51001 more taddhita ←

chunk 28: vibhakti

→ 61001 reduplication

53001 vibhakti down to dik. prAgdizovibhaktiH
53002 come after kim-, pronoun, bahu, but not after the dvi- class. kiMsarvanAmabahubhyodvyAdibhyaH
53007 replace fifth with tasil. paJcamyAstasil
53010 seventh to tral. saptamyAstral
53012 to a after kim-. kimot
53027 astAt comes after words of 'direction' with seventh fifth first that mean direction, place or time, . dikzabdebhyassaptamIpaJcamIprathamAbhyodigdezakAleSvastAtiH
53042 dhA' after numeral to mean manner or kind. saGkhyAyAvidhArthedhA
53047 pAzap means trifling. yApyepAzap
53067 kalpa, dezya and dezIya mean slight incompleteness. ISadasamAptaukalpabdezyadezIyaraH
53070 Understand ka down to iva. prAgivAtkaH
53071 Add "akac" before the tail of unchanging, pronoun, in the prAgivIya senses. avyayasarvanAmnAmakacprAkTeH
53073 to mean an unknown thing. ajJAte
53088 kuTI zamI and zuNDA get ra . kuTIzamIzuNDAbhyoraH
53096 kan means imitation. ivepratikRtau
54017 After numeral, add kRtvasuc to mean repetition count of an action. saGkhyAyAHkriyAbhyAvRttigaNanekRtvasuc
54042 zas' may be added to a role that means much or little. bahvalpArthAcchaskArakAdanyatarasyAm
54050 Add cvi with kR bhU as to mean "turn into". abhUtatadbhAvekRbhvastiyogesampadyakartaricviH
54074 Rc pUr ap dhUr pathin- get a, except in akSadhUH. RkpUrabdhUHpathAmAnakSe
54087 rAtri gets ac' after ahan-, sarva-, part of a night, saMkhyAta-, puNya-, . ahassarvaikadezasaGkhyAtapuNyAccarAtreH
54091 Add Tac after rAjan- ahan- sakhi-. rAjAhassakhibhyaSTac
54099 nau--ender dvigu . nAvodvigoH
54132 dhanus . dhanuSazca
54151 uras- etc get kap . uraHprabhRtibhyaHkap
54152 in-ender that means woman . inasstriyAm
54153 after R or nadI. nadyRtazca
54154 Other longhorn get kap optionally. zeSAdvibhASA


prAg dizo vibhaktiH ONPANINI 53001
vibhakti down to dik.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 466

The affixes described in the next rules, down to 53027 dikzabdebhya, are vibhakti affixes. For instance, tral and tasil and dAnIm.

These affixes are also called prAgdizIya affixes.

They are added after some pronouns as if they were sup affixes. For instance, dAnIm, when added after idam-, makes idAnIm "now".


kiM;sarvanAma;bahubhyo '-dvy-AdibhyaH ONPANINI 53002
(The prAgdizIya) come after kim-, pronoun, bahu, but not after the dvi- class.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 467

For instance, we can add tral and tasil after kim- --

kutra "where?"

kutas "from where?"

and after pronoun yad-

yatra "that in which"

yatas "that from which"

and after bahu-

bahutra "in many places"


paJcamyAs tasil ONPANINI 53007
(After the kiMsarva, optionally) replace fifth with tasil.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 468

So we can say also kutas yatas tatas bahutas instead of kasmAt yasmAt tasmAt bahubhyas.

Be warned. Even though this rule only allows tasil replacement after a few nounbases, you'll find that replacement everywhere in all sort of works in verse. So instead of --

gajanM tArAvalokAd yAcadhvam "ask the elephant from tAravaloka"

a zloka may have --

gatvA kuvalayApIDaGM gajanM tArAvalokataH |

yAcadhvaM yadi tAvat taM yuSmabhyaM sa pradAsyati ||


saptamyAs tral ONPANINI 53010
(After the kiMsarva, optionally) seventh to tral.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 469

As in --

pUrva- + Gi → pUrva + tralpUrvatra "earlier"

kim- + Gi → kim + tral kutihoH ku + tralkutra "where?, in which one?"

bahu- + sup' → bahu + tralbahutra "in many"

So also atra, tatra, sarvatra, amutra, anyatra, paratra, ekatra.

Alternatively, we may say kasmin purvasmin bahuSu by GasiGyossmAtsminau and other rules.

