32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh ←

chunk 21: 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time

→ 33156 liG and loT

32134 Down to kvi, doers with habit, duty or skill. AkvestacchIlataddharmatatsAdhukAriSu
32135 tRn tRn
32139 ksnu after glA ji sthA bhU glAjisthazcaksnuH
32168 Add u' after san AzaMs bhikS . sanAzaMsabhikSa::uH
32177 bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu get kvip only. bhrAjabhAsadhurvidyutorjipRRjugrAvastuvaHkvip
32187 kta after JIt . JItaHktaH
33003 The gamin- class mean what will happen bhaviSyatigamyAdayaH
33010 Add tum or Nvul to an action that expresses the purpose of another action. tumunNvulaukriyAyAGkriyArthAyAm
33013 lRT . lRTzeSeca
33014 lRT to sat optionally. lRTassadvA
33015 luT . anadyataneluT
33018 to mean the action. bhAve
33088 Dvits get tri DvitaHktriH
33089 Tvits get athu. Tvitothuc
33090 naG after yaj yAc yat vicch pracch rakS . yajayAcayatavicchapraccharakSonaG
33094 ktin makes feminine action nouns. striyAGktin
33102 a'' after sanAdyanta. apratyayAt
33104 The Sit and the bhid-class get aG' . SidbhidAdibhyoG
33107 Ni-enders, As, zranth get yuc . NyAsazranthoyuc
33115 lyuT makes neuter action nouns. lyuTca
33126 Add khal to a root compounded after ISad dus su' when they mean hardly or easily. ISaddussuSukRcchrAkRcchrArtheSukhal
33128 yuc after A. Atoyuc
33131 What means near present, is optionally like present. vartamAnasAmIpyevartamAnavadvA
33139 Use lRG for future unfulfilled conditions and results. liGnimittelRGkriyAtipattau
33140 And for past ones too. bhUteca


A kves tacchIla;taddharma;tatsAdhu-kAriSu ONPANINI 32134
Down to kvi, doers with habit, duty or skill.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 312

headline. The tacchIlAdi affixes (those explained in the next rules) make words that mean the habitual doer of the root.

Habitual doers are those that are used to, or have a duty to, or are good at, doing the action of the root.

So, if you killed a few dogs accidentally, nonprofessionally, and unskilfully, no one can grammatically call you a dogkiller by using han with the tacchIlAdi affix tRn. But they may still use tRc, which is not a tacchIlAdi.

Similarly, rule glA;ji " ksnu after ji", tells us that jiSNu- means an habitual victor. An accidental victor might be jetR-, with tRc.

tRn iSNuc ksnu knu ghinuN vuJ yuc ukaJ SAkan ini Aluc ru' kmarac ghurac kurac kvarap Uka ra u' najiG Aru kru klukan varac kvip


tRn ONPANINI 32135
tRn (means habitual doer.)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 313 accent

Example. With root kR "make", any maker is kR + tRc, but only a habitual doer is kR + tRn.

These two differ only in the accent, which the former gets from citaH and the latter from JnityAdi. So someone that makes chairs professionally or as a hobby gets accent in the first vowel of kartA --

AsandAnAGM k(a)rtA saH he's a maker of chairs, he's a chairmaker

but if you jump to fame for having made just one chair, and not particularly skillfully, then the last vowel is accented --

Asandasya kart(A) saH he's the maker of the chair, he is the Chairmaker, he is Elethiomel


glA;ji;sthaz ca ksnuH ONPANINI 32139
ksnu after glA ji sthA bhUmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 314

The affix (k)snu can be added to glA ji sthA bhU to mean habitual doer --

glA + ksnuglAsnu- "often weary"

ji + ksnujisnu kric jiSnu STunA jiSNu- "victor, conqueror"

sthAsnu- "always firm"

bhUSNu- "that often becomes"

The veda has also a rare daGMkSNavaH pazavaH "animals that bite", from daMz + ksnu + jas.


san;AzaMsa;bhikSa:: uH ONPANINI 32168
Add u' after san AzaMs bhikS (to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 315

(This affix u' is not the same as the u added to uclass roots.)

