63091 lengthening rules ←

chunk 33: 64019 cchvoz

→ 64077 iyaG uvaG

64019 Replace cch with z and v with UTh before nasal, . cchvozzUDanunAsikeca
64023 Delete n of root after znam. znAnnalopaH
64024 Non-idit halanta roots nexttolast n before kGit. aniditAMhala::upadhAyAHkGiti
64025 daMz saJja svaJj before zap. daMzasaJjasvaJjAMzapi
64026 raJj raJjezca
64027 before ghaJ when meaning state or instrument. ghaJicabhAvakaraNayoH
64030 n of aJcu stays when it means worshipping nAJceHpUjAyAm
64034 zAs to i before aG or consonant kGit affix. zAsa::idaGhaloH
64036 han to ja hanterjaH
64037 Some roots lose final nasal before serious kGit anudAttopadezavanatitanotyAdInAmanunAsikalopojhalikGiti
64038 optionally before lyap. vAlyapi
64039 But not before ktic, and no lengthening. nakticidIrghazca
64048 Erase a before soft. atolopaH
64051 Ni to before iT-less . NeraniTi
64062 sya sic sIyuT tAs before akartari get ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, han, grah, and dRz. syasicsIyuTtAsiSubhAvakarmaNorupadezejjhanagrahadRzAMvAciNvadiTca
64064 Erase A before iT . Atolopa::iTica
64065 I before yat Idyati
64066 ghu mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA to I before consonant kGit soft. ghumAsthAgApAjahAtisAMhali
64069 No before lyap. nalyapi
64070 Optionally mA to mi . mayateridanyatarasyAm
64071 Before luG laG lRG, aT. luGlaGlRGkSvaDudAttaH
64072 But vowel starters get AT. ADajAdInAm
64074 But not in connection with mAG. namAGyoge


cch;voH z;UD anunAsike ca ONPANINI 64019
Replace cch with z and v with UTh before nasal, ( kvi, and serious kGit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 601

Before naG, that starts with a nasal --

pracch + na → pra + z + naprazna- "question"

Before kta (which is a kGit and starts with serious t) --

pracch + kta grahijy pRcch + ta → pRz + ta vrazca;bhrasja pRS + ta STunA pRSTa- "asked"


znAn@ na-lopaH ONPANINI 64023
Delete n of root after znam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 602

Examples --

bhanj + laT tipbhanj + znam + ti midaco bhananjti → bhanajti coHkuH bhanakti "breaks"

bhanj + laT jhi → .. → bhananjanti → bhanajanti znasorallopaH bhanjanti nazcA bhaMjanti anusvA bhaJjanti "they break"

hiMs + laT tip → .. → hinasti "he hurts"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


an-iditAM hala:: upadhAyAH kGiti ONPANINI 64024
Non- idit halanta roots (lose) nexttolast n before kGit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 603

So, before a kGit affix, roots like sraMs(u) dhvaMs(u) aJcu raJj dambh will turn into sras dhvas ac raj dabh --

sraMs + kta → srasta- "broken"

aJcu + kvin → ac + kvin vera ac''' "that leans to"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


daMza;saJja;svaJjAM zapi ONPANINI 64025
daMz saJja svaJj (lose their n) before zap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 604

Examples --

dazati "he bites"

sajati "clings to, sticks to"

pariSvajate "he hugs" ( with S from upasargAtsunoti )

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


raJjez ca ONPANINI 64026
raJj (loses J before zap)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 605

raJj + laT tipraJj + zap + tip → rajati "dyes, paints"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


ghaJi ca bhAva-karaNayoH ONPANINI 64027
(Delete the J of raJj) before ghaJ when meaning state or instrument.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 606

As in --

rAga- "dyeing"

rAga- "painting tool"

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


n' .AJceH pUjAyAm ONPANINI 64030
n of aJcu stays when it means worshippingmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 607

Exception to aniditA. aJcu is a non- idit halanta and should always lose J before kGit, like here --

ud + aJc + kta aniditA ud + acta- coHkuH udakta- "(was) drawn up"

As in --

udaktam udakaGM kUpAt "water was drawn up from the well"

However, when aJcu means respecting, honoring, worshipping, its J stays even before kGit --

aJc + kta aJceHpUjAyAm aJcita- "respected, honored"

As in --

aJcitA asya guravaH "his gurus were honored"

Rule aJceH pUjAyAm sounds similar, so be careful.

