64131 on wimpiness ←

chunk 36: 71009 sup replacement

→ 71027 yuSmad and asmad

71009 After a, bhis to ais. atobhisaais
71010 Crazily in the vedas. bahulaJchandasi
71011 Not after k-less idam- adas- . nedamadasorakoH
71012 TA Gasi Gas to ina At sya'. TAGasiGasAminAtsyAH
71013 Ge to ya . GeryaH
71014 to smai after pronoun. sarvanAmnassmai
71015 Gasi Gi to smAt smin. GasiGyossmAtsminau
71017 jas to zI . jasazzI
71018 au to after Ap. auGaApaH
71019 after neuter. napuMsakAcca
71020 jas zas to zi . jazzasozziH
71021 After aSTA, to au. aSTAbhyaauz
71022 After sixlike, to luk. SaDbhyoluk
71023 su and am to after neuter. svamornapuMsakAt
71024 After a, to am. atom

(atobhisa) (!atob)

ato bhisa:: ais ONPANINI 71009
After a, bhis to ais.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 682

Example --

azva- + bhis → * azva- + ais vRddhireci azvais "by horses"

See also the exceptions nedamadasorakoH and bahulaJchandasi.

Careful: chant this rule with ais, not aiH.

Will this work after A?

No. It's after a only. After Ap we get --

azvA- + bhisazvAbhis "by mares"

Why is this rule chanted with ais not aiH? I find that final s hard to say.

Because we must replace bhis with ais, not with aiH. Replacing with aiH would not work, as sasaju won't change an H, and we would not get azvairetaiH "by these horses".

KAZIKA akArAntAdaGgAduttarasya bhisaH aisityayam Adezo bhavati. vRkSaiH. plakSaiH. atijarasaiH. jarAmatikrAntaiH iti vigRhya samAse kRte hrasvatve ca bhisa aisAdezo bhavati. ekadezavikRtamananyavad bhavati iti jarazabdasya jarasAdezaH. sannipAtalakSaNo vidhiranimittaM tadvighAtasya iti paribhASA iyam anityA, kaSTAya kramaNe 31014 iti nirdezAt. ataH iti kim? agnibhiH. vAyubhiH. taparakaraNaM kim? khaTvAbhiH. mAlAbhiH. etvam bhisi paratvAc cedata ais kva bhaviSyati. kRte 'pyetve bhautapUrvyAdais tu nityas tathA sati. ataH ityadhikAro jasaH zI iti yAvat.

379 letters. -- 71.bse 539 -- popularity 9

50 But what has two or more letters, or is /zit, replaces the whole.

111 In case of contradiction, higher number works first.

537 That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following.

840 (!a to) !e before @plural !bh !s.

956 Before @plural, replace the !de of /adas- (with !mI).

1235 Meaning of /asiddha.

(bahulaJcha) (!bahulaJ)

bahulaM chandasi ONPANINI 71010
Crazily in the vedas.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 683

vedic rule. Exception to atobhisa. The vedas, like cats, do whatever they want. So sometimes there is no ais after a --

devo devebhir A gamat "the god comes with the gods"

deva- + bhis bahuvacanejhalyet deve- + bhisdevebhis "with gods"

And other times there is ais after non-a --

nadI- + bhisnadyais "with rivers"

Elsewhere than in the vedas, only devais and nadIbhis are allowed.

KAZIKA chandasi viSaye bahulamaisAdezo bhavati. ataH ityuktam, anato 'pi bhavati nadyaiH iti. ato na bhavati , devebhiH sarvebhiH proktam iti.

Ahem. Didn't you tell us that you were not going to translate any vedic rules, because you weren't interested in the vedas, and because they would just confuse us if we studied them too soon?

Correction. I shlould have said that y'all shouldn't worry about vedic rules or about accent rules. Yet you must still know that they exist, and how they work, and how they are mixed with the ordinary rules. So I translated a few. Just don't memorize them, okay? That'd be a waste of good neuron. I do this with rule ze too.

