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inria manual
inria abbreviations
kRt affixes in inria
about pfp
inria sandhi
Inria codes for tenses.
ac md ps
number in inria
tense in inria
" cases " are the seven groups of tiG.
Western names of the cases.
cases in inria.
person in inria
gender in inria
zloka tester
colors in inria
orange in inria
Gray words in inria.
Blue words in inria.
Red words in inria.
Pink words in inria.
About inria.
Inria reader.
Inria website.
inria uses H to mean s
Inria declension.
inria conjugation
inria grammar


inria manualmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1527

The inria Sanskrit tools (a.k.a. SHE, "Sanskrit Heritage Engine") are a complicated tool. So start by reading the The Sanskrit Heritage Engine Reference Manual. After that, my notes might help a bit too --

inria reader

colors in inria

inria declension

inria conjugation

inria sandhi

colors in inria

all inria abbreviations sorted alphabetically

inria abbreviations by groups

inria codes for tenses.

kRt affixes in inria

ac md ps

Inria codes for tenses.

tense in inria

cases in inria

number in inria

person in inria .

gender in inria


inria abbreviationsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1528

abl fifth

abs ktvA or lyap

ac flat

acc second

aor luG

ben soft liG

ca causative (a non- Nichclass root that carries Nic)

cond lRG

dat fourth

du dual

f feminine

fut lRT

g sixth

i third

imp loT

impft laG

impft laG

loc seventh

m masculine

md bent that means doer

n neuter

nom. first that is not Amantrita

opt hard liG

per fut luT

per pft Am''

pft liT

ppf liT replaced with kvasu

pl plural

pr laT

ps bent that does not mean the doer

sg singular

vn ' verb nominal ' (French for denominative, ie, a sanAdyanta root derived from a noun, like mRgaya "hunt" from mRgAn "animals" + kyac )


kRt affixes in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1529

If you use inria reader, keep this cheatsheet at hand --

abs absolutive ( ktvA or lyap)

inf infinitive ( tumun)

pp past passive participle ( kta, even when kta means the doer)

ppa past active participle ( ktavatu)

ppr ac present active participle ( zatR)

ppr md present middle participle ( kartari zAnac)

ppr ps pressent passive participle ( akartari zAnac)

pfp kRt affixes


about pfpmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1530

Inria reader flags words like dRzyam or smartavyA with " pfp". This stands for "participe futur passif" (see abbrevs) and means that the word contains one of the kRt affixes.

Therefore, the word means "should be done" or the like --

dRzyam = dRz + pfp = should / can / must be seen

smartavya = smR + pfp = should / can / must be remembered

The number after pfp shows which affix it is --

pfp (1) passive future participle with yat

pfp (2) passive future participle with anIyar

pfp (3) passive future participle with tavya or tavyat

But do not bother to learn the numbers, because if the word has nIya inside, you know the affix to be anIyar, etc etc.


inria sandhimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1531

To get to the inria sandhi gadget, click the "Sandhi" link at the bottom of --

inria reader

That shows two boxes. When you type tAn in the left box and zocati in the right box, it tells you that those add up to tAJchocati.

Important: even though this gadget only gives you one of the three options that pANini allows, the inria reader is able to split correctly all three of tAJzocati tAJchocati tAJcchocati. UNLESS you put spaces in the wrong place. So sIdatic chAtraH works, sIdaticchAtraH works, sIdati cchAtraH worxn't. When in doubt, remove all spaces.


Inria codes for tenses.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1532

When you click a red in inria reader, these abbreviations show the tense --

aor aorist = luG

ben benedictive = soft liG

cond conditional = lRG

fut future = lRT

imp imperative = loT

impft imperfect = laG

inj injunctive = luG affected by namAGyoge ff

opt optative = hard liG

per fut periphrastic future = luT

per pft periphrastic perfect = liT that added Am''

pft perfect = liT that caused liTidhA

pr present = laT

Keep this cheatsheet at hand whenever you use inria reader.

Back to red words in inria .


ac md psmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1533

The inria abbreviations ac, md, ps appear when a tense was replaced with an affix. They show --

ac -- the affix is flat (flats are always doer affixes)

md -- the affix is bent, and is a doer affix

ps -- the affix is bent, and is a nondoer affix (because it is after yak)

Examples --

Drop dveSTi dviSan into inria and click them. Inria will say ac, because those have tip and zatR, which are flat. All flats mean the doer.

Drop dviSAtAm and dviSANaH. Inria shows md because those have AtAm zAnac, which are bent, and here mean the doer.

Drop dviSyante and dviSyamANAH. Inria shows ps there. These have jha zAnac, which are bent, and here do not mean the doer (we know they don't because there is yak inside).

ppr ac -- the root got zatR

ppr md -- got zAnac. This zAnac means the doer.

ppr ps -- got yak and zAnac. This zAnac does not mean the doer.