Back to rules that delete root nasal .


zAsa:: id aG;haloH ONPANINI 64034
( Nexttolast of) zAs to i before aG or consonant kGit affix.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 608

This rule turns zAs into zis, then zis turns into ziS by zAsivasi.

Example before aG --

zAs + luG tipazAs + tipazAs + t''' sartti azAs + aG + t → azis + a + t zAsi;vasi aziSat "he taught"

Example before kta, which is always kit and starts with t --

zAs + kta → zis + ta- zAsivasi ziSta- STunA ziSTa- "was instructed, was taught"

Example before tas, when rule sArvadhAtukamapit made it Git --

zAs + laT tas → zis + tas zAsivasi ziStas STunA ziSTas "both teach"

Counterexample before a vowel affix that is Git --

anu + zAs + laT jhi jakSi anu + zAs ( stammered ) + jhianu + zAs + ati'''anuzAsati "they forecast"

Counterexample before a consonant affix that is not kGit --

anu + zAs + laT tipanuzAsti "he forecasts"


hanter jaH ONPANINI 64036
han to ja (before hi''')mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 609

Only example --

han + loT siphan + hi''' → jahi "kill!"


anudAttopadeza;vanati;tanoty-AdInAm anunAsika-lopo jhali kGiti ONPANINI 64037
Some roots lose final nasal before serious kGitmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 610

Some of those roots are yam ram nam gam han van, and the tanAdi (a.k.a uclass). There are others. Other nasal-ender roots, such as zam, are not affected by this rule.

Examples before kit affixes that start with t, a serious --

han + kta → hata- "was killed"

gam + kta → gata- "gone; went"

gam + ktvA → gatvA "after going"

man + ktin → mati- "opinion"

tan + ktavatu m + su → ta + tavat + s → .. → tatavAn "he extended"

Examples before tas tha that are Git by hard apit is Git --

han + laT tas → hatas' "they two kill"

han + laT tha → hatha "y'all kill"

See also optional exception vAlyapi right below and exception naktici below it.

Back to rules that delete root nasal .

han + laT mashanmas "we kill"

han + yak + karmaNi laT tashanyate "is being killed"

han + laT tiphanti "kills"

See conjugation of han for more examples.


vA lyapi ONPANINI 64038
(Those roots lose nasal) optionally before lyap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 611

Optional exception to the previous rule. The roots that lose final nasal by the above rule before all serious kGit, may keep it before lyap.

Example. gam root ordinarily loses m before all serious kGit, including ktvA and its replacement lyap --

gam + ktvA anudAttopadeza gatvA "went and"

AG + gam + ktvAAgam + lyap anudAttopadeza Aga + lyap hrasvasyapi Agatya "came and"

Yet if there is a preverb, we may keep the m by this rule --

AG + gam + ktvAAgam + lyapAgamya "came and"

or lose it as usual --

AG + gam + ktvA anudAttopadeza Aga + lyap hrasvasyapiti Agatya "came and"

A quick search for Agamya and Agatya on the indology mahAbhAratam shows that Agamya is more common there, but both are used.


na ktici dIrghaz ca ONPANINI 64039
But not before ktic, and no lengthening.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 612

Exception to anudAttopadeza and to anunAsikasyakvi. Even though ktic is a serious kGit, it does not make the roots yam ram nam gam han van, uclass, etc, drop their nasal nor lengthen their root-vowel. So we say --

yam + ktic nazcA yaMti- anusvA yanti- f "restraining, supporting"


ato lopaH ONPANINI 64048
Erase a before soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 613

