74001 more replacements before soft ←

chunk 45: 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition

→ 82001 tripAdI

74070 initial "a" . ataAdeH
74071 After that , two-consonant root gets nuT. tasmAnnuDdvihalaH
74073 of bhU to a. bhavateraH
74076 of bhR mA hA to i . bhRJAmit
74077 of arti piparti artipipartyozca
74079 Before san, a . sanyataH
74080 u U to before pu yaN j followed by A a oHpuyaNjyapare
74081 of sru zru dru pru plu cyu optionally . sravatizRNotidravatipravatiplavaticyavatInAMvA
74082 ik of stammer to guNa before yaG or yaGluk guNoyaGlukoH
74083 a of an akit to long dIrghokitaH
74085 that ends in a of root that ends in m gets n. nugatonunAsikAntasya
74093 is san-like before light that is before caG, unless ak dropped. sanvallaghunicaGparenaglope
74094 Lengthen light . dIrgholaghoH
81001 Replace a whole word with two. sarvasyadve
81002 Repeat is the second one . tasyaparamAmreDitam
81004 to mean "repeated action" or "each". nityavIpsayoH
81015 dvaMdva- means "secret", "limit", "separation", "employing as a sacrificial vessel", "manifestation". dvandvaMrahasyamaryAdAvacanavyutkramaNayajJapAtraprayogAbhivyaktiSu
81016 Replace wordfinal. padasya
81018 The following are hangers. anudAttaMsarvamapAdAdau
81020 yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second to vAm'' nau''. yuSmadasmadoSSaSThIcaturthIdvitIyAsthayorvAnnAvau
81021 vas'' nas'' when plural . bahuvacanevasnasau
81022 Singular te'' me''. temayAvekavacanasya
81023 replace tvAm mAm with tvA'' mA''. tvAmaudvitIyAyAH

(ataAdeH) (!ataA)

ata:: AdeH ONPANINI 74070
( lengthen) initial "a" (of stammer of liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 893

The stammer starts with a when the root starts with a, R or RR (see urat).

as + atus liTidhA a + as + atus → * A + as + atus akassa As + atusAsatus "both were"

aT + us liTidhA a + aT + us → * A + aT + us akassa ATus "they wandered"

If the root has two consonants after its vowel, the next rule, tasmAn@ nuD dvi-halaH, works too.

KAZIKA abhyAsasya AdeH akArasya dIrgho bhavati liTi parataH. ato guNe para-rUpa-tvasya apavAdaH. ATa, ATatuH, ATuH. AdeH iti kim? papAca. papATha.

198 letters. -- 74D.bse 5 -- popularity 5

631 (!i !u) of @stammer to (!iy !uv) before non-@similar.

860 {RR}-enders, /Rcch and !R to (/guNa before /liT).

1350 the @auxiliary /as is not replaced with /bhU

1516 /cakAra /babhUva /Asa

(tasmAnnuDdvi) (!tasmAnnuDd)

tasmAn@ nuD dvi-halaH ONPANINI 74071
After that ( stammer), two-consonant root gets nuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 894

This will work on roots that consist of a R plus two consonants. The rule above, ata_AdeH, turns the stammer into A, and then this rule adds n in front of the root --

aJcu + Nal liTidhA a + aJca ata::AdeH A + aJca → * AnaJca "he bent"

Rch + Nal puganta arch + Nal ata::AdeH A + arch + a → * Anarcha "both went at, both attacked"

Rc + us puganta arc + us liTidhA a + arc + us ata::AdeH A + arc + us → * Anarcus "they honored"

KAZIKA tasmAd ato 'bhyAsAd dIrghIbhUtAd uttarasya dvi-halo 'Ggasya nuD-Agamo bhavati. AnaGga, AnaGgatuH, AnaGguH. anaJja, AnaJjatuH, AnaJjuH. dvi-halaH iti kim? ATa, ATatuH, ATuH. RkAraikadezo repho hal-grahaNena gRhyate, tena iha api dvihalo 'Ggasya nuD-Agamo bhavati, AnRdhatuH, AnRdhuH.

I think I read Anarccha somewhere. Is that correct?

In practice, rch and rcch are different ways of spelling the sound that is always pronounced rcch. The word is always pronounced Anarccha, even when spelled Anarcha.