The change does not affect the meaning. So both of tatra and tasmin would work here --

tatas tilottamA tatra vane puSpANi cinvatI "then tilottamA, while she was picking up flowers in that forest..."


kimo 't ONPANINI 53012
( Gi) to a(t) after kim-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 470

This a(t) affix is a taddhita, and it is also a vibhakti because prAgdizo says so.

This rule, together with kvAti, roughly boils down to saying that " kim- plus Gi may add up kva". In addition to kutra and kasminn from other rules.

Only example --

kim- + Gi → kim + at kvAti kva + akva "where?"


dik-zabdebhyaH saptamI;paJcamI;prathamAbhyo dig;deza;kAleSv astAtiH ONPANINI 53027
astAt(i) comes after words of 'direction' with seventh fifth first that mean direction, place or time, (without change of sense).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 471

For instance, we may use purastAt to replace pUrvasmin "in the East",

pUrvasmAt "from the East", or pUrvaH "earlier". Here purastAd replaces pUrvasmAt --

purastAd AgataH "he came from the east"


saMkhyAyA$ vidh`Arthe dhA ONPANINI 53042
dhA' after numeral to mean manner or kind.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 472

For instance, zata- is a numeral, and adding dhA' we get --

zata- + dhA' → zatadhA "hundredwise, hundredfold"

Which is an adverb, and can mean in a hundred ways or in a hundred parts, as in --

zrutvA kathAnM te hRdayaM zata-dhA dIryate mama "after hearing your story my heart splits into smithereens"

In BHG 7:4, aSTadhA bhinnA "is split eightwise" means "has eight parts" or "is of eight kinds" --

bhUmir Apo 'nalo vAyuH khamM mano buddhir eva ca |

ahaGMkAra itIyamM me bhinnA prakRtir aSTadhA ||

"matter has eight parts -- earth, water, fire, air, space, thoughts, reason, sense of identity".


yApye pAzap ONPANINI 53047
pAzap means trifling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 473

This affix is used to express contempt. As in --

yApyo vaiyakAraNaH "wannabee grammarian" → vaiyakAraNapAzaH "wannabee grammarian"

Please note that the contempt is expressed only with regards to whatever the affix is added to. You insult someone with that word only to express your contempt for his lack of knowledge of the grammar. Adding pAza- to a word that means thief expresses contempt for bad thieving, not contempt for being a thief.


ISad-a-samAptau kalpab;dezya;dezIyaraH ONPANINI 53067
kalpa(p), dezya and dezIya(r) mean slight incompleteness.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 474

Example. From paTu- "clever", adding these, we get --




all meaning "quite clever but not fully", "tolerably clever".

These can be added after verbs too --

pacatikalpam "he sort of cooks"

here the verb must be singular, and the compound is neuter.


prAg ivAt kaH ONPANINI 53070
Understand ka down to iva.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 475

headline. The following sUtras, down to iva (that means down to 53096 ivepratikRtau), allow the use of several ka and ak affixes in several senses, as for instance --

question, like pacataki "is he cooking?" by ajJAte

imitation, like azvakas "toy horsey" by ivepratikRtau

These affixes (ka, akac etc) are called prAgivIya affixes.

These senses (question, imitation, contempt, compassion...) are called prAgivIya senses.


avyaya;sarvanAmnAm akac prAk TeH ONPANINI 53071
Add "akac" before the tail of unchanging, ( verb,) pronoun, in the prAgivIya senses.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 476

Strangely, this ak(ac) thingy is added to full words, without erasing the sup or tiG.

Example with a noun --

sarvais + akacsarvakais "all?"

Example with a verb

pacati + akacpacataki "is he cooking?"

Example with an unchanging --

uccais "aloud" + akacuccakais "loftily"


a-jJAte ONPANINI 53073
(You may use the prAgivIya) to mean an unknown thing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 477

Examples --

pacati + akacpacataki "is he cooking?"

azvas + akacazvakaH "which horse?"


kuTI;zamI;zuNDAbhyo raH ONPANINI 53088
kuTI zamI and zuNDA get ra (to mean shortness).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 478

These three, when small, get ra affix, instead of the usual ka from prAg ivAt kaH.

So a short or small kuTI- "house" is a kuTIra- "hut".