Examples. The root han sometimes turn into vadha, that ends in a. Also, all the sananta roots end in a. These a are lost before soft affixes such as sic, soft liG, u', a', tRc, tumun, tavya --

han + luG luGica vadha + tip luGlaG avadha + tipavadha + t'''avadha + sic + t → avadh + s + tavadh + s + It''' iTa::ITi avadhIt

han + @soft liG jhihan + yAsus''' hanovadhaliGi vadha + yAsus → vadhyAsus "may they kill"

yuyutsa + u' → yuyutsu- "that want to fight"

cikIrSa + tRc ArdhadhAtukasyeD cikIrSa + itRc → cikIrSitR- "one that wants to make"

cikIrSa + tumun → .. → cikIrSitum "to want to make"

cikIrSa + tavya n + jas → .. → cikIrSitavyAni "things that are wanted to be made, items in demand"


Ner an-iTi ONPANINI 64051
Ni to ( lopa) before iT-less ( soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 614 iT

Exception to the rules that replace Nic with iyaG, yaN, guNa, vRddhi, or long. Before iT-less soft affixes, the Nic is dropped.

Example before Nvul --

kR + Nic + Nvul ata_upa kAr + i + Nvul yuvoranAkau kAr + i + aka → kAraka-

Examples before yak --

kR + causative Nic + yak + laT takAri + ya + takAri + ya + te''' → kAryate "is being caused to make"

cur + karmaNi laT ta satyApa cur + Nic + yak + ta → .. → cori + yak + te''' → coryate "is being stolen"

kAri + luT tipkAri + tA ArdhadhAtukasye kAri + itA hardsoft kAre + itA ecoya kArayitA "he'll make (him) do (it)"



sya;sic;sIyuT;tAsiSu bhAva;karmaNor upadeze 'j;jhana;graha;dRzAM vA ciNvad iT ca ONPANINI 64062
sya sic sIyuT tAs before akartari get ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, han, grah, and dRz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 615 iT

This rule says that the four affixes sya sic sIyuT tAs, after certain roots, may get or not get a ciNvadiT or " ciN-like iT". That is a special sort of iT that makes the affix gain some of the side-effects of ciN.

Example. The ciN affix, being Nit, makes acoJNiti or ata::upa work, like here --

ci + karmaNi luG ta → .. → aci + ciN acoJNiti acai + ciN ecoya acAyi "it was piled up"

Now, sya is not Nit and makes no vRddhi of the root, just makes guNa by hardsoft. Also, sya gets no iT after root ci, which is an aniT root --

ci + karmaNi lRT taci + sya + taci + sya + te''' hardsoft ce + sya + te kric ceSyate "it will be piled up"

However, ce + sya + te may be affected by this optional rule. If we so choose, then the sya becomes iSya, and this is a special ciN-like iSya that makes vRddhi, just as if it were a ciN --

ci + lRT taci + sya + taci + sya + te''' hardsoft ce + sya + te → ce + ( ciN-like) iSya + te acoJNiti cai + iSya + te ecoya cAyiSyate "it will be piled up"

So we may say either ceSyate or cAyiSyate for "it will be piled up". As in --

agniz cAyiSyate vipraiH

The ciN-likeness of the iSya iSic itAs iSIyuT affixes made by this rule affix, besides making acoJNiti ata::upa work, has four other effects. In total the ciN-effects are five --

(A) acoJNiti and ata::upa make vRddhi

(B) Ato yuk ciN-kRtoH adds y after A roots.

(C) ho hanter JNin@;neSu turns han into ghan.

(D) ciN;Namulor dIrgho 'nyatarasyAm makes some roots lengthen optionally.

(E) Ner an-iTi erases Ni.

For examples of all, see the kAzikA.


