41001 sup endings and feminine affixes ←

chunk 26: 41076 taddhita

→ 51001 more taddhita

41076 The taddhita start here. taddhitAH
41082 Optionally after first of words connected by sense. samarthAnAmprathamAdvA
41083 aN down to tenadIvyati. prAgdIvyatoN
41084 aN comes after the azvapati-class. azvapatyAdibhyazca
41085 Nya comes after pati- -enders and diti, aditi, Aditya. dityadityAdityapatyuttarapadANNyaH
41087 strI- pums- get na' sna. strIpuMsAbhyAnnaJsnaJaubhavanAt
41092 "his son". tasyApatyam
41095 After an a -ender, optionally add iJ to mean a descendant. ata::iJ
41099 phak after naDa-class. naDAdibhyaHphak
41101 after yaJ iJ . yaJiJozca
41105 Add yaJ after garga-class to mean a gotra. gargAdibhyoyaJ
41120 Dhak after a feminine. strIbhyoDhak
41151 kuru etc get ya . kurvAdibhyoNyaH
41162 Descendant from grandson on is gotra. apatyampautraprabhRtigotram
41163 But if a direct ancestor is alive, yuvan. jIvatituvaMzyeyuvA
42001 after a color to mean tinted with it. tenaraktaMrAgAt
42003 time connected with a lunar mansion. nakSatreNayuktaHkAlaH
42012 dvaipa- and vaiyAghra- have aJ. dvaipavaiyAghrAdaJ
42016 grains cooked saMskRtambhakSAH
42033 agni- gets Dhak . agnerDhak
42067 To name a place after what is in it . tadasminnastItidezetannAmni
42068 Made by him. tenanirvRttamx
42069 His residence. tasyanivAsaH
42070 What is nearby. adUrabhavazca
42071 aJ after u U. oraJx
42081 Sometimes lup means a country. janapadelup
43077 After knowledge and blood relationships, add vuJ. vidyAyonisambandhebhyovuJ
43098 vun comes after vAsudeva- and arjuna- to mean "devotee of". vAsudevArjunAbhyAMvun
43099 vuJ is used sometimes to mean "loyal to" after a family name or the name of a famous kSatriya gotrakSatriyAkhyebhyobahulaMvuJ
43139 a comes after u . oraJ
43154 aJ after living beings and the rajata-class a . prANirajatAdibhyoJ
44001 Thak down to vahati. prAgvahateSThak
44002 "gambles with", "digs with", "defeats with", "is defeated by" it. tenadIvyatikhanatijayatijitam
44003 "well made". saMskRtam
44020 tri gets ma. ktrermamnityam
44069 appointed there. tatraniyuktaH
44075 yat'' down to hitam. prAgghitAdyat
44076 "he carries it" after ratha- yuga- prAsaGga- tadvahatirathayugaprAsaGgam
44077 dhur- gets yat'' or Dha . dhuroyaDDhakau


taddhitAH ONPANINI 41076
The taddhita start here.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 403

Headline --

" The affixes described from here down to 54151 kap inclusive are taddhita affixes.

For instance, aN (described at 41083 prAgdIvyatoN), Nya (at 41085 dityadityA), and iJ (at 41095 ata::iJ) are taddhita.

The taddhita affixes are added to nouns to form nounbases. The rules explain what affixes can be added to what nouns in what senses.

Example. According to the rules ata::iJ and tasyApatyam, the taddhita affix iJ can be added after the noun dazarathasya to mean apatyanM dazarathasya "descendant of dazaratha". This means that we can build a nounbase dAzarathi-, with the same meaning, in these steps --

apatyam dazarathasya "descendant of dazaratha" ata::iJ dazarathasya + iJ supodhA dazaratha + iJ taddhiteSva dAzaratha + i yasyetica dAzarathi- "descendant of dazaratha"

Some of the affixes can be added to almost anything, such as matup "that has". Others are very restricted in their use, like naJ' and snaJ, that can be added to one word only.