Why did this rule work in AnRdhus "they grew", from root Rdh? Maybe dh is counted as two consonants?

No, dh is one consonant (see fake h ). Yet, a vArttika under ai auc, the fourth zivasUtra, says that R L RR count as consonants as far as nuT augment is concerned. Therefore, before atus us, the root Rdh is affected by this rule, but ad and aT are not.

685 letters. -- 74D.bse 45 -- popularity 3

235 Roots that start with a @heavy /ic get /Am'' (before /liT), except /Rcch.

860 {RR}-enders, /Rcch and !R to (/guNa before /liT).

(bhavateraH) (/babhU)

bhavater aH ONPANINI 74073
(Before liT, stammer) of bhU to a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 895

Only example --

bhU + liT liTidhA bhUbhU + liT hrasvaH bhubhU + liTbubhU + liT → * babhU + liT

As in --

babhU + Nal bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUva "was"

babhU + atus bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUvatus "both were"

babhU + us bhuvovugluG;liToH babhUvus "were"

KAZIKA bhavater abhyAsasya akArAdezo bhavati liTi parataH. babhUva, babhUvatuH, babhUvuH. bhavateH iti kRtavikarananirdezAdiha na bhavati, anubabhUve kambalo devadattena. liTi ity eva, bubhUSati. bobhUyate.

Why do we bother to say "before liT"?

Because, before san and yaG , root bhU reduplicates normally, making bubhUSa "want to be", bobhUya "repeatedly be".

235 letters. -- 74D.bse 101 -- popularity 8

44 @Sixth in a rule can mean "replace".

203 Replace /as with !bhU (before @soft).

239 (After [/Am'']-ender,) add also an @auxiliary with the /liT.

749 /san (doesn't get /iT after) !grah, !guh, (!zri and [/uk]-enders).

1516 /cakAra /babhUva /Asa

1518 examples of reduplication before /liT

(bhRJAmit) (!bhR)

bhRJAm it ONPANINI 74076
( stammer) of bhR mA hA to i (before zlu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 896

Examples with mA --

mA + laT te'''mimA + te IhalyaghoH mimIte "he measures"

anumimImahe "we deduce"

with bhR --

bibharti "carries"

with ad 03.0008 hA "leave" --

hA "go" + laT tahA + zlu + ta zlau hA + hA + ta hrasvaH ha + hA + ta kuhozcuH ja + hA + ta → * ji + hA + taji + hA + te''' IhalyaghoH jihIte "sets out, leaves"

This rule does not affect ad 03.0009 hA "abandon" --

hA "quit" + laT tip → .. → jahAti "quits, discards"

How does the bhRJAm in the sUtra come to mean bhR mA hA?

Those mA and hA are the two roots that follow ad 03.0006 DubhRJ in the dhAtupATha.

333 letters. -- 74D.bse 159 -- popularity 2

1132 {mA(G)'} "measure"

(artipipa) (!ar)

arti;pipartyoz ca ONPANINI 74077
( stammer) of arti piparti (to i before laT)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 897

Exception to urat. R usually makes an a stammer, but the R of the three roots R pRR pR makes an i stammer.

The root R "go" is called arti in the rule. Example --

R + laT tipR + zlu + tip hardsoft ar + ti zlau a + ar + ti → * i + ar + ti abhyAsasyA iyarti "reaches"

The piparti of the rule means the zluclass roots ad 03.0004 pRR and 03.0005 pR, both meaning pAlanapUraNayoH "take care, nurture, nourish, provide, fulfill"

pRR + laT tip → .. → piparti "takes care of"

KAZIKA arti piparti ityetayoH abhyAsasya ikArAdezo bhavati zlau. iyarti bhUmam. piparti somam.

296 letters. -- 74D.bse 204 -- popularity 2

(sanyataH) (/pip)

sany ataH ONPANINI 74079
Before san, a (of stammer to i).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 898

In other words -- before san, everything but u U reduplicates into i. So pac reduplicates into papac before liT, but into pipac before san.

