83034 visarga sandhi ←

chunk 50: 83005 Satvam and Natvam

→ 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings

83055 Replace non-wordfinal with curledback. apadAntasyamUrdhanyaH
83056 Replace the sAD of sah with . sahessADassaH
83057 after ku, r, ic. iNkoH
83058 even if one of num H zar comes in between. numvisarjanIyazarvyavAyepi
83059 when a Sa-root or an affix is involved. AdezapratyayayoH
83060 of zAs vas' ghas . zAsivasighasInAJca
83061 kric won't work on a Sa-root before San, except stu and Ni. stautiNyorevaSaNyabhyAsAt
83065 sunoti;suvati;syati; stauti;stobha;tisthA; senaya;sedha;sica; saJja;svaJja upasargAtsunotisuvatisyatistautistobhatisthAsenayasedhasicasaJjasvaJjAm
83068 after ava when meaning 'supporting' or 'nearness'. avAccAlambanAvidUryayoH
83072 syand to S after anu vi pari abhi ni , if meaning nonliving beings anuviparyabhinibhyassyandateraprANiSu
83078 After iN, dh of SIdhvam, luG and liT to . iNaSSIdhvaMluGliTAndhoGgAt
83079 Optionally before iT. vibhASeTaH
83084 s of svasR to S after mAtR and pitR in a compound. mAtRpitRbhyAMsvasA
83095 After gavi and yudhi, sthiraH . gaviyudhibhyAMsthiraH
83110 sr-starters, sRp sRj spRz spRh, and the savana -class get no Satvam. naraparasRpisRjispRzispRhisavanAdInAm
84001 After r R RR S, same-word n to N. raSAbhyAnnoNassamAnapade
84002 Even if aT' ku pu AG M come in between. aTkupvAGnumvyavAyepi
84003 After former in a tag , but not after g. pUrvapadAtsaJjJAyAmagaH
84011 nounbase-final, num, vibhakti . prAtipadikAntanumvibhaktiSuca
84012 But compulsorily N in ekAc latter. ekAjuttarapadeNaH
84014 Nopadeza root after a preverb. upasargAdasamAsepiNopadezasya
84037 replace wordfinal. padAntasya


a-padAntasya mUrdhanyaH ONPANINI 83055
Replace non- wordfinal with curledback.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 981

Headline, valid down to 84001 raSA, exclusive. The following rules all replace non wordfinal s with S, except one or two, that replace non wordfinal dh with Dh.

For instance, a rule below, the kric rule, says --

"replace s after ku r ic".

But because of this headline, and of the most-alike rule, that kric rule means --

"replace s with S after ku r ic, but not if the s is wordfinal".


saheH sADaH saH ONPANINI 83056
Replace the sAD of sah with (SAD).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 982

This rule can be roughly reworded into --

" When the sAh of turAsAh- jalAsAh- pRtanAsAh- turns into sAD, replace it with SAD "

That happens when the h is wordfinal --

turAsAh- + su halGyA turAsAh hoDhaH turAsADh jhalAJjazonte turAsAD → turASAD "indra"

turAsAh- + bhis hoDhaH turAsADhbhis jhalAJjazonte turAsADbhis → turASADbhis "with indra and sundry"

turAsAh- + sup' hoDhaH turAsADhsu jhalAJjazonte turAsADsu → turASADsu kharica turASATsu "about indra and company"

Otherwise this rule does not work, and the h stays --

turAsAham apazyam "I saw indra"

If you find Tsu hard to say (I do), you may always apply DassidhuT --

turaSATsu DaHsidhuT turaSATtsu "about indra and company"

The word sas at the end of this rule means "replace s", and trickles down to the next hundred or so rules, all of which replace s with S.


iN;koH ONPANINI 83057
(non- wordfinal s to S) after ku, r, ic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 983

Nicknamed kric rule or Satvam rule. It means --

" Replace the non- wordfinal s that follows ku r ic with S. "

Examples after g and k, that are ku letters --

tvac- + sup' jhalAJjazonte tvajsu coHkuH tvagsu → tvagSu kharica tvakSu "in skins"

dviS + laT sip puganta dveS + si SaDhoHkassi dvek + si → dvekSi "you hate"

after r --

dhur- + sup' rvoru dhUrsu → dhUrSu "in yokes"

after ic --

dhanus- + TA → dhanuSA "with a bow"

See also Satvam.


num;visarjanIya;zar-vyavAye 'pi ONPANINI 83058
( kric rule works) even if one of num H zar comes in between.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 984 kric

Addition to kric rule.

