74001 more replacements before soft ←

chunk 45: 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition

→ 82001 tripAdI

74070 initial "a" . ataAdeH
74071 After that , two-consonant root gets nuT. tasmAnnuDdvihalaH
74073 of bhU to a. bhavateraH
74076 of bhR mA hA to i . bhRJAmit
74077 of arti piparti artipipartyozca
74079 Before san, a . sanyataH
74080 u U to before pu yaN j followed by A a oHpuyaNjyapare
74081 of sru zru dru pru plu cyu optionally . sravatizRNotidravatipravatiplavaticyavatInAMvA
74082 ik of stammer to guNa before yaG or yaGluk guNoyaGlukoH
74083 a of an akit to long dIrghokitaH
74085 that ends in a of root that ends in m gets n. nugatonunAsikAntasya
74093 is san-like before light that is before caG, unless ak dropped. sanvallaghunicaGparenaglope
74094 Lengthen light . dIrgholaghoH
81001 Replace a whole word with two. sarvasyadve
81002 Repeat is the second one . tasyaparamAmreDitam
81004 to mean "repeated action" or "each". nityavIpsayoH
81016 Replace wordfinal... padasya
81018 The following are hangers. anudAttaMsarvamapAdAdau
81020 yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second to vAm'' nau''. yuSmadasmadoSSaSThIcaturthIdvitIyAsthayorvAnnAvau
81021 vas'' nas'' when plural . bahuvacanevasnasau
81022 Singular te'' me''. temayAvekavacanasya
81023 replace tvAm mAm with tvA'' mA''. tvAmaudvitIyAyAH


ata:: AdeH ONPANINI 74070
( Lengthen) initial "a" (of stammer of liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 887

The stammer starts with a when the root starts with a, R or RR (see urat).

as + atus liTidhA a + as + atus → A + as + atus akassa As + atusAsatus "both were"

aT + us liTidhA a + aT + us → A + aT + us akassa ATus "they wandered"

If the root has two consonants after its vowel, the next rule, tasmAn@ nuD dvi-halaH, works too.


tasmAn@ nuD dvi-halaH ONPANINI 74071
After that ( stammer), two-consonant root gets nuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 888

This will work on roots that consist of a R plus two consonants. The rule above, ata_AdeH, turns the stammer into A, and then this rule adds n in front of the root --

aJcu + Nal liTidhA a + aJca ata::AdeH A + aJca → AnaJca "he bent"

Rch + Nal puganta arch + Nal ata::AdeH A + arch + a → Anarcha "both went at, both attacked"

Rc + us puganta arc + us liTidhA a + arc + us ata::AdeH A + arc + us → Anarcus "they honored"


bhavater aH ONPANINI 74073
(Before liT, stammer) of bhU to a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 889

Only example --

bhU + liT liTidhA bhUbhU + liT hrasvaH bhubhU + liTbubhU + liT → babhU + liT

As in --

babhU + Nal bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUva "was"

babhU + atus bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUvatus "both were"

babhU + us bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUvus "were"


bhRJAm it ONPANINI 74076
( Stammer) of bhR mA hA to i (before zlu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 890

Examples with mA --

mA + laT te'''mimA + te IhalyaghoH mimIte "he measures"

anumimImahe "we deduce"

with bhR --

bibharti "carries"

with AD 03.0008 hA "leave" --

hA "go" + laT tahA + zlu + ta zlau hA + hA + ta hrasvaH ha + hA + ta kuhozcuH ja + hA + ta → ji + hA + taji + hA + te''' IhalyaghoH jihIte "sets out, leaves"

This rule does not affect AD 03.0009 hA "abandon" --

hA "quit" + laT tip → .. → jahAti "quits, discards"


arti;pipartyoz ca ONPANINI 74077
( Stammer) of arti piparti (to i before laT)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 891

Exception to urat. R usually makes an a stammer, but the R of the three roots R pRR pR makes an i stammer.

The root R "go" is called arti in the rule. Example --

R + laT tipR + zlu + tip hardsoft ar + ti zlau a + ar + ti → i + ar + ti abhyAsasyAsavarNe iyarti "reaches"

The piparti of the rule means the zluclass roots AD 03.0004 pRR and 03.0005 pR, both meaning pAlanapUraNayoH "take care, nurture, nourish, provide, fulfill"

pRR + laT tip → .. → piparti "takes care of"


sany ataH ONPANINI 74079
Before san, a (of stammer to i).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 892

In other words -- before san, everything but u U reduplicates into i. So pac reduplicates into papac before liT, but into pipac before san.