Examples with A-a-roots --

pac + san sanyaGoH pa + pac + sa → * pi + pac + sa coHkuH pipaksa kric pipakSa "want to cook"

as in

pipakSa + laT tippipakSati "wants to cook"

yaj + san → .. → yiyakSa "want to sacrifice"

sthA + san → .. → ta + sthA + sa → * ti sthA sa kric tiSthAsa STunA tiSThAsa "want to stay"

If the stammer has R RR, rule urat turns R into a first, and then this rule turns the a into i --

pracch + san → .. → pRcch + iSanpRpRcch + iSa urat papRcch + iSa → * pipRcchiSa

Counterexample with an u root --

yudh + san → .. → yuyutsa "want to fight"

KAZIKA sani parato 'kAr%Ant%AbhyAsasya ikAr'-Adezo bhavati. pipakSati. yiyakSati. tiSThAsati. pipAsati. sani iti kim? papAca. ataH iti kim? lulUSati. tapara-karaNaM kim? pApaciSate.

Didn't you forgot to mention uraNra and halAdizzeSaH after the kakRSa step above?

Yes, I did. Very deliberately so.

548 letters. -- 74D.bse 229 -- popularity 20

(oHpuyaNjya) (!oH)

oH pu;yaN;jy a-pare ONPANINI 74080
u U (of stammer of san) to (i) before pu yaN j followed by A ammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 899

Exception to the previous rule, that makes u U reduplicate into u. This exception affects pu-starting roots like pU bhU, yaN-starters like yU lU rU, and the rare root jU.

Usually these roots reduplicate with u, but when the first letter of the root is before A a, namely, when the u U of the root became av or Av, then this exception says that it reduplicates with i.

Example with a pu root that got guNa replacement and ecoya --

pU + san + laT tapU + san + te''' ArdhadhAtukasyeD pU + iSan + te hardsoft po + iSate ecoya pav + iSate sanyaGoH pupav + iSate → * pipaviSate "wants to clean"

Example with a pu root that got vRddhi replacement and ecoya --

bhU + Nic + san + laT tip acoJNiti bhau + Nic + san + ti ecoya bhAvi + san + ti sanyaGo bubhAvi + san + ti ArdhadhAtukasyeD bubhAvi + iSan + ti ecoya bubhAvayiSati → * bibhAvayiSati "wants to make it grow"

Examples with yaN plus a A --





KAZIKA uvarNAntAbhyAsasya pavarge yaNi jakAre ca avarNapare parataH ikArAdezo bhavati sani pratyaye parataH. pavarge apare pipaviSate. pipAvayiSati. bibhAvayiSati. yaNyapare yiyaviSati. yiyAvayiSati. rirAvayiSati. lilAvayiSati. jyapare ju iti sautro 'yaM dhAtuH. jijAvayiSati.

Why didn't san get iT after bhU, which is a seT root?

Exception sanigraha.

690 letters. -- 74D.bse 254 -- popularity 1

904 (@stammer) is [/san]-like before @light that is before /caG, unless /ak dropped.

(sravatizR) (!sr)

sravati-zRNoti-dravati-pravati-plavati-cyavatInAM vA ONPANINI 74081
(u U of stammer) of sru zru dru pru plu cyu (plus san to i) optionally (when their yaN is before A a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 900

The previous exception is optional before sru zru dru pru plu cyu.

Example. When the previous exception works, zru + Nic + san + laT tip reduplicates with i --

zizrAvayiSati "wants to make (him) listen"

But we may also make the exception not work, and we get u --

zuzrAvayiSati "wants to make (him) listen"

KAZIKA sravati zRNoti dravati pravati plavati cyavati ityeteSAm abhyAsasya oH avarnapare yaNi vA ikArAdezo bhavati sani parataH. sisrAvayiSati, susrAvayiSati. zRNoti zizrAvayiSati, zuzrAvayiSati. dravati didrAvayiSati, dudrAvayiSati. pravati piprAvayiSati, puprAvayiSati. plavati piplAvayiSati, puplAvayiSati. cyavati cicyAvayiSati, cucyAvayiSati.

232 letters. -- 74D.bse 297 -- popularity 1

904 (@stammer) is [/san]-like before @light that is before /caG, unless /ak dropped.

(guNoyaGlu) (/lol)

guNo yaG;lukoH ONPANINI 74082
ik of stammer to guNa before yaG or yaGlukmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 901

Exception to hrasvaH.