Back to types of affixes .


samarthAnAM prathamAd vA ONPANINI 41082
Optionally (add taddhitas) after first of words connected by sense.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 404

This means --

" In the rules that add taddhita affixes, the first word is a placeholder for the word to which the affix is added. "


(1) Rule tasmai hitam states "( cha may mean) good for him", and the word tasya "for him" comes first.

(2) The word tasmai has Ge, which is a fourth.

(3) This means that if we have a word whith a fourth ending, such as vatsebhyas "for calves", we may add cha to that word, and the result will mean "suitable for calves". This way --

vatsebhyo hitam "suitable for calves" tasmaihitam vatsebhyas + cha supodhA vatsa + cha AyaneyI vatsa + Iyam yasyetica vatsIya- "suitable for calves"

Similarly, in rule tenara "(Add aN) after a color to mean tinted with it", the word tena "with it" comes first in the rule, therefore we can add aN after kusumbhena "with saffron" to mean "tinted with saffron". And we can do the same with any color names that carry third.

The "optionally" in the rule means that adding the affix is not compulsory -- you may still say vatsebhyo hitam.


prAg dIvyato 'N ONPANINI 41083
aN down to tenadIvyati.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 405

(See aN disambiguation .)

Headline. The following rules, down to 44002 tenadIvyati, add the affix a(N) (unless otherwise specified).


Rule tasyApatyam says just "his son".

Because of samarthAnAMprathamAdvA, that means: "add some taddhita to whoever to mean his son".

Because of prAgdIvyatoN , that means: "add aN to whoever to mean his son".

For instance, we may add aN after upagos to mean upagor apatyam "son of upagu" --

upagos + aN supodhA upagu + a taddhiteSvacA aupagu + a orguNaH aupago + a ecoya aupagava- "son of upagu"

Besides being use to mean descendants, this aN affix mostly makes adjectives that mean "belonging or related to" --

arNava- "sea" + aNArNava- "maritime"

candra- "moon" + aNcAndra- "lunar"

sUrya- "sun" + aNsaurya- "solar"

As in --

ArNavasH siMhaH "sea lion"

ArNavaz coraH "pirate"

sauryaJM jyotiH "sunlight"

sauryam upanetram "sunglasses"

sauryaGM grahaNam "solar eclipse"

The aN-enders get GI when f, by TiDDhA.


azvapaty-Adibhyaz ca ONPANINI 41084
aN comes after the azvapati-class.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 406

Exception in advance to dityadityA right below. The words listed in group 53 azvapatyAdiH of the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha get aN, instead of the usual Nya, to mean a descendant.

Example --

azvapati- + aN taddhiteSva Azvapati + a yasyetica Azvapata- "son of azvapati"


dity;adity;Aditya;patyuttarapadAN@ NyaH ONPANINI 41085
Nya comes after pati- -enders and diti, aditi, Aditya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 407

To mean his offspring.

Examples --

prajApater apatyam "descendant of prajApati" → prajApati + Nya taddhiteSva prAjApati + Nya yasyetica prAjApatya- "descendant of prajApati"

apatyanM dityAH "descendant of diti" → diti + Nya → .. → daitya- "a descendant of diti, an asura"


strI;puMsAbhyAM naJ;snaJau bhavanAt ONPANINI 41087
strI- pums- get na(J)' sna(J).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 408

In more detail --

" strI- compulsorily turns into straiNa-, and pums- into pauMsna-, in all the senses taught from 41083 prAgdIvyatoN down to 52001 dhAnyAnAmbhavane. "

Examples --

strI- + aN → strI + naJ' taddhiteSva strai- + naJ' Natvam straiNa- "group of women"

strI- + cha → strI + naJ' → .. → straiNa- "suitable for women"

pums- + cha → pums + sna(J) taddhiteSva paums- + sna saMyogAnta paum + sna monu pauMsna- "suitable for men"

This taddhita naJ' has nothing to do with the naJ from rule naJ.


tasy' .Apatyam ONPANINI 41092
(Use the affixes described after prAgdIvyatoN to mean) "his son".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 409

This rule is an instance of samarthAnAm. "His son" means "add affix after (rAma) to mean (rAma)'s son".