After AzaMs "to desire", u' makes "desirous" --

AG + zaMs + u'AzaMsu- "desirous"

After bhikS "to beg", makes "habitual beggar" --

bhikS- + u'bhikSu- "(habitual) beggar"

After san, this u' makes adjectives that, by rule dhAtoHkarma, mean "that want to" or "that are going to" --

yudh + san + u'yuyutsa + u atolopaH yuyutsu- "(that) want(s) to fight"

han + san + u' + jasjighAMsa + u' + jas atolopaH jighAMsu + jas jasica jighAMso + jas ecoya jighAMsavas "(that) wanted to kill, that were about to kill"


bhrAja;bhAsa;dhurvi; dyut';..orji;pRR; ju;grAvastuvaH kvip ONPANINI 32177
bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu get kvip only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 316

The (k)v(ip) affix is a rootnounmaker, and means the doer by kartarikRt. For instance, adding kvip after the root bhrAj "shine" we get the nounbase bhrAj- "shiner, someone or something that shines" --

vi + bhrAj + kvip + jas → .. → vibhrAjas "those that shine all round, shining ones, gods"

The i of k(v)ip is padding. The k label prevents puganta. The p label adds tuk, and the v is real but always disappears by vera --

grAvNasH stutaH "both praise stones" → grAvNas + stu + kvip + au supodhA grAvan + stu + kvip + au nalopaHprA grAva + stu + kvip + au hrasvasyapiti grAva + stut + v + au verapRktasya grAvastutau "two stone-praisers"

The kAzikA lists examples of all eight rootnouns made by this rule, with su, au and jas added --

vibhrAT vibhrAjau vibhrAjaH " shining, splendid, luminous"

bhAH bhAsau bhAsaH "light or ray of light, lustre, brightness"

dhUH dhurau dhuraH @f "a yoke; (figuratively) burden, load"

vidyut vidyutau vidyutaH @f "lightning"

Urk Urjau UrjaH @f "strength, vigour"

pUH purau puraH @f "rampart, wall, stronghold, fortress, castle, city, town"

jUH juvau juvaH "quick"

grAvastut "stonepraiser"

Notice that ju plus kvip adds up to jU- (not ju- and not jut-).


JItaH ktaH ONPANINI 32187
kta after JIt (may mean what is happening).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 317

Here JIt (from Ji + it) means "a root that has label Ji". One such root is svap (listed as svap (Ji)svap(a) svapiti 02.0063).

Such roots, when kta is added, may mean either past time (by niSThA) --

suptasH siMhaH "the lion fell asleep"

or ongoing time (by this rule) --

suptasH siMhaH "the lion is asleep"


bhaviSyati gamy;AdayaH ONPANINI 33003
The gamin- class mean what will happenmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 318

The gamin-class are group 41 in the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha . They are made by adding some (N)in affix after a few roots. They are --

gamI . AgamI . bhAvI . prasthAyI . pratirodhI . pratiyodhI . pratibodhI . pratiyAyI . pratiyogI ..

Such affixes usually mean the doer of the root, by kartarikRt, and usually mean what is happening. For instance, an AnAyakas "bringer" (word made with Nvul affix) is someone that is now bringing, or that usually brings. However, because of this exception rule, these nine words mean what will happen after tomorrow. As in --

zvo gamI grAmam "he'll go to the village tomorrow, he plans to go to the village tomorrow"

The word bhaviSyati "to mean what will happen" of this rule trickles down to lRTassadvA.


tumun;Nvulau kriyAyAM kriyArthAyAm ONPANINI 33010
Add tum(un) or Nvul to an action that expresses the purpose of another action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 319

This rule can be roughly reworded as --

" tum(un) and (N)vu(l) mean 'to' "

Example with tumun --

AneSyAmi "I will bring" → AG + nI + lRT → A + nI + tumun hardsoft Anetum "to bring"

Example with Nvul --

AneSyAmi "I will bring" → AG + nI + lRT → A + nI + Nvul yuvoranAkau A + nI + Nakal acoJNiti Anai + aka ecoya AnAyaka- "to bring"

These words can be used to mean that the action "I bring" is the purpose of another action, as in --

nirgacchAmy jalam Anetum "I'm going out to bring water"

nirgacchAmy jalam AnAyakaH "I'm going out to bring water"

In the last example, the nounbase AnAyaka- got su added because it has to agree with its doer (rule NvultRcau says so). The Anetum gets nothing because the tumun-enders are unchanging.