Examples with yaG --

ci + yaG sanyaGoH ciciya → * ceciya zrUyatAm cecIya "keep piling up, hoard"

lU + yaG → .. → lolUya "harvest lots"

lup + yaG → .. → lolupya "cut badly"

Examples with yaGluk --

hu + yaG + laT tip sanyaGoH juhu + yaG + tip → * johu + yaG + tip yaGluk johu + tip hardsoft joho + tip yaGovA joho + Iti ecoya johavIti "keeps pouring"

kruz + yaG + laT tip → .. → cokruzIti "keeps crying"

See also dIrghokitaH below.

Why no zap after johu and cokruz?

Because yaGluks are lukclass .

You translate "the ik of a stammer", but the rule just inherits "stammer". How do you know this affects only the ik?

The talkaround ikoguNavRddhI says that "replace stammer with guNa" must mean "replace ik of stammer with guNa".

KAZIKA yaGi yaGluki ca ig-antasya abhyAsasya guNo bhavati. cecIyate. lolUyate. yaGluki johavIti. yago vA iti iDvikalpaH. cokruzIti.

491 letters. -- 74D.bse 315 -- popularity 9

18 But not before a @soft that erased part of a @root.

226 Some roots take /yaG when despising the manner.

234 !kAs, the /sanAdyanta, and /anekAc roots get /Am'' before /liT.

329 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.

508 (@Stretch) /svap !syam /vyeJ before /yaG.

(dIrghokitaH) (!dIrghok)

dIrgho 'kitaH ONPANINI 74083
a of an akit ( stammer) to long (before yaG or yaGluk)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 902

As in --

vad + yaG sanyaGoH vavad + yaG → * vAvadya

See also guNo yaG;lukoH above.

What is an " akit stammer", exactly?

" akit stammer" means a stammer that did not get the kit augment nuk from nugato'nunAsikAntasya. So the first a of raMramyate raMramIti stays short.

195 letters. -- 74D.bse 340 -- popularity 5

1317 How to replace with /guNa or /vRddhi.

(nugatonu) (!nug)

nug ato 'nunAsikAntasya ONPANINI 74085
( stammer) that ends in a of ( yaG yaGluk) root that ends in m gets n(uk).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 903

Example with yaG --

kram + yaG + laT takram + ya + te'' sanyaGoH ca + kram + ya + te → * cankramya + tecankramya + zap + te atoguNe cankramyate nazcA caGMkramyate anusvA caGkramyate "he shakes"

Example with yaGluk --

ram + yaGluk + laT tip sanyaGoH raram + tip → * ranram + ti yaGovA ranram + Iti nazcA raMramIti

This last example did not get kartarizap because yaGluks are lukclass .

The n added to the stammer is not affected by halAdizzeSaH, because, if halAdizzeSaH were to work here, this rule would be useless. It would add an n that would be always removed.

379 letters. -- 74D.bse 368 -- popularity 1

902 !a of an /akit (@stammer) to @long (before /yaG or /yaGluk)

(sanvallaghu) (!sanv)

sanval laghuni caG-pare 'n-ag-lope ONPANINI 74093
( stammer) is san-like before light that is before caG, unless ak dropped.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 904

In other words -- "the stammer made by caGi sometimes works like the stammer made by sanyaGoH ".


The root pac ordinarily reduplicates to papac, as in pac + liT = papAca "he cooked", by liTidhA

Yet, before san, rule sanyataH says that the stammer gets i, so pac + san is pipakSati "wants to cook".

Now, this rule says that when pAci is before caG, meaning "he made others cook", the stammer gets i not a, as if it the root were before san, not as if it were before liT. So we say apIpacat "he made them cook".