This allows aN, Nya, aJ and other affixes. We get aN unless otherwise specified, as in aupagavas. And aN, Nya, aJ when rules such as azvapatyAd, dityadi... say so.


ata:: iJ ONPANINI 41095
After an a -ender, optionally add iJ to mean a descendant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 410

Examples --

dazarathasya + apatyam → dazarathasya + iJ supodhA dazaratha- + iJ taddhiteSva dAzaratha- + iJ yasyetica dAzarathi- "descendant of dazaratha"

agnizarman- + iJ nastaddhite agnizarm + iJ taddhiteSva Agnizarmi- "son of agnizarman"


naD'-AdibhyaH phak ONPANINI 41099
phak (means gotra) after naDa-class.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 411

This pha(k) is Ayana(k), by AyaneyI.

naDa + phak AyaneyI naDa + Ayanak kitica nADa + AyananADAyana- "grandson of naDa"

The naDa-class is a list of gotra founders.


yaJ;iJoz ca ONPANINI 41101
( phak comes) after yaJ iJ (to mean a yuvan).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 412

The affix pha(k) is Ayana(k), by AyaneyI.

It is added to gotra names made with yaJ iJ, such as gArgya- and dAkSi- here --

garga + yaJ + phak gargAdi gArgya- + phakgArgya + phak AyaneyI gArgya + Ayanak yasyetica gArgy + Ayana Natvam gArgyAyaNa- "descendant of garga"

dakSa + iJ + phak → .. → dAkSi + phak → .. → dAkSAyaNa- "descendant of dakSa"


gargAdibhyo yaJ ONPANINI 41105
Add yaJ after garga-class to mean a gotra.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 413

Example --

garga- + yaJ taddhiteSva gArga + yaJ yasyetica gArgya- "descendant of garga"


strIbhyo Dhak ONPANINI 41120
Dhak (means a descendant) after a feminine.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 414

This Dha(k) is eya(k), by AyaneyI.

Examples --

vinatA- + Dhak AyaneyI vinatA + eyak kitica vainatA + eya yasyetica vainateya- "son of vinatA"

kuntI + Dhak → .. → kaunteya- "son of kuntI"

subhadrA + Dhak → .. → saubhadreya- "son of subhadrA"


kurv-Adibhyo NyaH ONPANINI 41151
kuru etc get (N)ya (to mean a gotra).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 415

The family founders listed in group 66 kurv-AdiH of the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha get (N)ya to mean a descendant, instead of the usual aN from tasyApatyam.

Examples --

kuror apatyam → kuru- + Nya taddhiteSva kauru + ya orguNaH kauro + ya vAntoyi kaurav + yakauravya- "descendant of kuru from the grandson on"

garga- + Nya → .. → gArgya- "descendant of garga"

mura- + Nya → .. → maurya- "descendant of mura"

You'll hear about the descendants of kuru- in the mahAbhAratam, about the descendants of garga- in the upaniSad, and about candraketu- the descendant of mura- in history and legend. Check Wikipedia on Chandragupta Maurya if u like.


apatyaM pautra-prabhRti gotram ONPANINI 41162
Descendant from grandson on is gotra.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 416


gargaH founded the dinasty.

The son of gargaH is gArgiH (affix iJ).

The son of gArgiH is gArgyaH (affix Nya).

gArgyaH is a gotra name.

When gArgyaH dies, his oldest male descendant inherits the title of gArgyaH.

See exception jIvatitu below.


jIvati tu vaMzye yuvA ONPANINI 41163
But if a direct ancestor is alive, (a descendant of the grandson is) yuvan.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 417

In more detail: the oldest grandson of gargaH is always gArgyaH ( gotra). But a descendant of the grandson will only inherit the gotra title gArgyaH after all of gargaH, gArgiH and gArgyaH die, and meanwhile he's yuvan "heir to the gotra title".