Example with num in between --

dhanus- + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH dhanunsi sAntama dhanUnsi → dhanUnSi nazcA dhanUMSi "bows"

See the kAzikA for more examples.


Adeza;pratyayayoH ONPANINI 83059
( kric works only) when a Sa-root or an affix is involved.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 985

There is a big difference between Natvam and Satvam. The Natvam rules will work on everything, yet the Satvam rules will only work (A) when adding affixes, and (B) when Sa-roots come after preverbs. This is why words like kusumam don't get Satvam, the s being inside a nounbase.

Examples with the Sa-root sad after a kric letter --

ni + sad + laT tip pAghrA ni + sIda + tip → ni + SIda + tiniSIda + zap + ti atoguNe niSIdati "sits down; sinks down, gets depressed"

ni + sad + kta → niSad + ta radAbhyAnni niSan + na Natvam niSaNna STunA niSaNNa- "depressed"

Example with s of affix after kric letter --

azva + sup' bahuvacanejhalyet azve + su → azveSu "about horses"

Example with s that follows a kric and is before an affix --

dhanus- + TA → dhanuSA "with a bow"

Counterexample. There is no change when the s is not before an affix, does not start an affix, and does not start a Sa-root. So here the s stays, even though it is after an ic --

kusuma- @n + su atom kusumam "flower"

See also exception zAsivasi right below.


zAsi;vasi;ghasInAM ca ONPANINI 83060
(s) of zAs vas' ghas (to S after kric).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 986 kric

Those three s get to be after a kric letter when other rules change the vowel before the s, not when s is added as an affix. Therefore, rule Adezapra would ordinarily prevent the change into S. Because of this exception, however, we get S anyway.

Example with zAs after zAsa::ida replaces it with zis --

zAs + kta zAsa::ida zis + ta → ziS + ta STunA ziSTa- "taught, instructed, told to do so"

With vas when vacisvapi replaces va with u --

vas + bhAve laT tavas + yak + ta vacisvapi us + yak + ta Tita us + ya + te''' → uS + ya + te'''uSyate "inhabiting happens"

And with ghas when gamahana erases the a --

ghas + liT jhighas + us liTidhA ghaghas + us kuhozcuH jhaghas + us abhyAsecarca jaghas- + us gamahana jaghsus → jaghSus kharica jakSus "they ate"

See the kAzikA for more examples.


stauti;Nyor eva SaNy abhyAsAt ONPANINI 83061
kric won't work on a Sa-root before San, except stu and Ni.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 987

Usually, Sa-roots when reduplicated will get kric after the stammer --

sic' + Nal → .. → siSeca "he sprinkled"

This rule is an exception to that: if the Sa-root is before san, and the san gets kric, then the root itself won't get kric --

sic' + san sanyaGoH si + sic + san coHkuH si + sik + sa kric sisikSa "want to sprinkle"

This exception does not work if the san does not get kric --

sthA + sansthA + sthA + sa zarpU thAsthAsa abhyAsecarca tasthAsa sanyataH tisthAsa kric tiSthAsa STunA tiSThAsa "want to stop"

Or if the root is stu --

stu + san sanyaGoH stu + stu + sa zarpU tu + stu + sa kric tustuSa kric tuStuSa STunA tuSTuSa "want to praise"

Or if the root has Ni at the end, like sevi (which is sev + Nic) --

sevi + sansevi + iSan hardsoft seve + iSa sanyaGoH se + seve + iSa hrasvaH siseve + iSa kric siSeve + iSa ecoya siSevayiSa "want to worship"

Please see also about Nic plus san .


upasargAt sunoti;suvati;syati; stauti;stobha;tisthA; senaya;sedha;sica; saJja;svaJjAm ONPANINI 83065
sunoti;suvati;syati; stauti;stobha;tisthA; senaya;sedha;sica; saJja;svaJja (to S after i u of preverb)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 988