KAZIKA laghuni dhAtvakSare parato yo 'bhyAsaH tasya caGpare Nau parataH sanIva kAryaM bhavati anaglope. sanyataH ityuktam, caGpare 'pi tathA. acIkarat. apIpacat. oH puyaNjyapare 7-4-80 ityuktam, caGpare 'pi tathA. apIpavat. alIlavat. ajIjavat. sravatizRNotidravatipravatiplavaticyavatInAM vA ityuktam, caGpare 'pi tathA. asisravat, asusravat. azizravat, azuzravat. adidravat, adudravat. apipravat, apupravat. apiplavat, apuplavat. acicyavat, acucyavat. lughuni iti kim? atatakSat. ararakSat. jAgarayateH ajajAgarat. atra kecid gazabdam labhumAzritya sanbadbhAvam icchanti, sarvatraiva laghorAnantaryam abhyAsena na asti iti vyavadhAne 'pi vacanaprAmANyAd bhavitavyam, tadasat. yena na avyavadhAnaM tena vyavahite 'pi vacanaprAmANyAtityekena vyavadhAnam AzrIyate, na punaranekena. yadyevam, katham acikSaNatiti? AcAryapravRttir jJApayati bhavatyevaM jAtIyakAnAm ittvam iti. yadayaM tad bAdhanArthaM samratyAdInAm atvam vidadhAti. caGpare iti kim? ahaM papaca. paragrahaNaM kim? caGi eva kevale mA bhUt, acakamata. anaglope iti kim? acakathat. dRSadamAkhyAtavAnadadRSat. vAditavantaM prayojitavAnavIvadatityatra yo 'sau Nau Nerlopo nAsAvaglopa ityAzrIyate. kiM kAraNam? caGpare iti NijAter nimittatvena AkSepAt, tato 'nyasya ako lopaH parigRhyate. mImAdInAm atra grahaNAt sanvadbhAvena abhyAsalopo na bhavati ityuktam. kiM ca sanvatiti sanAzrayaM kAryamatidizyate, na ca lopaH sanam eva apekSate, kiM tarhi, isbhAvAdyapi. tadabhAvAtamImapatityAdau abhyAsalopo na bhaviSyati.

Will this work with all roots?

No. This worked here because pac has a light vowel. With rakS + caG this rule wont work because the a is heavy, and we get ararakSat "he made (them) protect)".

Will this rule trigger rule sanyataH only?

No. It also triggers rules oHpu and sravati. See examples there.

I understand that this rule made apIpacat get i, but how come the i became I?

Details, details --

pac + Nic + luG tip ata::upa pAci + tippAci + cli + tippAci + caG + tippAci + caG + t''' NeraniTi pAc + caG + t NaucaGyu pac + caG + tpapac + caG + t sanyataH pipac + caG + t dIrgholaghoH pIpacat luGlaG apIpacat "he made (them) cook"

Is the word "caGpare" in this rule really necessary? Without it, the rule would still work.

It would still work on the above examples. Yet, without that word, this rule would also work on the papaca "I cooked" made by Naluttamo.

Why do we say "unless an ak dropped"?

This prevents this rule from working on acakathat, where the root katha lost its final a.

1077 letters. -- 74D.bse 383 -- popularity 7

110 Down to !!kaDArA, just ONE @term.

858 (Optionally @nexttolast) !R !RR to !R (before /Nic plus /caG).

886 And delete the @stammer.

891 !R !RR !L (of @stammer) to !a.

(dIrgholaghoH) (!dIrghol)

dIrgho laghoH ONPANINI 74094
lengthen light ( stammer before light root before caG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 905

This gives to many caG the same rythm as adudruvat, namely, heavy stammer before light root. Rule NaucaGyupa makes roots kAri nAyi pAci into acikarat aninayat apipacat, with a light-light rythm. Then this rule lengthens the stammer --

nI + Nic + luG tip → .. → aninayat → * anInayat "he made him carry"

Why do we say "lengthen light", not just "lengthen short"?

So that this won't work on abibhrajat.

Why do we say "before light", not just "before short"?

So that this won't work on atatakSat, ararakSat.

Why do we say "before caG"?

So that we still get ahamM papaca.

KAZIKA dIrghA bhavati laghoH abhyAsasya laghuni Nau caGpare anaglope. acIkarat. ajIharat. alIlavat. apIpacat. laghoH iti kim? abibhrajat. laghuni ityeva, atatakSat. ararakSat. caGi ityava, ahaM papaca. pare ityeva, acakamata. anaglope ityeva, acakathat.

427 letters. -- 74D.bse 481 -- popularity 6

504 (@Reduplicate) before /caG

858 (Optionally @nexttolast) !R !RR to !R (before /Nic plus /caG).

904 (@stammer) is [/san]-like before @light that is before /caG, unless /ak dropped.