Only examples:

kuTI- "house" → kuTIra- "hut"

zamI- "shamee tree" → zamIra- "small shamee tree"

zuNDA- "trunk" → zuNDAra- "the trunk of a young elephant"

These three are m, even though kuTI- zamI- zuNDA- are f.


ive pratikRtau ONPANINI 53096
kan means imitation.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 479

As for instance --

azva- + kan + suazvakas "horsie"

may mean any statue, toy, drawing... made to resemble a horse.


saGkhyAyAH kriyA-'bhyAvRtti-gaNane kRtvasuc ONPANINI 54017
After numeral, add kRtvasuc to mean repetition count of an action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 480

So adding this affix kRtvas(uc) after tri-, we say --

trikRtvo bhuGkte "eats three times"


bahv; alp%ArthAc chas kArakAd anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 54042
zas' may be added to a role that means much or little.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 481

This zas' affix has no labels and is not the same as the second plural affix (z)as.

The nounbases that mean much or little, and are related in sense to a verb, may get zas'.

Example. In --

rAjA bahvIr dadAti "the king gives many"

, the word bahvIs, from bahu- + GI + zas, means many, and is the object role of the verb dadAti. So we may replace bahu- + GI + zas with bahu- + zas' --

dadAti bahuzo rAjA "the king gives abundantly, the king gives diversely"

and, when meaning few, we can replace alpa- + zas with alpa- + zas' --

dadAty alpazo rAjA "the king gives scantily"

bahuzas and alpazas are unchanging, or, if you want, "adverb"s. This rule says that we can replace bahvIs "many", which is a role word because it is the object of dadAti, with bahuzas "diversely, abundantly, by droves".

Notice that the rule has bahu + alpa- + arthAt, meaning "after words that mean much or little". The artha- is necessary because bahvalpAt would mean "after bahu- and alpa-" (see svaMrUpa).

The replacement with zas' is forbidden when the word is not a role, as in bahUnAM svAmI "lord of many". But it is allowed for all role words, no matter their original noun ending.

This rule does not build the sentence dadAti zatazo rAjA gAH "the king gives cows by the hundreds, the king gives hundreds of cows", because a numeral like zata takes zas' naturally, and this zatazas is not a replacement of zata (the sentence dadAti zata gA rAjA means "the king gives a hundred cows").


abhUtatadbhAve kR;bhv;asti-yoge saMpadyakartari cviH ONPANINI 54050
Add cvi with kR bhU as to mean "turn into".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 482

In other words --

' A noun can compound in front of a word made from bhU kR as to mean "turn into" or "make into", and the noun gets (c)v(i) affix. '

So, when what is not white becomes white, we may say either zuklamM bhavati or zuklIbhavati, and if someone makes that happen, we may say that he zuklaGM karoti or zuklIkaroti, "whitifies, enwhitens, whitens". This is, BTW, an exception to the general principle "only nouns compound with nouns".

More examples --

zuklIbhavanti vastrANi "the garments turn white"

zuklIkaroti vastrANi "he makes the garments white"

ghaTIkaroti mRdam "he makes clay into jar(s)"

paTUbhavati khaDgaH "the sword sharpens"

paTUkurvanti khaDgam "they sharpen the sword"

kapIcakAra mAyAsvI kumantrair nAvikAMs tadA "the sorcerer then turned the sailors into monkeys with his evil spells"

zuklAny azuklANi karoti → zuklAni + cvi + karoti supodhA zukla + v + karotizukla + v + karoti asyacvau zuklI + v + karoti verapRktasya zuklIkaroti "whitens"

yena tat tripuranM dagdhvA kSaNAd bhasmIkRtamM purA "by which tripura was burnt and turned into ashes in a moment long ago"


Rk;pUr;ab;dhUH;pathAm /An-akSe ONPANINI 54074
Rc pUr ap dhUr pathin- (when latter) get a, except in akSadhUH.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 483

Example --

dvirgatA Apo yasmindvi + ap dvyantaru dvi + Ip → dvI + Ip + a akassa dvIpa- "land between two waters"


ahas-sarv%aikadeza-saMkhyAta-puNyAc ca rAtreH ONPANINI 54087
rAtri gets ac' after ahan-, sarva-, part of a night, saGMkhyAta-, puNya-, ( numeral, and unchanging, in a tatpuruSa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 484

