31003 syA tAs cli ←

chunk 18: 31067 verb classes

→ 31091 root affixes

31067 yak before hard nondoer. sArvadhAtukeyak
31068 zap before doer kartarizap
31069 Some roots get zyan . divAdibhyazzyan
31073 su etc get znu . svAdibhyazznuH
31074 zru to zR . zruvazzRca
31077 tud etc get a . tudAdibhyazzaH
31078 rudh etc. get znam. rudhAdibhyazznam
31079 tan etc, and kR, get u . tanAdikRJbhya::uH
31081 krI and others get nA kryAdibhyazznA


sArvadhAtuke yak ONPANINI 31067
( Root gets) yak before hard nondoer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 252 vikaraNa

When a root is right in front of a hard nondoer affix, we have to add ya(k) after the root.

Example. According to other rules, to mean "they are being cooked", we may make a verb by joining pac + laT, then replacing laT with jha. This jha is a nondoer affix, and is right after the pac. So this rule works --

pac + laT lasya pac + jhapac + yak + jhapacya + ante''' atoguNe pacyante "they are being cooked"

This rule will also work when the tense is laG, loT or hard liG

That's why there's no hardsoft here --

nI + yak + tanIya + te'''nIyate "is being led"

or puganta here --

dRz + yak + tadRzya + te'''dRzyate "is being seen"

The k label will also cause stretching --

vac + yak + te''' vacisvapi ucyate "it is said"

svap + bhAve loT tasup + yak + tAm''''supyatAm "time to sleep"


kartari zap ONPANINI 31068
zap before ( hard) doermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 253 vikaraNa

Add (z)a(p) after the root that is right before a hard doer affix.

Examples with the hard doer affixes tip ta --

pac + laT tip → pac + zap + tippacati "cooks"

vRt + laT ta → vRt + zap + tavRt + zap + te''' puganta vartate "happens"

zuc + laT tip → zuc + zap + tipzoca + tizocati "mourns"

cinti + laT tip → cinti + zap + tipcintaya + ticintayati "thinks"

This rule will only work when the nondoer affix replaces a zabyak tense.

See also When kartarizap won't work .

Back to verb classes .


div'-AdibhyaH zyan ONPANINI 31069
Some roots get zyan (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 254

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots get (z)ya(n) instead of zap when they are before a hard doer affix.

Such roots are called divAdi roots, zyanclass roots, or "class four roots" (see verb classes ). Examples --

div "gamble" + laT tip → div + zyan + tip halica dIv + ya + tidIvyati "gambles"

nRt "dance" + laT tip → nRt + zyan + tipnRtyati "dances"

yudh "fight" + laT ta → yudh + zyan + tayudh + zyan + te'''yudhyate "fights"

siv "sew" + laT tip → siv + zyan + ti halica sIvyati "sews"

Back to verb classes .


svAdibhyaH znuH ONPANINI 31073
su etc get znu (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 255 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots (such as su "squeeze", zru "hear", zak "be able to", Ap "get") get znu whenever ordinary roots would get zap, that is, before a hard doer affix.

Such roots are called znuclass roots, class five roots, or svAdi roots (see verb classes ).

Examples --

su + laT mas → su + znu + massunumas "we squeeze"

zak + laT tip → zak + znu + tip hardsoft zakno + tizaknoti "he can"

Back to verb classes .


zruvaH zR ca ONPANINI 31074
zru to zR (before znu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 256

This rule makes zru "hear" plus znu into zRNu --

zru ( before hard doer ) → zru + znu → zR + nu Natvam zRNu

As in --

zru + laT tipzRNu + tip hardsoft zRNoti "hears"

zru + laG jhizRNu + jhizRNu + ant''' luGlaG azRNu + ant huznuvo azRNvant saMyogA azRNvan "they heard"

zru + liG maszRNu + maszRNu + yAma'''zRNuyAma "we would hear"

zru + zatRzRNu + at huznuvo zRNvat- "hearing"


tud'-AdibhyaH zaH ONPANINI 31077
tud etc get (z)a (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 257 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap --

" Some roots get (z)a when a normal root would get zap, that is to say, when they are before a hard doer affix. "

Such roots are called "class six roots", " zaclass roots", or "tudAdi roots". Examples --

tud + laT tip → tud + za + tiptudati "hits, bullies"

kSip + laT tip → kSip + za + tipkSipati "throws"

iS + laT tip → iS + za + tipiccha + tiicchati "wants"

puganta and hardsoft do not work before za because za always has label G (from hard apit is Git ).