(sarvasyadve) (!sarvas)

sarvasya dve ONPANINI 81001
Replace a whole word with two.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 906

headline. The following rules, down to 81015 dvandvaMraha, replace one word with two.

Why do we say "a whole word"? Because the rules below have nothing to do with the reduplication rules ( ekAcodve ff), that only replace a PART of a word with two.

KAZIKA sarvasya iti ca dve iti ca etadadhikRtaM veditavyam. ita uttaraM yad vakSyAmaH padasya ityataH prAk, sarvasya dve bhavataH ityevaM tad veditavyam. vakSyati nityavIpsayoriti, tatra sarvasya sthAne dve bhavataH. ke dve bhavataH? ye zabdatazca arthatazca ubhayathAntaratame. ekasya pacatizabdasya dvau pacatizabdau havataH. pacati pacati. grAmo grAmo ramaNIyaH. yadA tu dviH prayogo dvirvacanam tadA sa eva pacatizabdo dvirAvartate, tasya dve AvRttI bhavataH. sarvasya iti kim? vispaSTArtham. atha padasya ityeva kasmAn na ucyate? na evaM zakyam, iha hi na syAt prapacati prapacati iti. iha drogdhA, droDhA iti ghatvaDhatvayoH asiddhatvAdakRtayoreva tayor dvivacanaM prApnoti, tatra pazcAd vikalpe satyaniStam api syAt drogdhA droDhA, droDhA drogdhA iti. tasmAd vaktavyam etat pUrvatra asiddhIyam advirvacane iti. sarvasya ityetadeva vA kRtaM sarvakAryapratipattyarthaM draSTavyam.

188 letters. -- 81.bse 1 -- popularity 2

593 Replace @stem.

(tasyapara) (@rep)

tasya param AmreDitam ONPANINI 81002
repeat is the second one (of what is said twice).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 907

When we replace a whole word with two by any of the rules down to 81015, the second word is said to be the repeat or AmreDita.

So, when we say sAdhu sAdhu "good! good!", the second sAdhu is the repeat, and the first one is not.

Being a repeat makes rule kAnAmreDite work.

202 letters. -- 81.bse 39 -- popularity 1

(nityavIpsa) (!nityav)

nitya;vIpsayoH ONPANINI 81004
(Repeat the whole word) to mean "repeated action" or "each".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 908

Example of repeated action --

pacati pacati "he's always cooking"

Example of "each" --

divase divase "every day"

More examples at (ktvA and) Namul mean repetition .

Back to sarvasya dve.

142 letters. -- 81.bse 51 -- popularity 2

(dvandvaMraha) (!dva)

dvandvaM rahasya;maryAdA-vacana; vyutkramaNa;yajJa-pAtra-prayog%AbhivyaktiSu ONPANINI 81015
dvanMdva- means "secret", "limit", "separation", "employing as a sacrificial vessel", "manifestation".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 909

The word dvanMdva-, according to this rule, comes from dvi- + dvi-. The first i was replaced with am and the second with a, then monusvA and anusvA turned m into n.

Besides the meanings allowed by this rule, the word has other meanings, such as "couple", "pair of opposites", and " dvandva compound".

Feel free to spell dvandva or dvaMdva as you see fit. The word is spelled both ways.

KAZIKA dvandvam iti dvizabdasya dvirvacanam, pUrva padasyAmbhAvaH, attvaM ca uttarapadasya nipAtyate rahasya maryAdA-vacana vyutkramaNa yajJa-pAtra-prayoga abhivyakti ity eteSu artheSu. tatra rahasyaM dvandvazabdavAcyam, itare viSayabhUtAH. dvandvaM mantrayate. maryAdAvacane maryAdA sthItyanatikramaH. AcaturaM hIme pazavo dvandvaM mithunIyanti. mAtA putreNa mithunaM gacchati, pautreNa, tat-putreNa api iti maryAdArthaH. vyutkramaNe dvandvaM vyutkrAntAH. vyutkramaNaM bhedaH, pRtha-gava-sthAnam. dvi-varga-sambandhanena pRthagavasthitA dvanvdvaM vyutkrAntA ityucyante. yajJa-pAtra-prayoge dvandvaM nyaJci yajJa-pAtrANi prayunakti dhIraH. abhivyaktau dvandvaM nAradaparvatau. dvandvaM saGkarSaNavAsudevau. dvAvapyabhivyaktau sAhacaryeNa ityarthaH. anyatra api dvandvam ityetad dRzyate, tadarthaM yogavibhAgaH kartavyaH, dvandvaM yuddhaM vartate, dvandvAni sahate dhIraH, c%Arthe dvandvaH iti.