Examples with A-a-roots --

pac + san sanyaGoH pa + pac + sa → pi + pac + sa coHkuH pipaksa kric pipakSa "want to cook"

as in

pipakSa + laT tippipakSati "wants to cook"

yaj + san → .. → yiyakSa "want to sacrifice"

sthA + san → .. → ta + sthA + sa → ti sthA sa kric tiSthAsa STunA tiSThAsa "want to stay"

If the stammer has R RR, rule urat turns R into a first, and then this rule turns the a into i --

pracch + san → .. → pRcch + iSanpRpRcch + iSa urat papRcch + iSa → pipRcchiSa

Counterexample with an u root --

yudh + san → .. → yuyutsa "want to fight"


oH pu;yaN;jy a-pare ONPANINI 74080
u U (of stammer of san) to (i) before pu yaN j followed by A ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 893

Exception to the previous rule, that makes u U reduplicate into u. This exception affects pu-starting roots like pU bhU, yaN-starters like yU lU rU, and the rare root jU.

Usually these roots reduplicate with u, but when the first letter of the root is before A a, namely, when the u U of the root became av or Av, then this exception says that it reduplicates with i.

Example with a pu root that got guNa replacement and ecoya --

pU + san + laT tapU + san + te''' ArdhadhAtukasyeD pU + iSan + te hardsoft po + iSate ecoya pav + iSate sanyaGoH pupav + iSate → pipaviSate "wants to clean"

Example with a pu root that got vRddhi replacement and ecoya --

bhU + Nic + san + laT tip acoJNiti bhau + Nic + san + ti ecoya bhAvi + san + ti sanyaGo bubhAvi + san + ti ArdhadhAtukasyeD bubhAvi + iSan + ti ecoya bubhAvayiSati → bibhAvayiSati "wants to make it grow"

Examples with yaN plus a A --






sravati-zRNoti-dravati-pravati-plavati-cyavatInAM vA ONPANINI 74081
(u U of stammer) of sru zru dru pru plu cyu (plus san to i) optionally (when their yaN is before A a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 894

The previous exception is optional before sru zru /dru pru plu cyu.

Example. When the previous exception works, zru + Nic + san + laT tip reduplicates with i --

zizrAvayiSati "wants to make (him) listen"

But we may also make the exception not work, and we get u --

zuzrAvayiSati "wants to make (him) listen"


guNo yaG;lukoH ONPANINI 74082
ik of stammer to guNa before yaG or yaGlukmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 895

Exception to hrasvaH.

Examples with yaG --

ci + yaG sanyaGoH ciciya → ceciya zrUyatAm cecIya "keep piling up, hoard"

lU + yaG → .. → lolUya "harvest lots"

lup + yaG → .. → lolupya "cut badly"

Examples with yaGluk --

hu + yaG + laT tip sanyaGoH juhu + yaG + tip → johu + yaG + tip yaGluk johu + tip hardsoft joho + tip yaGovA joho + Iti ecoya johavIti "keeps pouring"

kruz + yaG + laT tip → .. → cokruzIti "keeps crying"

See also dIrghokitaH below.


dIrgho 'kitaH ONPANINI 74083
a of an akit ( stammer) to long (before yaG or yaGluk)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 896

As in --

vad + yaG sanyaGoH vavad + yaG → vAvadya

See also guNo yaG;lukoH above.


nug ato 'nunAsikAntasya ONPANINI 74085
( stammer) that ends in a of ( yaG yaGluk) root that ends in m gets n(uk).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 897

Example with yaG --

kram + yaG + laT takram + ya + te'' sanyaGoH ca + /kram + ya + te → cankramya + tecankramya + zap + te atoguNe cankramyate nazcA caGMkramyate anusvA caGkramyate "he shakes"

Example with yaGluk --

ram + yaGluk + laT tip sanyaGoH raram + tip → ranram + ti yaGovA ranram + Iti nazcA raMramIti


sanval laghuni caG-pare 'n-ag-lope ONPANINI 74093
( stammer) is san-like before light that is before caG, unless ak dropped.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 898

In other words -- "the stammer made by caGi sometimes works like the stammer made by sanyaGoH ".


The root pac ordinarily reduplicates to papac, as in pac + liT = papAca "he cooked", by liTidhA

Yet, before san, rule sanyataH says that the stammer gets i, so pac + san is pipakSati "wants to cook".

Now, this rule says that when pAci is before caG, meaning "he made others cook", the stammer gets i not a, as if it the root were before san, not as if it were before liT. So we say apIpacat "he made them cook".

pac + Nic + luG tip ata::upa pAci + tippAci + cli + tippAci + caG + tippAci + caG + t''' NeraniTi pAc + caG + t NaucaGyu pac + caG + tpapac + caG + t sanyataH pipac + caG + t dIrgholaghoH pIpacat luGlaG apIpacat "he made (them) cook"


dIrgho laghoH ONPANINI 74094
Lengthen light ( stammer before light root before caG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 899

This gives to many caG the same rythm as adudruvat, namely, heavy stammer before light root. Rule NaucaGyupa makes roots kAri nAyi pAci into acikarat aninayat apipacat, with a light-light rythm. Then this rule lengthens the stammer --

nI + Nic + luG tip → .. → aninayat → anInayat "he made him carry"


sarvasya dve ONPANINI 81001
Replace a whole word with two.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 900

headline. The following rules, down to 81016 padasya, replace one word with two.


tasya param AmreDitam ONPANINI 81002
Repeat is the second one (of what is said twice).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 901

So when we say sAdhu sAdhu "good! good!", the second sAdhu is the repeat.


nitya;vIpsayoH ONPANINI 81004
(Repeat the whole word) to mean "repeated action" or "each".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 902

Example of repeated action --

pacati pacati "he's always cooking"

Example of "each" --

divase divase "every day"

More examples at (ktvA and) Namul mean repetition .