As in --











The change will still happen when the aT from luGlaG comes in between --

pariSuNoti paryaSuNot

abhiSuvati abhyaSuvat

abhiSThAsyati abhyaSThAsyat

abhiSvajate abhyaSvajata

An odd exception to this is stambh, that sometimes gets S change after ava. See avAccA.


avAc c' Alamban'-AvidUryayoH ONPANINI 83068
(stambh to S) after ava when meaning 'supporting' or 'nearness'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 989

Examples --

ava + stambh + ktvA → .. → avaSTabhya "taking support on, relying on"

ava + stambh + kta → .. → avaSTabdha "took support on, relied on, was near"

As in --

avaSTabhya tiSThati "he stands supporting himself on a staff or something"

avaSTabdhA senA "the nearby army"

( rule adyazvInA'vaSTabdhe uses this root to mean nearness in time )

avastabdho vRSalazH zItena "the zUdra is afflicted with cold"


anu;vi;pary;abhi;nibhyaH syandater a-prANiSu ONPANINI 83072
syand to S after anu vi pari abhi ni (optionally), if meaning nonliving beingsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 990

Exception to AdezapratyayayoH, that would ordinarily prevent the change, syand not being a Sa-root.

For instance, blood is not a living being, and here it is the doer of vi + syand "flow out". So the change is optional --

viSyandamAnena rudhireNa mUrchA "a fainting by the loss of blood"

visyandamAnena rudhireNa mUrchA "a fainting by the loss of blood"

But if the doer is a living being, only s is allowed --

anusyandate matsya udake "the fish runs along with the water"

anuSyandete matsyodake "fish and water run along"

anusyandete matsyodake "fish and water run along"


iNaH SIdhvaM;luG;liTAM dho 'GgAt ONPANINI 83078
After iN, dh of SIdhvam, luG and liT to (Dh).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 991 luG



The SIdhvam here is the sIdhvam''' that has been affected by kric, as in --

plu + sIdhvam''' hardsoft plo + sIdhvam kric plo + SIdhvam → ploSIDhvam "may y'all jump"

mR + sIdhvam''' kric mR + SIdhvam → mRSIDhvam "I hope y'all die"

dh of luG --

plu + luG dhvam → .. → aplodhvam → aploDhvam "y'all jumped"

dh of liT --

plu + liT dhvam → .. → pupluvidhve → pupluviDhe "y'all jumped"

See optional exception vibhASeTaH right below.


vibhAS'' .eTaH ONPANINI 83079
Optionally before iT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 992 iT

Exception to iNaSSIdhva above. If the dhvam got iT, the Dh change is optional. So, optionally no Dh in these --

plu + liT dhvam kRsRbhRvR plu + idhvam → .. → pupluvidhve

As + @soft liG dhvamAs + sIdhvam''' ArdhadhAtukasyeD As + isIdhvam kric AsiSIdhvam "may y'all sit"


mAtR;pitRbhyAM svasA ONPANINI 83084
s of svasR to S after mAtR and pitR in a compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 993

Only examples --

mAtRSvasR- "maternal aunt"

pitRSvasR- "paternal aunt"


gavi;yudhibhyAM sthiraH ONPANINI 83095
After gavi and yudhi, sthiraH (gets Satvam when latter, to make proper names).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 994

The only examples are the proper names --

yudh- + Gi + sthira-yudhi + sthira- → yudhi + Sthira- STunASTuH yudhiSThira-


go- + Gi + sthira- → .. → gaviSThira- (same steps)

These are aluk compounds.


na rapara;sRpi;sRji; spRzi;spRhi;savanAdInAm ONPANINI 83110
sr-starters, sRp sRj spRz spRh, and the savana -class get no Satvam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 995 kric


with sr-starters --

visraMsate "falls apart"

susrAva "flowed, ran"



with sRj, spRh --

vAco visarjanAt

nispRhaGM kathayati


ra;SAbhyAM no NaH samAna-pade ONPANINI 84001
After r R RR S, same- word n to N.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 996

This change of n into N is called Natvam ("N -ness").

