41076 taddhita ←

chunk 27: 51001 more taddhita

→ vibhakti

51001 cha down to tenakrItam. prAkkrItAcchaH
51005 "suitable for it". tasmaihitam
51006 yat'' after body-part . zarIrAvayavAdyat
51009 Atman-, vizvajana-, and latter bhoga- get kha . AtmanvizvajanabhogottarapadAtkhaH
51018 ThaJ down to vati. prAgvateSThaJ
51019 Understand Thak down to 51063 tadarhati, excepting gopuccha, numerals, measures. ArhAdagopucchasaGkhyAparimANATThak
51037 Bought by it. tenakrItam
51063 'who deserves that'. tadarhati
51079 to be accomplished within that time. tenanirvRttam
51097 aN after vyuSTa-class may mean "given there or done there". vyuSTAdibhyoN
51115 vati may come after a third-ender to mean similar action. tenatulyaGkriyAcedvatiH
51119 Add tva ta to mean its state or nature. tasyabhAvastvatalau
51122 The pRthu-class get iman optionally. pRthvAdibhya::imanijvA
52001 khaJ means the building or field of grains. dhAnyAnAmbhavanekSetrekhaJ
52013 adyazvInA means inminent. adyazvInAvaSTabdhe
52042 tayap after a numeral means parts. saGkhyAyAavayavetayap
52048 numeral gets DaT when meaning the that-many-eth. tasyapUraNeDaT
52049 maT goes after n-ender , unless compounded after numeral. nAntAdasaGkhyAdermaT
52051 SaT kati katipaya catur get thuk . SaTkatikatipayacaturAnthuk
52054 dvi- gets tIya dvestIyaH
52055 tri- and stretching. tressamprasAraNaJca
52094 matup means "this has it" or "there is in this". tadasyAstyasminnitimatup
52115 ini and Tha after 'a'. ata::iniThanau
52127 arzas-class get ac' . arzaAdibhyoc


prAk krItAc chaH ONPANINI 51001
cha down to tenakrItam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 442

The affix cha is Iya, by AyaneyI.

It may be used in the senses taught by the following rules, down to 51037 tenakrItam. For instance, rule tasmaihitam allows it to mean "suitable for".

For instance, rule tasmaihitam says "suitable for it". We must add the trickle of cha there, so that rule means -- " we can add the affix cha after 'for cows' to mean 'suitable for cows' ".


tasmai hitam ONPANINI 51005
( cha may mean) "suitable for it".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 443

This cha is Iya, by AyaneyI.

So in an expression like vatsebhyo hitaH "(male person) suitable to (take care of) calves", we can replace hitas with Iya, like this --

vatsebhyo hitaH → vatsa- + cha AyaneyI vatsa + Iya + s yasyetica vatsIyas "calfboy"


zarIr%AvayavAd yat ONPANINI 51006
yat'' after body-part (means "suitable for").mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 444

Example --

kaNThAya + hitam → kaNThAya + yat'' supodhA kaNTha- + ya yasyetica kaNThya- "suitable for the neck"


Atman;vizvajana;bhogottarapadAt khaH ONPANINI 51009
Atman-, vizvajana-, and latter bhoga- get kha (to mean 'good for that').mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 445

This debars cha.

Atman- + kha AyaneyI Atman + InaAtmanIna- "suitable for oneself"

vizvajana- + khavizvajana + Ina nastaddhite vizvajanIna- "suitable for everibody, one-size-fits-all"

rAjan- + bhoga- + kha → .. → rAjabhogIna- "fit for a king to enjoy"


prAg vateS ThaJ ONPANINI 51018
ThaJ down to vati.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 446

headline. The next ninety-seven rules add the affix Tha(J), unless otherwise specified.

This ThaJ is ika(J), by ThasyekaH.

Example --

Rule tena nirvRttam below actually means tena nirvRttam thaJ.


A 'rhAd a-gopuccha-saMkhyA-parimANAT Thak ONPANINI 51019
Understand Thak down to 51063 tadarhati, excepting gopuccha, numerals, measures.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 447


The affix Thak is ika(k), bye ThasyekaH.

Example. The rule tena krItam below translates as "bought by it", but it means "add Thak to mean bought by it". Therefore, saptatikA hayA may mean "a mare bought by seventy".

Counterexample. When meaning "bought by a cow's tail", this rule does not work, so gopuccha- gets ThaJ, not Thak.

The measures meant here are units of area or volume, such as the prastha.