Back to sarvasya dve.


padasya ONPANINI 81016
Replace wordfinal...mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 903

headline. The following rules, down to 83054 iDAyAvA, replace only wordfinals.

Example. Rule 82007 nalopaHprA says "replace nounbase-final n with nothing". But that only applies to the nounbase-final n that is also wordfinal.


anudAttaM sarvam a-pAd'-Adau ONPANINI 81018
The following are hangers.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 904


The words described in the next rules are not allowed at the start of a verse, half-verse, or sentence.

Example. The word te "they" from jasazzI can go anywhere, but te'', which is made by temayAvekavacanasya below, cannot go first. That's why this verse must have vayanM te, not te vayam, as te'' can't go right after the middle of the verse --

te tasmai kathayAmAsur vayanM te pitarasH svakAH "they told him, we are your ancestors"


yuSmad;asmadoH SaSThI;caturthI;dvitIyA-sthayor vAn;nAvau ONPANINI 81020
(Optionally dual) yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second to vAm'' nau''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 905

The Dual yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second are these six --

yuSmad- + os → .. → yuvayos

yuSmad- + bhyAm → .. → yuvAbhyAm

yuSmad- + au → .. → yuvAm

asmad- + os → .. → Avayos

asmad- + bhyAm → .. → AvAbhyAm

asmad- + au → .. → AvAm

But if we apply this optional rule, we may replace those with --

yuvayos → vAm''

yuvAbhyAm → vAm''

yuvAm → vAm''

Avayos → nau''

AvAbhyAm → nau''

AvAm → nau''

As in --

putrau yuvAmM me kA lajjA zrUyatAGM kathayAmi vAm "you are like sons to me, why should I be ashamed? Listen, I'll tell you the whole story."

where vAm replaced fourth yuvAbhyAm. This vAm cannot replace the yuvAbhyAm made with third bhyAm or fifth bhyAm.

These vAm'' and nau'' are hangers, by anudAttaMsarva.

Important. Those six words can be replaced ONLY if they have been made with sixth fourth second os bhyAm au. If they were made with seventh third fifth first os bhyAm bhyAm au, they stay unchanged.


bahuvacane vas;nasau ONPANINI 81021
( yuSmad- asmad- to) vas'' nas'' when plural (optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 906

Because of exceptions, this only works before second, fourth, and sixth.

So, there are exactly six examples --

yuSmad- + zas → vas'' "y'all"

yuSmad- + @fourth bhyas → vas'' "to y'all"

yuSmad- + Am → vas'' "of y'all"

asmad- + zas → nas'' "us"

asmad- + @fourth bhyas → nas'' "to us"

asmad- + Am → nas'' "our"

Example sentences --

grAmo vasH svam "the village is your property"

grAmo vo dIyate "the village is given to y'all"

grAmo vaH pazyati "the village sees y'all"

These vas'' nas'' are hangers, by anudAttaMsarva.

The fifth bhyas is not affected by this rule, so "from y'all" is compulsorily yuSmat or yuSmattas (see paJcamyA::at), never vas''.


te;mayAv ekavacanasya ONPANINI 81022
Singular ( yuSmad- asmad- with Ge or Gas optionally to) te'' me''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 907

(For the other te, see te disambiguation .)

Only examples --

asmad- + Ge → .. → mahyam → me'' "to me"

yuSmad- + Ge → .. → tubhyam → te'' "to you"

asmad- + Gas → .. → mama → me'' "my"

yuSmad- + Gas → .. → tava → te'' "your"

Thanks to this rule, we can optionally replace namas tubhyam with namas te.


tvA;mau dvitIyAyAH ONPANINI 81023
(Optionally) replace tvAm mAm with tvA'' mA''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 908

For instance, this tvA might as well have been tvAm --

gaNAnAnM tvA gaNapatiM havAhamahe kaviG kavinAm upama-zravas-tamam

These tvA'' mA'' are uncommon, but you will hear them in verse, mostly metri causa.

Notice that tvA'' mA'' are hangers by anudAttaMsarvamapAdAdau, but tvAm mAm ain't.

74001 more replacements before soft ←

chunk 45: 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition

→ 82001 tripAdI