See yaJiJozca for more examples.


tena raktaM rAgAt ONPANINI 42001
(Add aN) after a color to mean tinted with it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 418

"After a color" means after a word such as kusumbhena "with saffron". From this rule down to 42012, the affixes are added to a word that has third.

kusumbhena raktam "tinted with saffron" → kusumbhena + aN supodhA kusumbha- + aN taddhiteSva kausumbha- "tinted with saffron"

As in --

kusumbhena raktaM vastramkausumbhaM vastram "cloth tinted with saffron"


nakSatreNa yuktaH kAlaH ONPANINI 42003
( aN may be used to mean) time connected with a lunar mansion.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 419

As for instance, pauSI rAtriH is the night when the moon is in the lunar mansion puSya-. Details --

puSyeNa yuktaGM kAlam → puSya + aN taddhiteSva pauSya- "that is time-related to puSya"

This pauSya- gets GI in the feminine --

pauSya- + GI yasyetica pauSyI- sUryatiSyAgastya pauSI-

So we say --

pauSI rAtriH

Wikipedia on nakshatra.


dvaipa-vaiyAghrAd aJ ONPANINI 42012
dvaipa- and vaiyAghra- have aJ.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 420

These two nounbases mean "a chariot wrapped with tiger skin" and come from dvIpa- and vyAghra-, both meaning "tiger", with aJ added.


saMskRtam bhakSAH ONPANINI 42016
( aN can be used after a seventh-ender to mean) grains cookedmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 421

So we can add aN after kumbhe "in a pot" to mean "cooked in a pot", provided that whatever is cooked is grainy --

kumbhe saMskRtA yavAH "barleygrains cooked in a pot" → kumbhe + aN + jas + yavAHyavAH kaumbhAH "pot barleygrains"


agner Dhak ONPANINI 42033
agni- gets Dhak (to mean his devotee).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 422

This debars aN.

agnir asya devatA "his deity is agni" → agni- + Dhak AyaneyI agni + eya(k) yasyetica agn + eya(k) taddhiteSvacAmAdeH Agneya- "devotee of agni"


tad asminn astIti deze tan@-nAmni ONPANINI 42067
To name a place after what is in it (add aN or other affixes).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 423

Exception to tad asy' .Asty asminn iti matup below. To name a place after what is in it, we can use aN and other taddhita affixes, but not the matvartha affixes. So udumbaravat- can't be used as a tag (a place name), even though we can say udumbaravad vanam "the forest has udumbara trees in it". But we can use audumbara- as a place name

Example --

yasmin deze udumbarAH "the country in which there are udumbara trees" → udumbarAs + aN + suaudumbaras "the audumbara country"

The affixes, such as aN, that can be used to name places in this way, are called cAturarthika affixes. They are called cAturarthika (four-sensed affixes) because they can have four meanings:

1. "there is in it", allowed by this rule

2. "completed by him", allowed by tenanirvRttamx

3. "his residence", by tasyanivAsaH

4. "that has it nearby" by adUrabhavazca.


tena nirvRttam x ONPANINI 42068
Made by him.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 424

Some kRt affixes, such as aN, may be used to name a city after whoever made it.

So the city of kauzAmbI is so called because one kuzamba- founded it.

kuzambena niRvRttA nagarI → kauzAmbI nAgarI "a city founded by kuzAmba-"

sahasreNa niRvRttA parikhA → sAhasrI parikhA "a moat made by a thousand"

There is another rule that sounds the same, tenanirvRttam.


tasya nivAsaH ONPANINI 42069
His residence.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 425

The word nivAsaH means nivasanti yasmin, "place in which they live". So some kRt affixes, such as aN, may be used to name a city after whoever live in it.

So, we may use zaiba- (from zibi + aN) to mean the country where the zibis live, as in --

zibInAm nivAso dezaH → zaibo dezaH

where --

zibayo nivasanti yasmin deze "country where the shibis live" → zibInAm + aN supodhA zibi + aN taddhiteSva zaibi + a yasyetica zaiba- "zibi country"

See also exception janapadelup, that would also allow saying zibayas to mean zaibo dezaH.


adUrabhavazca ONPANINI 42070
What is nearby.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 426

We may name a place by adding a cAturarthika affix after what is near it.