If you don't understand why anyone might accept a cow's tail as payment, please look here.


tena krItam ONPANINI 51037
Bought by it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 448

"Bought by it" means --

A word that has "by" may get any of the previous affixes added to mean "bought"

Example --

saptatyA means "by seventy"

therefore saptatyA + ThaJ may mean "bought by seventy"

The affix ThaJ is added this way --

saptatyA krItam "bought by seventy" → saptatyA + ThaJ supodhA saptati + thaJ Thasyeka saptati + ikaJ yasyetica sAptatika- "bought by seventy"

As in --

saptatikA hayI "a mare bought by seventy"


tad arhati ONPANINI 51063
(The affixes described since prAgvateSThaJ also mean) 'who deserves that'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 449

Example --

zvetacchatram arhati → zvetacchatra + ThaJzvaitacchatrika- "that deserves the white umbrella, fit to be king"


tena nirvRttam ONPANINI 51079
( ThaJ means) to be accomplished within that time.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 450

This Tha(J) is ika(J), by ThasyekaH. So, we optionally replace ahnA nirvRttam "to be done daily" with Ahnikam --

ahnA nirvRttam → ahnA + ThaJ supodhA ahan- + ThaJ ThasyekaH ahan + ikaJ taddhiteSva Ahan + ika alloponaH Ahn + ikaAhnika- "daily"

ardhamAsa- "halfmonth" + ThaJ ThasyekaH ardhamAsa + ikaJ taddhiteSva ArdhamAsa + ikaJ yasyetica ArdhamAsika- "fortnightly"

saMvatsara- "year" + ThaJ → .. → sAMvatsarika- "yearly"

As in AhnikaM hotram "a daily sacrifice".

The feminine of these gets GI, by TiDDhA.

There is another rule that sounds the same, tenanirvRttamx.


vyuSTAdibhyo 'N ONPANINI 51097
aN after vyuSTa-class (when they have seventh) may mean "given there or done there".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 451

Examples --

vyuSTe dIyate → vyuSTe + aN → .. → vaiyuSTam "given at daybreak"

nitye kAryam → nitye + aN → .. → naityam "to be constantly done"

The vyuSTa-class are --

vyuSTa. nitya. niSkramaNa. pravezana. tIrtha. sambhrama. AstaraNa. saGMgrAma. saGMghAta. agnipada. pIlumUla. pravAsa. upasaGMkramaNa. upavAsa. dIrgha.


tena tulyaM kriyA ced vatiH ONPANINI 51115
vati may come after a third-ender to mean similar action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 452

Expressed more simply --

'vat(i) means "like", as in "like a king".'

So, we can replace rAjJA tulyaM vartate "he behaves like a king" with rAjavad vartate --

rAjJA tulyam → rajJA + vati supodhA rAjan + vatirAjavat "like a king"

The vat(i)-enders are unchanging, and used like adverbs of manner.

rAjJA tulyasH sthUlaH "he's as fat as the king"

rAjJA tulyo gomAn "he's as rich as the king"


tasya bhAvas tva-talau ONPANINI 51119
Add tva ta(l) to mean its state or nature.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 453

Or, put more simply --

" tva tal translate into -ness, -hood, -ship "

So, to mean horsehood, horseness, state of being a horse, equine nature, we may stick tva or tal after azva-.

The tva enders are neuter --

azvasya bhAvam "equine state" → azva + tva @n + su atom azvatvam @n "horseness, equine state"

And the ta(l) enders are feminine, and always get Ap from ajAdy;ataSTAp --

azvasya bhAvam "equine state" → azva + tal + su @fazva + ta + Ap + su → .. → azvatA @f "horseness, equine state"

tva can be added to any noun, but tal only to a-enders. So for "state of being a king", rAjatvam is fine, rAjatA sux.

Incidentally, the word rAjyam too can mean "state of being a king" (besides meaning "kingdom").


pRthv-Adibhya imanij vA ONPANINI 51122
The pRthu-class get iman(ic) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 454

The affix iman(ic), also known as iman, means "-ness, -hood" (same as tva and tal). But it can only be used after certain nounbases, such as pRthu- and mahat-.

Examples --

pRthor bhAvaH → pRthu- + iman TeHx pRth + iman ra_RtohalAderlaghoH prathiman- @m "sharpness"

mahato bhAvaH → mahat + iman TeHx mahiman- @m "greatness"

The iman-enders are masculines.


dhAnyAnAM bhavane kSetre khaJ ONPANINI 52001
khaJ means the building or field of grains.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 455

khaJ is Ina(J), by AyaneyI.

Example --

yasmin mudgAs tat kSetram "field in which there are beans" → mudgAs + khaJ supodhA mudga + khaJ AyaneyI mudga + InaJ taddhiteSva maudga + Ina yasyetica maudgIna- n "beanfield"


adyazvInA'vaSTabdhe ONPANINI 52013
adyazvInA means inminent.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 456

This word is a compound of adya + zvas, often means "likely to give birth today or tomorrow", and can't be made grammatical by other rules.

The rule inherits the word vijAyate "to mean give birth" from the previous rule. Examples --

adya vA zvo vA vijAyate yA gauH → adyazvInA gauH "a cow likely to give birth today or tomorrow"

adyazvInA vaDavA "a mare likely to give birth today or tomorrow"

According to some, the word vijAyate doesn't trickle. That would make the rule translate as "adyazvIna- means inminent", and would allow us to say --

adyazvInamM maraNam "inminent death"

adyazvIno viyogaH "inminent separation"


saGkhyAyA:: avayave tayap ONPANINI 52042
tayap after a numeral means parts.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 457

Example --

paJcAvayavA yasya "what has five parts" → paJca + tayappaJcataya- "it is fivefold, they are of five kinds, it has five parts, there are five of them"

As in --

vRttayaH paJcatayyaH kliSTAkliSTAH |

"the works are of five kinds and can be painful or not"

"there are five kinds of works, and they can be painful or not"

(yogasUtra 1:5)

paJcataya- + GIp + jas yasyetica paJcatayI- + aspaJcatayyas


tasya pUraNe DaT ONPANINI 52048
numeral gets DaT when meaning the that-many-eth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 458

Simply explained: add (D)a(T) to "one two three four five" to get "first second third fourth fifth". So this DaT affix is like English "-th".