681 letters. -- 71.bse 570 -- popularity 2

(nedamada) (!ned)

n' .edam;adasor akoH ONPANINI 71011
Not after k-less idam- adas- .mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 684

there is no atobhisa::ais in ebhis "with these" and amIbhis "with those". --

idam- "this" + bhis → .. → ebhis "by these"

adas- "that" + bhis → .. → amIbhis "by those"


idam- "this" + bhis tyadAdInAmaH ida + bhis anApyakaH an + a + bhis halilopaH a + a + bhis atoguNe a + bhis bahuvacanejhalyet e + bhisebhis "by these"

Why do we say "k-less"?

These only have k when they get akac. If we are planning to add akac afterwards, this exception won't work, so we get imais and adais by the usual rules, and after that we add the akac --



Wait. A rule that predicts the future?

Yessir. Good thing pANini doesn't do this often.

408 letters. -- 71.bse 580 -- popularity 4

956 Before @plural, replace the !de of /adas- (with !mI).

(TAGasiGa) (/sya')

TA;Gasi;GasAm in'-At-syAH ONPANINI 71012
(After a,) TA Gasi Gas to ina At sya'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 685

Example of TA to ina --

vRkSa- + TA → * vRkSa + ina AdguNaH vRkSena Natvam vRkSeNa "with a tree"

Gasi to At --

vRkSa + Gasi → * vRkSa + At akassa vRkSAt "from a tree"

Gas to sya' --

vRkSa + Gas → * vRkSa + sya'vRkSasya "of a tree, a tree has"

KAZIKA akArAntAd aGgAd uttareSAm TA-Gasi-GasAm ina At sya ityete AdezAH bhavanti yathA-saGkhyam. TA ity etasya in'-Adezo bhavati. vRkSeNa. plakSeNa. Gasi ityetasya At. vRkSAt. plakSAt. Gasityetasya syAdezo bhavati. vRkSasya. plakSasya. ataH iti kim? sakhyA. patyA. atijarasina, atijarasAt iti kecid icchanti. yathA tu bhASye tathA na etad iSyate iti lakSyate.

142 letters. -- 71.bse 610 -- popularity 22

(GeryaH) (!Gery)

Ger yaH ONPANINI 71013
Ge to ya (after a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 686

a plus Ge makes aya by this rule, then Aya by supica --

vRkSa- + Ge → * vRkSa- + ya supica vRkSAya "to a tree"

KAZIKA Ger iti caturthy-ekavacanasya grahaNam. akArAntAd aGgAd uttarasya Ge ity etasya yaH ityayam Adezo bhavati. vRkSAya. plakSAya. ataH iti kim? sakhye. patye. sannipAtalakSaNo vidhiranimittaM tadvighAtasya iti paribhASeyam anityA, tena dIrgho bhavati.

What's that Ges word in the sUtra?

It means "replace Ge", by SaSThIsthAneyogA. It was made from Ge + Gas, losing the a by GasiGasozca (the same rule that makes go- + Gas into gos).

If Ges means "replace Ge", how come "replace Ge" is just Ge in rule Geprathamayoram, without the s?

I wish I knew.

287 letters. -- 71.bse 632 -- popularity 5

135 With !zlAgh !hnu !sthA !zap, the person one wants to affect (is the @aim).

177 @fourth means @aim.

(Getosmaiafteraenderpro) (!sarvanAmnass)

sarvanAmnaH smai ONPANINI 71014
( Ge) to smai after (a -ender) pronoun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 687 pronoun

Example --

tad- + Ge tyadAdInAmaH ta- + Geta- + smaitasmai "to that one, to him, to it"

As in --

udakaJM cakratus tasmai gRdhra-rAjAya tAv ubhau "they offered water to that king of vultures"

See also Gasi;GyoH smAt;sminau right below.

KAZIKA akArAntAt sarvanAmnaH uttarasya GeH smai ity ayam Adezo bhavati. sarvasmai. vizvasmai. yasmai. tasmai. kasmai. ataH ityeva, bhavate. atho 'tra asmai ity anvAdeze 'zAdeze ekAdezaH prApnoti? tatra antaraGgatvAd ekAdezAt pUrvaM smaibhAvaH kriyate pazcAd ekAdezaH iti.