292 letters. -- 81.bse 74 -- popularity 1

906 Replace a whole word with two.

(padasya) (!pada)

padasya ONPANINI 81016
Replace wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 910

headline. The following rules, down to 83054 iDAyAvA, replace only wordfinal letters.

Example. Rule 82007 nalopaHprA says "replace nounbase-final n with nothing". But that rule will only work on the nounbase-final n that is also wordfinal.

183 letters. -- 81.bse 80 -- popularity 2

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

906 Replace a whole word with two.

(thefollowingarehangers) (!anudAtta)

anudAttaM sarvam a-pAd'-Adau ONPANINI 81018
The following are hangers.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 911


The words described in the next rules are not allowed at the start of a verse, half-verse, or sentence.

Example. The word te "they" from jasazzI can go anywhere, but te'', which is made by temayAvekavacanasya below, cannot go first. That's why this verse must have vayanM te, not te vayam, as te'' can't go right after the middle of the verse --

te tasmai kathayAmAsur vayanM te pitarasH svakAH "they told him, we are your ancestors"

KAZIKA anudAttam iti ca, sarvam iti ca, apAdAdau iti ca, apAdAdau iti ca etat trayam adhikRtaM veditavyam A pAdaparisamApteH. ita uttaraM yad vakSyAmaH anudAttaM sarvam apAdAdau ityevaM tad veditavyam. vakSyati Amantritasya ca 7-1-19 iti. pacasi devadatta. apAdAdau iti kim? yat te niyAnaM rajasaM mRtyo anavadharSyam. bahuvacanasya vasnasau 8-1-21. grAmo vaH svam, janapado naH svam. apAdAdau iti kim? rudro vizvezvaro devo yaSmAkaM kuladevatA. sa eva nAtho bhagavAnasmAkaM zatrumardanaH. pAdagrahaNenAtra RkpAdaH zlokapAdazca gRhyate. sarvagrahaNam sarvam anUdyamAnaM vidhIyamAnaM ca anudAttaM yathA syAtiti. tena yuSmadasmadAdezAnAm api vAkyabhedena anudAttatvaM vidhIyate. yuSmadasmadAdezAzca sarvasya subantasya padasya yathA syuH, yatra api svAdipadaM padasaMjJaM bhavati. grAmo vAM dIyate. janapado nau dIyate.

344 letters. -- 81.bse 92 -- popularity 5

155 @pause means stopping

912 (Optionally @dual) /yuSmad- /asmad- plus @sixth @fourth @second to /vAm'' /nau''.

913 (/yuSmad- /asmad- to) /vas'' /nas'' when @plural (optionally).

915 (Optionally) replace /tvAm /mAm with /tvA'' /mA''.

(/vAm'') (/vAm)

yuSmad;asmadoH SaSThI;caturthI;dvitIyA-sthayor vAn;nAvau ONPANINI 81020
(Optionally dual) yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second to vAm'' nau''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 912

The dual yuSmad- asmad- plus sixth fourth second are these six --

yuSmad- + os → .. → yuvayos

yuSmad- + bhyAm → .. → yuvAbhyAm

yuSmad- + au → .. → yuvAm

asmad- + os → .. → Avayos

asmad- + bhyAm → .. → AvAbhyAm

asmad- + au → .. → AvAm

But if we apply this optional rule, we may replace those with --

yuvayos → * vAm''

yuvAbhyAm → * vAm''

yuvAm → * vAm''

Avayos → * nau''

AvAbhyAm → * nau''

AvAm → * nau''

As in --

putrau yuvAmM me kA lajjA zrUyatAGM kathayAmi vAm "you are like sons to me, why should I be ashamed? Listen, I'll tell you the whole story."

where vAm replaced fourth yuvAbhyAm. This vAm cannot replace the yuvAbhyAm made with third bhyAm or fifth bhyAm.

These vAm'' and nau'' are hangers, by anudAttaMsarva.