Example after RR --

pitR- + AmpitR- + nAm nAmi pitRR- + nAm → pitRRNAm "of fathers, of the ancestors"

Example after r --

catur- + Am SaTcaturbhyazca catur- + nAm → caturNAm "of four"

Example after S --

puS + znA + tip → puSNAti "he prospers"

See also rule aTkupvAGnu.

kapir nRtyati "monkey dances"


aT;ku;pv;AG;num;vyavAye 'pi ONPANINI 84002
Even if aT' ku pu AG M come in between.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 997 Natvam

In simpler words --

" rule raSA works even if letters that do not move the tip of the tongue down come in between. "

The letters that do move the tip of the tongue away from curledbackish position are l cu Tu tu z s.

Example. Here we have Natvam even though u is between r and n --

runaddhi → ruNaddhi "obstructs"

And here amamA is in between --

vIkSamAnas → vIkSamANas "while looking around"

The change will not happen if any of the "stopper" letters, namely l cu Tu tu z s, comes in between. So the n of lakSmaNena stays, because N, which is a Tu, comes between S and n. The S makes the tongue move up and stay there during the m and the a, but then the N moves the tongue back down.

pari + AG + naddha-paryANaddha- "covered all around"

nah is a Nopadeza root, so rule upasargAdasamAse'piNopadezasya allows Natvam in pari + nah, crossing a word boundary. But that rule is not enough to jump two word boundaries in pari + AG + nah. So AG is listed here to allow the double jump.


pUrva-padAt saJjJAyAm a-gaH ONPANINI 84003
After former in a tag (there is Natvam in the latter), but not after g.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 998

Exception to raSA, that wants Natvam to work inside a word only.

Example. rAma- with ayana- "travel" makes the tag compound --

rAmasya + ayana- supodhA rAma + ayana akassa rAmAyana- → rAmAyaNa- "the story of rAma 's travels"

And of course proper names and nicknames are tags too --

zUrpa "winnowing basket" + nakha "nail" + Ap → zUrpaNakhA- "Basketnails"

dru-Nasa- "Treenose"

Rc + ayanam coHkuH Rk + ayanam jhalAJjazonte Rg + ayanamRg-ayanam

carman- "skin, leather" + nAsika "thong" + sucarma-nAsikaH "whip"

karman- + yogenakarma-yogena "by karma-yoga"


prAtipadikAnta;num;vibhaktiSu ca ONPANINI 84011
nounbase-final, num, vibhakti (of a latter get Natvam optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 999

Example of nounbase-final n --

mASa-vApiNau "two kidney-bean sowers"

mASa-vApinau "two kidney-bean sowers"

Example of num (from napuMsakasyajhal;acaH) --

mASa-vApANi "kidney-bean seeds"

mASa-vApAni "kidney-bean seeds"

Example of vibhakti (the sup-affix TA is a vibhakti, and here it changed into ina by TAGasi) --

mASa-vApeNa "with a kidney-bean seed"

mASa-vApena "with a kidney-bean seed"


ek%Aj uttara-pade NaH ONPANINI 84012
But compulsorily N in ekAc latter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1000

The n of an ekAc latter gets Natvam compulsorily. Exception to prAtipadikAntanum above, that would have made Natvam optional.

So, as han is an ekAc latter, we get N compulsorily in --

vRtrahan- + jas → vRtrahaNas "soldiers"

vRtrahan- + zas alloponaH vRtrahn- + zas hohante vRtraghnas "soldiers"


upasargAd a-samAse 'pi N%opadezasya ONPANINI 84014
(n of) Nopadeza root (to N) after a preverb.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1001

Exception to the samAnapade word of raSAbhyAMnoNassamAnapade, that forbids Natvam across word boundaries. The r of preverbs pari pra will change the n of the Nopadeza roots --

pra + namati → praNamati "bows down"

Counterexample with nRt, which is not a Nopadeza root --

pari + nRtyati → parinRtyati "dances around"


pad%Antasya ONPANINI 84037
( Natvam won't) replace wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1002

Exception to raSA.

So the n stays unchanged here --

pitR- + zas prathamayo pitRRs tasmAccha pitRRn "fathers, ancestors"

RSi- + zas → .. → RSIn "seers"

dviS + karmaNi liG jhadviS + yak + jhadviSya + Iran''' AdguNaH dviSyeran "they would be hated"

83034 visarga sandhi ←

chunk 50: 83005 Satvam and Natvam

→ 84040 stozz, STunA, doublings