The feminine rAtri- "night" becomes ratra-, masculine, in these compounds --

ahaz ca rAtriz ca → ahas + rAtri + ac' + su → .. → ahorAtras "day and night"

sarvA rAtris → sarvarAtras "the whole night"

pUrvarAtras "the first half of the night"

apArarAtras "the second half of the night"

puNyA rAtris → puNyarAtras "holy night"

dve rAtrI samAhRte → dvirAtras "group of two nights"

atikrAnto rAtrim → atirAtras "that has passed the night"


rAjAhas;sakhibhyaS Tac ONPANINI 54091
Add Tac after ( tatpuruSa compounds that end in) rAjan- ahan- sakhi-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 485

This can be reworded (roughly) as --

' Replace latter rAjan- ahan- sakhi- with rAja- aha- sakha-. '

Examples --

mahArAja- m "great king"

uttamAha- m "last day"

priyasakha- m "dear friend"

As these are Tac-enders, the feminine gets GI, by TiDDhA --

priyasakhI- f "dear friend"

For some reason, the feminine mahArAjJI- "great queen" is unaffected by this rule.

Longhorn compounds are unaffected.


nAvo dvigoH ONPANINI 54099
nau--ender dvigu (gets Tac).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 486

In other words, nau- becomes nAva- when compounded after a numeral to mean a group. As in --

dve nAvau samAhRtedvi + nau- + su → dvi + nau- + Tac → .. → dvinAvam @n "shippair, group of two ships"

bahunAvam "group of many boats, fleet"

If the compound is not a dvigu, the nau- of course stays. So in a longhorn compound --

bahvyo nAvo yasya "that has many ships" → bahu + nau + subahunaus "owner of many ships"


dhanuSaz ca ONPANINI 54132
(In a longhorn,) dhanus (to anaG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 487

dhanus replaced with an turns into dhanuan, then into dhanvan by ikoyaNaci. So, if your bow is made of horn you are a zArGgadhanvan-.

zArGganM dhanur asya anekamanyapadArthe zarGgam + dhanus + su supodhA zarGga + dhanus + su → zarGga + dhanu + an(aG) + su ikoya zarGgadhanvan + suzarGgadhanvA ( same steps as rAjA )


uraH-prabhRtibhyaH kap ONPANINI 54151
uras- etc get kap (when latter in a longhorn).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 488

uras-class words get kap at the end of a longhorn ----

mahA + uras- → mahA + uras + kap AdguNaH mahoraska- "big-chested"

avamukta- + upAnah- AdguNaH avamuktopAnah- → avamuktopAnahka- hoDhaH avamuktopAnaDhka- kharica avamuktopAnaTka- "that has taken off his shoes"

The uras-class are these twelve --

uras | sarpis | upAnah | pumAn |

anaDvAn | payas | nauH | lakSmIH |

dadhi | madhu | zAlI | zAliH ||


inaH striyAm ONPANINI 54152
in-ender ( longhorn) that means woman (gets kap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 489

The in-enders usually get GI added when feminine, as in yogin- yoginI-. However, when they are at the end of a longhorn that describes a feninine, they get kap compulsorily. The kap will then get Ap, by ajAdya.

Example --

bahavo daNDino 'syAmbahu- + daNDin- + kap + Ap nalopaHprA bahudaNDikA- "abundant in truncheon-bearers"

As in --

bahavo daNDino 'syAM zAlAyAm → bahudaNDikA zAlA "the assembly hall is full of security staff"

bahudaNDI rAjA "the king has many security staff"

But of course, the optional rule zeSAdvi might add kap anyway --

bahudaNDiko rAjA "the king has many security staff"


nady..;Rtaz ca ONPANINI 54153
( longhorn gets kap) after R or nadI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 490

We are not trickling "when describing a feminine" from the previous rule, so this rule will work even when the longhorn describes a masculine or neuter.


bahvyaH kumArya asmin dezebahu-kumArIkaH dezaH "a country full of little girls"

pacikA-patnIkaH "a guy whose wife is a cook"

bahu-kartRka- "that has many makers"


zeSAd vibhASA ONPANINI 54154
Other longhorn get kap optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 491

The longhorn not mentioned in the previous rules may get kap or not.

So "that has many beds", from bahu- + khaTvA-, can be said in three ways. More often than not there is no kap --

bahvyaH khaTvAs tasmin "there are many beds in this one" → .. → bahukhaTvaH "that has many beds"

but if we choose to apply this rule --

bahukhaTvakaH "that has many beds"

bahukhaTvAkaH "that has many beds"

51001 more taddhita ←

chunk 28: vibhakti

→ 61001 reduplication