For instance, the vidizA is a river. So any place (city, region, field) that has it nearby may be named vidizA + aN --

vidizAyA:: adUrabhavam "that is not far from the vidizA" → vidiza + aN taddhiteSva vaidiza + a yasyetica vaidiza-

vaidizanM nagaram

vaidizo giriH

himavato 'dUrabhavam → himavatas + aN → .. → haimavata-

haimavatanM nagaram

haimavatI nadI


or aJ x ONPANINI 42071
aJ (comes in the cAturarthika senses) after u U.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 427

This debars aN.

araDu + aJ orguNaH araDo + aJ taddhiteSva AraDo + a ecoya AraDava- "place where the araDus live"

There is another rule that sounds the same, 43139 oraJ.


janapade lup ONPANINI 42081
Sometimes lup means a country.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 428

This rule allows us to say --

kurUn gacchAmi "I'm going to the kurus"

to mean "I'm going to the country of the kurus".

Grammarians agree that kuravas, masculine plural, is the name of the country where the kuravas live. According to other rules, the name of a country should be made by adding some taddhita affix, such as aN, after the word kurUNAm "of the kurus", and that would end up making some expressions such as kauravaM rAjyam or kauravo dezam, or kauravam for short. That's why this rule, that replaces am with lup, is necessary.


vidyA;yoni-sambandhebhyo vuJ ONPANINI 43077
After knowledge and blood relationships, add vuJ.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 429

This rule debars aN'' and cha.

Example with a teaching relationship --

upAdhyAyAd Agatam "that came from teacher" → upAdhyAyAt + vuJ yuvoranAkau upAdhyAyAt + aka(J)aupAdhyAyaka-

As in

aupAdhyAyakaJM jJAnam "knowledge derived from a teacher"

Example with a blood relationship --

pitAmaha- + akaJ taddhiteSva paitAmaha- + aka yasyetica paitAmah- + akapaitAmahaka- "grandfatherly, belonging or related to a grandfather"

See also vAsudevArjunAbhyAM vun and gotra;kSatriyAkhyebhyo bahulaM vuJ right below.


vAsudevArjunAbhyAM vun ONPANINI 43098
vun comes after vAsudeva- and arjuna- to mean "devotee of".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 430

This debars cha and aN'' and vuJ.

This affix vu(n) is aka(n), by yuvoranAkau.

The n causes accent in the first by JnityAdirni.

Only examples --

vAsudevakaH "devotee of vAsudeva"

arjunakaH "devotee of arjuna"


gotra;kSatriyAkhyebhyo bahulaM vuJ ONPANINI 43099
vuJ is used sometimes to mean "loyal to" after a family name or the name of a famous kSatriyammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 431

This debars cha and aN''.

This vu(J) is aka(J) (by yuvoranAkau).

Examples. The supporter of glucukAyani- (a family name) is glaucukAyanaka-,

glucukAyanir bhaktir asya → glucukAyani- + aka(J)glaucukAyani + akaglaucukAyanaka-

and the supporter of nakula- (famous kSatriya) is nAkulaka-.

nakulo bhaktir asya → nakula- + aka(J) taddhiteSva nAkula + aka yasyetica nAkulaka- "devotee of nakula"


or aJ ONPANINI 43139
a(J) comes after u (of an acute-starter to mean 'made of').mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 432



This debars aN.

(Rule 43140 says that acute-staters get aN. Therefore this rule only applies to words that have the accent elsewhere.)

As in --

devadAru + aJ taddhiteSva daivadAru + aJ orguNaH daivadAro + a ecoya daivadArava- "made of devadAru wood"

There is another oraJ rule -- 42071 oraJx.


prA NirajatA dibhyo 'J ONPANINI 43154
aJ after living beings and the rajata-class a(J) (can mean product or part).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 433


... how do i know that aJ enders get GI ??

likely by 41015

look for lsk 1345

So mAyUram "related to peafowl", rAjatam "silvery".


prAg vahateS Thak ONPANINI 44001
Thak down to vahati.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 434

headline. The following rules, down to 44076 tadvahati, teach the taddhita Thak (a.k.a. ika(k)). Unless of course they mention some other affix.