When a zaclass root that ends in R is before za, the R turns into riy, by riGzayagliGkSu. There are four such roots, namely pR 06.0138 mR 06.0139 dR 06.0147 and dhR 06.0148 --

mR + laT ta → mR + za + ta !!riGzayaGlikSu mriy + za + ta → .. → mriyate "he dies"

priyate "is busy"

driyate "respects"

dhriyati "is steady"

Back to verb classes .


rudhAdibhyaH znam ONPANINI 31078
rudh etc. get znam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 258

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots (for instance rudh), before hard doer affixes, get (z)na(m) instead of the usual zap. Those roots are called znamclass, rudhAdi, or "verb class seven". See verb classes .

Example --

yuj + laT mip → yuj + znam + mi midaco yunajmi "I join"

The z label of (z)na(m) made znam get label G by hard apit is Git , and that G kept yuj from turning into yoj by puganta. The m label of (z)na(m) made midaco work, so the na was added after the u of yuj, not after the j as usual.

More examples --

rudh + laT tip → rudh + znam + tiprunadh + ti jhaSasta;thordho'dhaH runadh + dhi jhalAJjazjhazi runad + dhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs, stops"

chid + laT tip → chid + znam + tip midaco chinad + ti kharica chinatti "cuts"

tRh + laT tip → tRnahti tRNaha::im tRnehti hoDhaH tRneDhti jhaSastatho tRneDhdhi STunA tRneDhDhi DhoDhelopaH tRneDhi Natvam tRNeDhi "crushes"

rudh + laT jhi → rudh + znam + jhirunadh + jhirunadh + anti''' znasora rundhanti nazcA ruMdhaMti anusvA rundhanti "they obstruct, stop"


tanAdi;kRJbhya:: uH ONPANINI 31079
tan etc, and kR, get u (instead of zap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 259 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots get u instead of zap when before a hard doer affix.

There are ten such roots. The nine tanAdi (a.k.a. uclass) --

tan san kSaN kSiN RN tRN ghRN van man

and the very common root AD 08.0010 kR (Du)kR(J) karoti "do, make", which has no verb class, but gets u anyway.

As the tanAdi all end in n or N, after they get u they look like a znuclass --

tan + laT tip → tan + u + tip hardsoft tanoti "extends"

tan + laT jhi → tan + u + jhitanu + anti'''tanvanti "they extend"

tan + loT sip → tan + u + siptan + u + hi''' utazca tanu "extend!"

The kR root however does some strange things -- see kR with u .

Back to verb classes


kry..-AdibhyaH znA ONPANINI 31081
krI and others get (z)nA (before hard doer)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 260

Exception to kartarizap. Certain roots, for instance krI, when they are before a hard doer affix, get (z)nA instead of zap.

Such roots are called kryAdi roots, znAclass roots, or "class nine roots". The first of them in the list is krI "buy".

inria reader labels the verbs that have znA inside with [9]. Notice that it will now show "[9]" on krINate "is being bought", because "krI is a class nine root, but krIyate is kRI + yak + laT ta and has no znA inside.

Examples --

krI + laT tip → krInAti Natvam krINAti "buys"

krI + laT tas→ krInAte IhalyaghoH krINIte "both buy"

krI + laT jhi → krI + nA + jhikrI + nA + anti''' znAbhya krInanti Natvam krINanti "they buy"

Back to verb classes

31003 syA tAs cli ←

chunk 18: 31067 verb classes

→ 31091 root affixes