The bracketed numbers shows the verb class affix. So a " ppr [3] ac" got zlu and zatR.


number in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1534

Inria uses these abbreviations --

sg -- singular

du -- dual

pl -- plural


tense in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1535

pr laT present

imp loT imperative

fut lRT future

per fut luT periphrastic future

impft laG imperfect - a past tense

pft liT perfect - a past tense

opt liG optative -- would, should, must, might, ought to

aor luG aorist - a past tense

inj luG injunctive -- same as aorist, but without luGlaG ff


" cases " are the seven groups of tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1536

The seven cases are the seven groups of three affixes that appear in the list svaujas --

svaujas first

amauTchaS second

TAbhyAmbhis third

GebhyAmbhyas fourth

GasibhyAmbhyas fifth

GasosAm sixth

Gyossup seventh

The first case, for instance, is the group of three affixes su, au, jas. These three are singular, dual and plural respectively (by rule tAnyeka), and must be used to mean one, two, many things (see rules bahuSu and dvyeka).

See also Western names of the cases .


Western names of the cases.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1537

In the pANini grammar, the seven cases are called first, second, ...up to seventh. But Western grammarians, instead of these seven numbers, use the following eight names. You should know them because they are used in inria --

nominative (or vocative) first svaujas

accusative second amauTchaS (used for the object of a verb sometimes, see karmaNidvi)

instrumental third TAbhyAmbhis (by, with)

dative fourth GebhyAmbhyas (to, resulting in)

ablative fifth GasibhyAmbhyas (from, because)

genitive sixth GasosAm (of, among, from the viewpoint of)

locative seventh Gyossup (in, on, at)

The tables of the inria declension have the nominative in the first row, the vocative in the second row, the second affixes in the THIRD row, and so on down to the seventh affixes in the eigtht row. Be careful! If your rule says that you need to add a third affix to rAma, you will find it in the FOURTH row of the...

declension table of rAma.

There, the third affixes TA bhyAm bhis are displayed in the FOURTH row: rAmeNa, rAmAbhyAm, rAmaiH.


cases in inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1538

To use inria, we need to know the names of the cases. They are --

nom nominative

AND voc vocative = first = svaujas

acc accusative = second = amauTchaS

i instrumental = third = TAbhyAmbhis

dat dative = fourth = GebhyAmbhyas

abl ablative = fifth = GasibhyAmbhyas

g genitive = sixth = GasosAm

loc locative = seventh = Gyossup

When we use the inria declension gadget, the first case appears in the FIRST AND SECOND rows of the table, the second in the THIRD row, the third in the FOURTH, and so on.


person in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1539

The number 3 2 1 at the end of a verb gloss in inria shows the person.

3 third person

2 second person

1 first person

As for instance, zocati is painted RED and comes out as "zuc pr (1) ac. sg. 3".

The color red means this has a tiG.

" ac sg 3" means "has tip".

List of tiG with inria codes --

sg du pl

ac -- flat tiG

3 tip tas jhi

2 sip thas tha

1 mip vas mas

md OR ps -- bent tiG

3 ta AtAm jha

2 thAs AthAm dhvam

1 iT' vahi mahi

So if inria says that plavante is md. pl. 3 , it means it got jha.

And if dRzyante shows as ps. pl. 3 , it got jha too.


gender in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1540

Inria reader shows gender with the letters m f n.

In the case of comppounds, such as sarvalokAn or utpalavarNam, the former is painted yellow, and does not show gender. The latter is painted blue or cyan, and shows the gender of the whole compound (which sometimes is not the gender of the latter).

If the latter is painted blue, the gender of the latter is the same as the gender of the compound.

If the latter is painted cyan, the gender of the latter is NOT the same as the gender of the compound.

Example. Type trizirAs into inria.

It will tell us it's a compound of the nounbases tri- + ziras-, that has the ending su added.

It will also tell us that the whole compound is m or f.

But the zirAs half is painted cyan, not blue, because the nounbase ziras- is a neuter.

Cyan shows that gender of compound is not same as gender of last part. Knowing this is useful sometimes.


zloka testermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1541

To test if a line (such as dharmakSetre kurukSetre samavetA yuyutsavaH) is a zloka line or not, copypaste it into this gadget --

zloka tester

It will show the light vowels and the heavy vowels of whatever you pasted (X means heavy, hyphen means light).

If what you pasted is a zloka line, it will say so. Test that right now, please.

There are two situations in which the gadget cannot tell if the line is good or not, and you have to check something before being sure.