Example. Rule saMskRtam, with the trickle added, says "after third, seasoned". Adding the trickle, this means "add some taddhita affix after a third-ender to mean seasoned". But because of this headline, we have to understand "add Thak after third-ender to mean seasoned". Therefore we can replace maricyA saMskRtam "seasoned with pepper" with maricI + Thak, and say mAricikasH sUpaH for "peppered soup".

Some Thak examples --

AkSika- by tenadIvyati

mAricika- by saMskRtam

zaulkazAlika- by tatra


tena dIvyati khanati jayati jitam ONPANINI 44002
( Thak means who) "gambles with", "digs with", "defeats with", "is defeated by" it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 435

Therefore, we may replace akSair dIvyati "he gambles with dice" with akSair + ika(k), and that makes AkSika- "who gambles with dice, dicesharp, diceshark"

In detail --

akSair dIvyati "gambles with dice" → akSais + Thak supodhA akSa- + Thak ThasyekaH akSa- + ikak kitica AkSa + ika yasyetica AkSika- "that gambles with dice, dice-player, gambler"


saMskRtam ONPANINI 44003
( Thak after a third-ender means) "well made".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 436

The word saMskRtam means "very well prepared, very well arranged, seasoned". For instance --

maricyA saMskRtam odanam "porridge seasoned with pepper"

According to this rule, we may replace that maricyA saMskRtam with maricyA + Thak. Thak stands for ika(k), and maricyA + ika(k) adds up to mAricika-. So we may also say --

mAricikam odanam "porridge seasoned with pepper, peppered porridge"

The word maricyA "with black pepper" is marica- + GI + TA. When we add ika(k) after it, the TA gets luked off by supodhA, and the y reverts to GI by naluma --

maricyA + saMskRta-maricyA + Thak supodhA maricI + Thak ThasyekaH maricI + ika(k) kitica mAricI + ika yasyetica mAricIka-

With the same steps,

zRGgavereNa + Thak → .. → zArGgaverika- "seasoned with ginger"

dadhnA + Thak → .. → dAdhika- "seasoned with curds"


ktrer mam@ nityam ONPANINI 44020
(k)tri gets ma(p).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 437

Words formed with ktri always get ma added.

pac + ktri → pac + tri + ma coHkuH paktrima "ripened, cooked"

vap + ktri → vap + tri + ma vacisvapi uptrima "sown"

kR + ktri → kRtrima "artificial"


tatra niyuktaH ONPANINI 44069
( Thak may mean) appointed there.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 438

You may add Thak ( ika(k) ) to a word that carries seventh to mean who is appointed there. As in --

zulkazAlAyAnM niyuktaH "he is appointed in the customs house" → zulkazAlAyAm + Thak supodhA zulkazAlA- + Thak ThasyekaH zulkazAlA + ikak kitica zaulkazAlA + ika yasyetica zaulkazAlika- "(who is / that is / he is) appointed in the customs house, customs officer"


prAg @ghitAd yat ONPANINI 44075
yat'' down to hitam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 439

headline --

" The following rules, down to 51005 tasmai hitam, add ya(t). "

This yat'' is a taddhita and sounds the same as the kRtya affix yat. It can have many meanings.


tad-vahati ratha;yuga;prAsaGgam ONPANINI 44076
( yat'' means) "he carries it" after ratha- yuga- prAsaGga-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 440

vahati means "pulls", "carries", or "drives, gives a lift".

Example --

rathaM vahati "it pulls a cart" → ratha + yat'' yasyetica rathya- "cart-puller, beast of burden"


dhuro yaD;Dhakau ONPANINI 44077
dhur- gets yat'' or Dha(k) (to mean what carries it).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 441

dhuraM vahati → dhur "burden" + yat''dhurya- "beast of burden"

dhuraM vahati → dhur "burden" + Dhak AyaneyI dhur + eya(k) kitica dhaureya- "beast of burden"

41001 sup endings and feminine affixes ←

chunk 26: 41076 taddhita

→ 51001 more taddhita