This rule can be used only when the purpose action and the other action have the same doer.


lRT zeSe ca ONPANINI 33013
lRT (means it will happen).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 320 tense

The trickle (means it will happen) comes from rule bhaviSyati.

Example --

kR + lRT mipkariSyAmi "I will do"


lRTaH sad vA ONPANINI 33014
lRT to sat optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 321

Rule laTazza says that we can replace the laT of, say, karoti "is doing", with a sat affix, to make an adjective kurvat- that means "that is doing". This rule adds that we may replace the lRT of kariSyati "will do", with sat, to make an adjective kariSyat- that means "that is about to do" or "that wants to do".

Example --

ghaTaGM kariSyati means "he will make" (a pot, for instance) and is made from kR + lRT = kR + tip

replacing the tip with zatR we get kR + zatR, and that adds up to kariSyat-, a nounbase.

kariSyat- nounbase is an adjective that describes whatever is about to make anything. In these examples kariSyat- describes rAma- --

rAmo ghatam kariSyan harSati "rAma, that is about to make a pot, is very happy"

rAmaGM ghatam kariSyantamM pazyAmi "I see rAma, that is about to make a pot"

Another example --

ploSyate means "he will jump", and is made from plu + lRT = plu + ta.

Replacing ta with sat we get plu + zAnac, which adds up to ploSyamANa-, a nounbase that means "that is about to jump".

In these examples ploSyamANa- describes a monkey --

kapiH ploSyamANo harSati "a monkey that is about to jump is very happy"

kapimM ploSyamANamM pazyAmi "I see a monkey that is about to jump"

These forms where lRT became sat are found sometimes. Inria labels them with pfu, "participe futur", meaning future participle.

rAmo ghatam kariSyan "rAma is about to make a pot"

kapiH ploSyamANaH "the monkey is about to jump"


anadyatane luT ONPANINI 33015
luT (means what will happen).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 322 tense

Example. The verb kartAsmi of this verse --

arakSasam imaM lokaGM kartAsmi nizitaiz zaraiH "I shall make this world rAkSasa-less with my arrows!"

is made from --

kR + luT mipkR + tAs + mi hardsoft kartAsmi "I'll make"

and has the same meaning as kariSyAmi "I'll make", which is built from kR + lRT mip.

The word anadyatane in the rule teaches that luT cannot be used to mean that something will happen today. This restriction is often ignored, so I didn't bother to translate it.

See also luT terminations .

See also splitting the luT .


bhAve ONPANINI 33018
(Roots get ghaJ) to mean the action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 323

In other words, ading (gh)a(J) after any root we get a masculine action noun. action nouns mean "an act of ...ing" or "the action of ...ing". So this affix turns to fly into a flight, to move into a movement, to sing into a song, to jump into a jump.

Being Jit, (gh)a(J) makes ata::upa, acoJNiti, JnityAdi work. Examples --

han + ghaJ + su hohante ghan + ghaJ hanasto ghat + ghaJ ata::upa ghAtaH "a killing, a strike, an attack"

nI "lead" + ghaJ + su acoJNiti nai + a + s ecoya nAy + a + snAyaH "leading, policy, strategy"

Being ghit makes cajoHku work --

pac + ghaJ + su cajoHku pak + aJ + s ata::upa pAk + a + spAkaH "a cooking"

Action nouns can be formed by many other affixes, such as lyuT, or naG, or the a'' in yuyutsA- "desire to fight" (added to yuyutsa and all sananta) or the ti in mati- "thought, opinion" (added to root man "think").