When the gadget says "MAYBE ZLOKA LINE, needs caesura 4 / 4", the line is good if the fourth vowel and the fifth vowel do not belong to the same word. It is bad if they are in the same word.

When the gadget says "MAYBE ZLOKA LINE, needs caesura 5 / 3", the line is good if the fifth vowel and the sixth vowel do not belong to the same word. It is bad if they are in the same word.

Paste the following examples into the gadget to see what it says --

dharmakSetre kurukSetre samavetA yuyutsavaH

gadget shows arrow, so that is definitely a zloka line

dharmakSetre kurukSetre yuyutsavasH samavetAH

gadget shows no arrow, definitely not a zloka

mahAzrayA mAlinI ca mahAbhogA mahAbhujA

gadget says MAYBE and 4 / 4. The fourth and fifth vowels (yAmA) belong to different words, so the line is good

vibhUtizaktipradA ca mahAbhogA mahAbhujA

gadget says MAYBE and 4 / 4. The fourth and fifth vowels (zakti) belong to the same word, so the line is bad. Sounds awful. No way you coud chnt that.

dharmyAd dhi yuddhAc chreyo 'nyat kSatriyasya na vidyate

says MAYBE and 5 / 3. Good because fifth and sixth vowels ( dhAc and chre ) are in different words.

dharmyAd dhy anyad yuddhAc chreyaH kSatriyasya na vidyate

says MAYBE and 5 / 3. Bad because fifth and sixth vowels ( in yuddhAc ) belong to the same word. No way to chant that!


colors in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1542

red -- verb

blue -- standalone noun, or last noun of compound

yellow -- non-last noun of compound

cyan -- last noun of compound, with possibly changed gender

green -- noun ( with first, used as Amantrita )

orange -- first half of Am'' verb

pink -- none of the above ( unchanging, or even "adverb", if you like )


If azvo dhAvati means horse runs, inria should be showing blue azvaH and red dhAvati. Ignore the red azvaH, and the blue dhAvati if any.

nIlotpalam should split as yellow nIla and blue utpalam.

kamalalocanam should also split yellow blue.

Yet kamalalocanaH should split yellow cyan because, as it does not have neuter gender, it cannot mean an eye.


orange in inriammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1543

As of 2022, when you type cintayAmAsa "he thought" into inria reader, it paints the cintAyAm part orange, and the Asa red, as if they were two words. It does the same thing with all Am'' forms.

That is sort of weird, because inria reader cannot recognize cintayAm Asa. You must type it without the space to get the orange.

Then it adds a lot of useless crap. To keep it from hurting your eyes, click the V that is right below the orange.

inria calls the liT that got liTidhA pft or perfect, and the liT that got Am'' the per pft or periphrastic perfect.


Gray words in inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1544

When inria reader paints a word gray, that means something went wrong.

Example: type abravit or lakSmaNeNa into inria, and they will turn gray.

Counterexample: type abravIt or lakSmaNena into inria, and they will not turn gray.

In many situations, wrong words turn gray and correct words do not. However, we cannot trust that inria will do that always. Examples of the graying going wrong:

(1) rAmena will not get grayed, even though it is extremely likely to be a misspelling for rAmeNa.

(2) As of 2022, plUyate gets grayed. That is a bug. The correct form for plu + yak + laT ta is is plUyate, but inria mistakenly thinks that the correct form is pluyate.

(3) prasAdavittakaH is a perfectly good word, as of 2022, but inria grays it because vittaka is not yet in its dictionary.


Blue words in inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1545

inria reader paints blue or green the words it suspects to be nouns.

Most nouns are made of a nounbase and a sup. Inria will show the nounbase and the sup.

Example. When you type siMhas into inria, it shows siMhaH in blue. When you click the blue, it shows --

(siMha)( m sg nom)

siMha here is the nounbase, clicking it you find that it means lion. The m means that this siMha- is a masculine. The " sg nom " means that siMhas is the nounbase siMha with su affix added (the final s is displayed as H as if it were beforepause).

If you type siMha, inria shows ( m sg voc). This means that the word siMha is the nounbase siMha- with the calling su addd after it, and means "hey lion". (The s disappeared by eGhra.)

To decode the affix names, see the cheatsheet cases in inria . Or memorize the list nom acc i dat abl g loc.

Another example. Type vezma. Inria will say that this may be the neuter nounbase vezman- with normal su added, ith am added, or with calling su added.

Ounce you know that the nounbase of vezma is vezman, you can type vezman into the inria declension gadget, set it to neuter, and it will show you how it looks with the other affixes added. You can also look for vezman in dictionaries.