The nounbases that mean "one two three" etc are called numerals.

The nounbases that mean "first second third" etc are called ordinals.

The D label in (D)a(T) is for TeH --

Examples --

viMzati- "twenty" + DaT tiviMzaterD viMza- + DaT TeH viMz + aviMza- "twentieth"

ekadazan- + DaT → ekadaza- "eleventh"

the T label is for TiDDhA --

ekadazI- f "eleventh"

See also nAntAd, dvestI, tressa, SaTkati. This rule won't work on eka- --

prathama- "first"

The names of the cases are feminine --

prathamA dvitIyA tRtIyA caturthI paJcamI SaSThI saptamI


n%AntAd a-saGkhyA-''der maT ONPANINI 52049
maT goes after n-ender ( numeral to mean the thatmany-eth), unless compounded after numeral.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 459

Exception to the previous rule, that would have added DaT.

Example --

paJcan- + maT nalopaHprA paJca + mapaJcama- "fifth"

dazan- + maT → .. → dazama- "tenth"

But in compound numbers we still get DaT --

ekadazan + DaTekadaza- "eleventh"

The T label is for TiDDhA --



SaT;kati; katipaya;caturAM thuk ONPANINI 52051
SaT kati katipaya catur get thuk (before DaT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 460

All examples --

SaS- + DaT → SaS + th + a STunA SaSTha- "sixth"

caturtha- "fourth"

katitha- "howmanyeth?"

katipayatha- "fewth"

SaDbhAryo rAjA henriH katithaH "the king with the six wives was Henry the howmanyeth?"

aSTamaH "the eighth"


dves tIyaH ONPANINI 52054
dvi- gets tIya (when ordinal)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 461

Only example --

dvi- "two" + tIya → dvitIya- "second"


treH samprasAraNaM ca ONPANINI 52055
tri- (when ordinal gets tIya) and stretching.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 462

Only example --

tri- "three" + tIya → tRtIya- "third"


tad asy/Asty asminn iti matup ONPANINI 52094
matup means "this has it" or "there is in this".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 463

So when we add mat(up) after gAvas "cows", we get an adjective that means "that has cows" or "that has cows in it" --

gAvas + matup supodhA go + matgomat- "that has cows; in which there are cows"

garutau + matupgarutmat- "that has wings, winged"

zRGgau + matupzRGga + vatupzRGgavat- "that has horns, horned"

sarAMsi + matupsaras + vatupsarasvat- "that there are lakes in it, many-laked"

This affix matup looks like vatup about half of the time. See vatup for examples.

matup has label u, so matup-enders trigger ugidacA and atvasa --

gomat m + su atvasa gomAts ugidacA gomAnts halGyA gomAnt saMyogAnta gomAn "cattleowner"

gomat n + su svamor gomat "cattle ranch"

zata-sUryaM zatAvartaM zata-bindu zat%AkSi-mat "(an armor that) has hundred suns, hundred circles, hundred dots, hundred eyes (as decorations)"


ata:: ini;Thanau ONPANINI 52115
ini and Tha(n) (mean "that has") after 'a'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 464

This Tha(n) is ika(n), by ThasyekaH.

So, if a nounbase ends in a, it can get either vatup or in or ika to mean "it has".

Examples --

asya balam "this one has strength" → balam + ini supodhA bala + in yasyetica balin- "that has strength, strong"

daNDo yasya "the one that has a stick" → daNDa- + ini yasyetica daNDin- "that has a stick"

daNDo yasya → daNDa- + Than ThasyekaH daNda + ika(n) yasyetica daNDika- "that has a stick"

And we can still say --

daNDo yasyadaNDa- + matupdaNDa- + vatupdaNDavat- "that has a stick"

Actually, because of other vArttikas, these in ika can't be used after one-vowel nounbases or after kRt-enders. There are some exceptions to that, like kAryin- "that has things to do, busy", from kArya-.


arza::-Adibhyo 'c ONPANINI 52127
arzas-class get ac' (to mean "that has").mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 465

This a(c) affix is the taddhita ac', a matvartha (see ac disambiguation ).

So who has lice is called lousy, and who has arzAMsi is arzasa- --

arzAMsy asya vidyante → arzaMsi "piles" + ac' supodhA arzas + ac'arzasa- "piley, that has piles"

The arzas-class is an AkRtigaNa. Most of them express a defect of an organ. But some of them are used just in the sense of "having", such as --

uras- "chest" + ac'urasa- "chesty, that has a large chest" ( same as mahoraska- )

There's a list of the arza::Adi at the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha (group 185 arza::Adi).

41076 taddhita ←

chunk 27: 51001 more taddhita

→ vibhakti