Notice that the action nouns are not the same thing as the abstract nouns mentioned at tasya bhAvas tva-talau. In that rule, bhAva means state or nature, here the same word means action.


DvitaH ktriH ONPANINI 33088
Dvits get (k)trimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 324

The Dvit are the roots that have label Du, such as (Du)pac(aS) "cook" and (Du)kR(J) a.k.a. kR "make" . All initial Du are labels, by Adir Ji;Tu;DavaH.

These roots can get (k)tri to mean the object. Then they gat ma by (k)tri gets ma(p) .

Examples --

pac + (k)tri ktrerma pac + trima coHkuH paktrima- "that has been ripened or cooked"

kR + (k)tri ktrerma kRtrima- "artificial"

vap + ktri vacisvapi up + tri ktrerma uptrima- "sown, cultivated"

These examples imply deliberate action. So akRtrima- means natural, and anuptrima- means grown on its own, without sowing.


Tvito 'thuc ONPANINI 33089
Tvits get athu(c).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 325

The Tu' at the start of a root is a label, by AdirJiTuDavaH. One such root is (Tu)vep(R) "tremble, shiver". Such roots may get athu(c) to make an action noun --

vep + athucvepathu- @m " a trembling "


yaja;yAca;yata; viccha;praccha;rakSo naG ONPANINI 33090
naG after yaj yAc yat vicch pracch rakS (makes action nouns etc).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 326

This rule explains these six words (that would otherwise have gotten ghaJ) --

yajJaH "sacrifice"

yAcJA "solicitation, request"

yatnaH "effort"

viznaH "glowing"

praznaH "question"

rakSNaH "an act of protection"


striyAM ktin ONPANINI 33094
ktin makes feminine action nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 327

Some roots get ktin instead of ghaJ.

Examples --

man + ktin → manti anudAttopa mati- @f "opinion"

stu + ktin → stuti- @f "praise"

kR + ktin → kRti- @f "action"

vac + ktin → vacti coHkuH vakti vacisvapi ukti- "speech, statement"

zam + ktin → zamti anunAsikasyakvi zAmti monodhAtoH zAnti- @f "mental peace"


a pratyayAt ONPANINI 33102
a'' (forms feminine action nounbase) after sanAdyanta.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 328

sanAdyanta roots may get a kRt affix a'' added to mean the action.


pA is a root and means "drink".

pipAsa is a root and means "want to drink".

pipAsanti (which is pipAsa + laT) means "they want to drink".

pipASA (which is pipAsa + a'') means "a wish to drink" or "thirst"

and nadIM yAnti pipASayA means "they go to the river with a wish to drink"

which is the same thing as saying "because they are thirsty"

Grammatical details.

pipAsa is a sanAdyanta root

Because of this rule, we may add a'' after pipAsa to get pipAsa-, that means "a wish to cook" and is feminine.

Being feminine, it always gets Ap added (see ajAdyata) Ap, making pipAsA- "thirst"

Examples with other sanAdyanta roots --

yuyutsa + a'' atolopa yuyutsa ajAdya yuyutsA- "a wish to fight"

putrAn + kyac + a''putrIya + a'' atolopa putriya ajAdya putriyA- "the wish for progeny"

putrAn + kAmyac + a''putrakAmya + a'' → .. → putrakAmyA- "the wish for progeny"

lU "reap" + yaG + a''lolUya + a'' → .. → lolUyA- "a repeated reaping, a hoarding"

kaNDUya "to itch, to scratch" + a'' → .. → kaNDUyA- "an itch, a scratch"

cint + Nic + a'' NeraniTi cinta- ajAdya cintA- "act of thinking, reflexion; worry"

Even though san verbs such as pipAsanti or yuyutsante are seldom used, the a'' derivatives such as yuyutsA- "a wish to fight" and the u' derivatives such as yuyutsu- "that wants to fight" are common.


Sid;bhid-Adibhyo 'G ONPANINI 33104
The Sit and the bhid-class get aG' (to form feminine action nouns).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 329

This a(G), a.k.a. aG', is a kRt affix. Not same as aG, a cli replacer.

