG. The same verbs with no mA and with luGlaG would mean --

tapo 'kArSIH "you practised austerities"

roSam akRthAH "you got angry"

abhaiSIH "you were afraid"

Inria flags the luG that lost aT or AT not with aor as usual, but as inj ( injunctive). Which is a misnomer because the form is not used just for negative commands, but also for negative suggestions, advice, and blessings.

KAZIKA mAGyoge luGlaGlRGkSu yad uktaM tan@ na bhavati. mA bhavAn kArSIt. mA bhavAn hArSIt. mA sma karot. mA sma harat. mA bhavAnIhiSTa. mA bhavAnIkSiSTa. mA sma bhavAnIhata. mA sma bhavAnIkSata.

713 letters. -- 64B.bse 175 -- popularity 5

359 After /sma, /laG too.

1386 prohibition

1605 @Inria codes for [@tense]s.

1608 @tense in @inria
















63091 lengthening rules ←

chunk 33: 64019 cchvoz

→ 64077 iyaG uvaG