When you type a feminine noun, such as siMhI, lakSmI or durgA, inria will sometimes show the nounbase without feminine affix, and sometimes the nounbase with the feminine affix added. This is done for convenience, so that clicking siMha lakSmI durgA you get to the right dictionary entry. Careful: typing siMha into inria declension and asking it for the feminine will NOT work. You must type siMhI there, with the GI already added, and then set the gender to feminine.


Red words in inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1546

When inria reader paints a word red, that means it suspects the word might be a verb.

A verb is made by adding a tense after a root, then replacing the tense with a tiG. Inria will show the root, the tense and the tiG.

Example. When we type zRNoti into inria reader (input convention KH), it shows a red box, and when we click the red we get --

(zru) ( pr [5] ac sg 3)

This means that the word was formed like this --

zru + laTzru + tipzru + znu + tip → .. → zRNoti

Explanation of (zru) ( pr [5] ac sg 3) --


The zru is the root, and it links to some page that explains that zru means "hear, listen".


The pr is how inria calls the laT. See inria codes for tenses .


The [5] shows that zRNoti has znu affix inside. See verb classes .

sg 3

The sg 3 thing means " singular third person", so it means that the laT was replaced with either tip or ta.


The ac thing means that the replacer is flat, therefore it is tip, not ta.

If instead of ac it shows md or ps, then the affix would be bent, therefore ta. Test that by typing plavate into inria.

If it shows ps, then there is yak before the ta. Test that by typing pacyante.

Back to colors in inria .


Pink words in inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1547

The words that inria reader paints pink never change. They are neither blue (words that can have different sup) nor red (words that have a tiG).

Examples --

hyas "yesterday"

prAtar "in the morning"

dRSTvA "after seeing"

draSTum "to see"

yatas "because"

namas "homage"

ca "and"


About inria.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1548

When I say inria, I usually mean the inria reader.


Inria reader.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1549

The inria reader is a parser hosted at the inria website.

English version.

French version.

Use the French version if you can read French. The dictionary is way better.

Four warnings --

(1) It takes time to get used to. Be patient. It is extremely useful.

(2) Sometimes it fails. Do not think it is perfect and you'll be fine.

(3) inria uses H to mean s

(4) Read the manual.


Inria website.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1550

" Inria website" is my nickname for the Sanskrit Heritage Site. It contains several tools --

inria reader

inria declension

inria conjugation

inria sandhi


inria uses H to mean smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1551

Type punar gajo vApIr atarat into inria reader, set input convention to KH, hit READ. You will get to this page --

punar gajo vApIr atarat

That page says that the sentence was made by joining four words, this way --

punaH + gajaH + vApIH + ataratpunar gajo vApIr atarat

Yet, that is not the exact same story that pANini tells us. According to the old grammar rules, the four words are, at the start, before rules work --

punar + gajas + vApIs + atarad

and then there are sandhi rules that turn as + vA into ovA, and Is + at into Irat, and d into t before pause.

What is happening here is that inria displays all original words in a disguised form. Those that actually end in d b D g are displayed with t p T k, and those that end in s or in r are displayed with H at the end.

Inria does the same thing in the conjugation gadget and sandhi gadget. Words that end in s are displayed with H, and conversely, you are expected to type the words that end in s with H at the end, not s.

To avoid confusion, you have to remember that for inria, a final s and a final H are the same thing. When inria reader says gajaH, it means gajas. When the conjugation gadget tells you that "you would see" is pazyeH, it means to say that it is pazyes, and it was made with the affix es'''.


Inria declension.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1552

The inria declension gadget is at the top of the page --

Inria Grammar

This gadget allows you to type a nounbase and choose its gender, then it shows you the result of adding all the twenty-one noun endings to it.

Example. Type gaja into the declension gadget, select "masculine" , and select "KH". Then click the "send " button. You will then get to this page --

declension table of gaja

which shows the twenty-one affixes added after masculine gaja-.

The su au jas are in the first row of the table,

the Amantrita su au jas are in the second row,

the second endings in the third row,

and so on down to the seventh endings in the eighth row.

If you choose feminine gender, then you cannot type just the nounbase into the gadget -- you have to type the nounbase with the feminine affix already added. The gadget will not add the Ap or GI for you. For instance, if you type gajI and select feminine, you get here --

declension table of gajI


inria conjugationmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1553

The conjugation gadget is at the top of --

Inria Grammar

It adds verb endings and some kRt affixes to a root.

You must be careful to choose the right verb class number, otherwise you get garbage.


inria grammarmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1554

You get to the inria grammar page by clicking the "Grammar" link at the bottom of inria reader. Or, by clicking this --

inria grammar

That page has two gadgets inside --

The inria declension at the top makes nouns. It adds all sup affixes to a nounbase.

The inria conjugation at the bottom makes verbs. It adds all tiG affixes to a root. Adds some kRt too.

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