By ajAdy;ataSTAp, the aG'-enders always get Ap.

Example with a Sit root --

jRR + aG' @f RdRzoGiguNaH jar + a ajAdy;ataSTAp jar + a + ApjarA- "old age, growing old"

Examples with bhid-class roots --

bhid "break" + aG' → .. → bhidA- "a breaking"

krap "feel empathy" + aG'kRpakRpA- "compassion"


Ny;Asa;zrantho yuc ONPANINI 33107
Ni-enders, As, zranth get yuc (to form a feminine action noun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 330

This debars a''.

yu(c) becomes ana(c) by yuvoranAkau.

As + yucAs + anaAs + ana + ApAsanA- "a sitting"

hAraNA- "a causing to take or seize"

dhAraNA- "an act of holding, supporting, mantaining"


lyuT ca ONPANINI 33115
lyuT makes neuter action nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 331

This (l)yu(T) affix is (l)ana(T) by yuvoranAkau, and makes neuter action nouns.

has + lyuT + su yuvoranAkau has + ana + su atom hasanam "laughter"

gamL + lyuTgamana- "a going" @n

After some roots there is lyu instead of lyuT.


ISad;dus;suSu kRcchr%A-kRcchr%ArtheSu khal ONPANINI 33126
Add khal to a root compounded after ISad dus su' when they mean hardly or easily.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 332

su' ISad mean easily, dus means with difficulty. After these, the (kh)a(l) affix replaces the usual kRtya affixes. So, we get kara-, made from kR + khal, and labha-, from labh + khal, in these compounds --

sukara- "easy to do"

duSkara- "hard to do"

durlabha- "hard to get"

ISatkara- "easy to do"

as in ISatkaro tvayA kaTaH "You can make the mat easily"

Works before preverbed roots too --

durutsaha- "hard to endure"

This rule is compulsory, so we may not use the usual Nyat yat etc, that would have made sukArya-, durlabhya- and so on.

ISatkAryam "a small task"

durlAbhaH "a bad acquisition"


Ato yuc ONPANINI 33128
(Replace khal with) yuc after A.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 333

Addition to ISad;dus;suSu.

After su' dus ISad that mean hardly or easily, the A-ender roots get yuc, that is, ana(c) --

su' + pA + khal → su + pA + yuc yuvoranA su + pA + ana akassa supAna- "easily drinkable"

duSpAna- "hard to drink"

ISatpAna- "to be drunk by small sips"


vartamAna-sAmIpye vartamAnavad vA ONPANINI 33131
What means near present, is optionally like present.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 334

Example. When meaning "I just came" or "I'll leave straight away", you may use any present expression such as "I go" --

eSa AgacchAmi "look , I come" (meaning: I just came)

gacchAmi "I go" (meaning: I'm leaving)

Incidentally, the kAzikA on trhis rule has a curious example sentence. ayam Agamam, used clearly to mean "see, I just came". Which shows that the kAzikA-maker did not take seriously the anadyatane word of rule anadyatanelaG.

eSa Agato 'smi "look, I came"

gamiSyAmi "I'll go"


liG-nimitte lRG kriyA-'tipattau ONPANINI 33139
Use lRG for future unfulfilled conditions and results.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 335 tense

In other words, you may use the lRG for expressions like "if he knew he'd cry". Such a sentence may use lRG verbs both for "he knew" and for "he'd cry".

This rule is optional. And extremely so. In practice such hypotethical statements will almost always get liG, by hetuhetumator liG.

See formation of lRG for an example.

See also bhUteca below.


bhUte ca ONPANINI 33140
And for past ones too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 336

We can also use lRG to talk about what could have happened in the past but did not happen.

Example. According to the previous rule, we may use lRG tenses of "know" and "cry" to mean "if he knew he'd cry". According to this rule, the same exact sentence might mean "if he had known he'd have cried".

Such statements, too, get liG way more often than lRG.

32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh ←

chunk 21: 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time

→ 33156 liG and loT