Ato lopa:: iTi ca ONPANINI 64064
Erase A (of a root) before iT (and before vowel kGit soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 616 iT

Before vowel kit soft --

dhA + liT jhi → .. → dadhA + atus → dadhatus "both gave"

dhmA + liT jhi → .. → dadhmA + us → dadhmus "they blew"

Before iT --

pA + liT thalpapA + iT + thalpapitha "you drank"

Before vowel Git soft --

pra + dA + aG' f → pra + d + aG' ajAdyataSTAp pra + d + a + AppradA- f "gift"


Id yati ONPANINI 64065
(A to) I before yatmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 617

Examples --

dA + yat → dI + yat hardsoft deya- "givable, must be given"

hA + yat → .. → heya- "must be avoided"

pA + yat → .. → peya- "drinkable"

as in --

kAka-peyA nadI "the river is very shallow"

heyanM duHkham an-Agatam "future pain can and must be avoided"


ghu;mA;sthA; gA;pA;jahAti; sAM hali ONPANINI 64066
ghu mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA to I before consonant kGit soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 618


with gA from gai "sing" --

gai + kta Adeca_u gA + kta → gIta- "sung, song"

with the ghu roots dA dhA --

dA + yak + laT te''' → dIyate "it is given"

abhi + dhA + yak + laT te''' → abhidhIyate "it is called"

dA + yak + loT tAm'''' → dIyatAm "let it be given!"

When used without a doer, dIyatAm is a doerless loT . It is a polite alternative to dehi "gimmi!" more often than not.


na lyapi ONPANINI 64069
No ( ghumAsthA) before lyap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 619

pra + dA + lyap → pradAya "gave and"

ava + sthA + lyap → avasthAya "understood and"


mayater id anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 64070
Optionally mA to mi (before lyap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 620

So ordinarily --

apa + mA + lyap nalyapi apamAya "measured and"

but if we take this option --

apa + mA + lyap → apa + mi + ya hrasvasyapiti apamitya "measured and"


luG;laG;lRGkSv aD udAttaH ONPANINI 64071
Before luG laG lRG, ( root gets) aT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 621

This works when the root starts with a consonant -- for vowelstarters, see the exception ADajAdInAm below.

Examples --

bhU + luG tip → abhU + tip itazca abhUt "there was"

pac + laG sip → apac + sipapac + s''' kartarizap apacas "you cooked"

dviS + lRG mip → adviS + mipadviS + am'''adviS + sya + am puganta adveS + sya + am SaDhoHkassi adveksya + am atoguNe adveksyam kric advekSyam "I would have hated"


AD aj-AdInAm ONPANINI 64072
But vowel starters get AT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 622

Exception to luGlaG. Vowel-starter roots get AT, not aT, before luG laG lRG.

This roughly means thatwe must replace the start vowel of the root with vRddhi.

Examples with i I starters. As i I are ik vowels, ATazca will work here --

iS + laG tip → .. → iccha- + t''' → [ AT + iccha ] + t ATazca aiccha + taicchat "wanted"

IkSa- + t'''aikSat "saw"

Examples with A-a-starters --

as + laG mip → AT + as + mip akassa As + mip tasthas Asam "I was"

As + laG ta → AT + As + ta akassa Asta "he sat"

Ap + laG tip → AT + Ap + tip → .. → AT + Ap + znu + t'''Apnot "he got"

Example with an R-starter --

R + luG → AT + R + luG ATazca A + luG uraNra Ar + luG sartti;zAsty;a Ar + aG + luG → .. → Arat "he went"


na mAG-yoge ONPANINI 64074
But not in connection with mAG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 623

The rules luGlaG and ADajA above add aT or AT in front of a root that carries luG or laG. By this exception, aT AT won't be added when mAG is connected by sense to the verb.

mAG is used to dissuade or prohibit, as in --

u mA tapaH kArSIH "oh, don't practice austerities!"

mA ca roSaGM kRthAsH saumya mayi zatrunibarhaNa "and don't get angry with me, handsome warrior!"

mA tvamM bhiru vRkAd bhaiSIH | rakSiSyati dhanur mama "Don't be afraid of the wolf, kiddo, my bow will keep you safe."

In these examples, the luG verbs did not get luGlaG. The same verbs with no mA and with luGlaG would mean --

tapo 'kArSIH "you practised austerities"

roSam akRthAH "you got angry"

abhaiSIH "you were afraid"

Inria flags the luG that lost aT or AT not with aor as usual, but as inj ( injunctive). Which is a misnomer because the form is not used just for negative commands, but also for negative suggestions, advice, and blessings.

63091 lengthening rules ←

chunk 33: 64019 cchvoz

→ 64077 iyaG uvaG