Important. Those six words can be replaced ONLY if they have been made with sixth fourth second os bhyAm au. If they were made with seventh third fifth first os bhyAm bhyAm au, they stay unchanged.

664 letters. -- 81.bse 220 -- popularity 2

781 (!yuSm !asm to) !yuva !Ava when meaning two.

1067 /yuSmad- /asmad- tables.

(/vas'') (/vas'')

bahuvacane vas;nasau ONPANINI 81021
( yuSmad- asmad- to) vas'' nas'' when plural (optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 913

Because of exceptions, this only works before second, fourth, and sixth.

So, there are exactly six examples --

yuSmad- + zas → * vas'' "y'all"

yuSmad- + @fourth bhyas → * vas'' "to y'all"

yuSmad- + Am → * vas'' "of y'all"

asmad- + zas → * nas'' "us"

asmad- + @fourth bhyas → * nas'' "to us"

asmad- + Am → * nas'' "our"

Example sentences --

grAmo vasH svam "the village is your property"

grAmo vo dIyate "the village is given to y'all"

grAmo vaH pazyati "the village sees y'all"

These vas'' nas'' are hangers, by anudAttaMsarva.

The fifth bhyas is not affected by this rule, so "from y'all" is compulsorily yuSmat or yuSmattas (see paJcamyA::at), never vas''.

KAZIKA bahuvacan%AntayoH yuSmad-asmadoH SaSThI-caturthI-dvitIyA-sthayoH yathA-saGkhyam vas nas ity etAv Adezau bhavataH. grAmo vaH svam. janapado naH svam. grAmo vo dIyate. janapado no dIyate. grAmo vaH pazyati. janapado naH pazyati.

474 letters. -- 81.bse 250 -- popularity 1

1067 /yuSmad- /asmad- tables.

(temayAve) (/te'')

te;mayAv ekavacanasya ONPANINI 81022
singular ( yuSmad- asmad- with Ge or Gas optionally to) te'' me''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 914

(For the other te, see te disambiguation .)

Only examples --

asmad- + Ge → .. → mahyam → * me'' "to me"

yuSmad- + Ge → .. → tubhyam → * te'' "to you"

asmad- + Gas → .. → mama → * me'' "my"

yuSmad- + Gas → .. → tava → * te'' "your"

Thanks to this rule, we can optionally replace namas tubhyam with namas te.

Why do we say Ge Gas?

Won't work with other noun endings. So for "I see you", we say pazyAmi tvAm with tvAm, cannot use te''.

KAZIKA yuSmadasmadoH ekavacanAntayoH SaSthIcaturthIsthayoH yathAsaGkhyaM te me ityetau Adezau bhavataH. grAmaste svam. grAmo me svam. grAmaste dIyate. grAmo me dIyate. dvitIyAntasya AdezAntaravidhAna-sAmarthyAt SaSThIcaturthyoH ev' .AyaM yogaH.

282 letters. -- 81.bse 275 -- popularity 7

689 /jas to /zI (after masculine pronouns in !a).

785 (!yuSm !asm to) !tava !mama before /Gas.

903 (@stammer) that ends in !a of (/yaG /yaGluk) root that ends in !m gets {n(uk)}.

911 The following are [@hanger]s.

1067 /yuSmad- /asmad- tables.

(tvAmaudvitI) (/tvA')

tvA;mau dvitIyAyAH ONPANINI 81023
(Optionally) replace tvAm mAm with tvA'' mA''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 915

For instance, this tvA might as well have been tvAm --

gaNAnAnM tvA gaNapatiM havAhamahe kaviG kavinAm upama-zravas-tamam

These tvA'' mA'' are uncommon, but you will hear them in verse, mostly metri causa.

Notice that tvA'' mA'' are hangers by anudAttaMsarvamapAdAdau, but tvAm mAm ain't.

KAZIKA ekavacanasya iti vartate. dvitIyAyA yadekavacanaM tadantayoH yuSma-dasmadoH yathA-saGkhyam tvA mA ity etau Adezau bhavataH. grAmas tvA pazyati. grAmo mA pazyati.

233 letters. -- 81.bse 316 -- popularity 1

1067 /yuSmad- /asmad- tables.

74001 more replacements before soft ←

chunk 45: 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition

→ 82001 tripAdI