161 letters. -- 71.bse 668 -- popularity 1

(GasiGyossmA) (/smA)

Gasi;GyoH smAt;sminau ONPANINI 71015
(After a -ender pronoun,) Gasi Gi to smAt smin.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 688 pronoun

Examples of Gasi to smAt --

tad- + Gasi tyadAdInAmaH ta + Gasi → * tasmAt "from that, because of that, therefore"

sarva- + Gasi → .. → sarvasmAt "from every"

Examples of Gi to smin --

tad- + Gi → .. → tasmin "in that, in that place, there"

sarva- + Gi → .. → sarvasmin "in every"

kim- + Gi tyadAdInAmaH ka + Gi → * kasmin "where, in which?"

As in --

tasmin vane vyAghrAH "there are tigers in that forest"

tasmin vyAghraH "the tiger is there"

Instead of kasmin, we may also say kva (see kimot and kvAti).

KAZIKA Gasi Gi ity etayor akArAntAt sarvanAmnaH uttarayoH smAt smin ity etAv Adezau bhavataH. Gasi ity etasya smAt. sarvasmAt. vizvasmAt. yasmAt. tasmAt. karmAt. Gi ity etasya smin. sarvasmin. vizvasmin. yasmin. tasmin. anyasmin. ataH ity eva, bhavataH. bhavati. sarvanAmnaH ity eva, vRkSAt. vRkSe.

320 letters. -- 71.bse 681 -- popularity 6

471 (After the /kiMsarva, optionally) @seventh to /tral.

473 {astAt(i)} comes after @direction with @seventh @fifth @first that mean direction, place or time, (without change of sense).

687 (/Ge) to !smai after (!a -ender) @pronoun.

1045 /GasibhyAmbhyas are the @fifth case affixes, /Gasi /bhyAm /bhyas

(jasazzI) (/te'''')

jasaH zI ONPANINI 71017
jas to zI (after masculine pronouns in a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 689 pronoun

In other words, a of a pronoun plus jas makes e.

The z label of (z)I ensures that it can replace the whole of jas, see anekAlzit.

Examples --

sarva- m + jas → * sarva- + zI AdguNaH sarve "all"

tad- m + jas tyadAdInAmaH ta + jas → * ta + zI AdguNaH te'''' "those"

There are other te words, see te disambiguation .

This te'''' is not a hanger, so it can start a sentence (unlike te'').

248 letters. -- 71.bse 712 -- popularity 7

34 The [@pronoun]s are /sarva- and others.

35 Unless inside a @longhorn.

911 The following are [@hanger]s.

956 Before @plural, replace the !de of /adas- (with !mI).

1188 /kim- "what, who"

(auGaApaH) (!WG)

auGa:: ApaH ONPANINI 71018
au to ( zI) after Ap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 690

Same thing as saying that Ap and au add up to e.

Example --

azva- f + au ajAdyataSTAp azva + Ap + au akassa azvA + au → * azvA + I AdguNaH azve "two mares"

KAZIKA AbantAdaGgAduttarasya auGaH zI ityayam Adezo bhavati. khaTve tiSThataH. khaTve pazya. bahurAje. karISagandhye. GakAraH sAmAnyagrahaNArthaH, auTo 'pi grahaNaM yathA syAt. aukAro 'yaM zIvidhau GidgRhIto GiccAsmAkaM na asti ko 'yaM prakAraH. sAmAnyArthas tasya ca asaJjane 'smin GitkAryaM te zyAM prasaktam sa doSaH. Gittve vidyAd varNanirdezamAtraM varNe yat syAt tac ca vidyAt tadAdau. varNazcAyam tena Gittve 'pyadoSo nirdezo 'yaM pUrvasUtreNa vA syAt.

What does that auGas in the rule mean?

"Replace TA", by SaSThIsthA. auG is a name of TA used by earlier grammarians.

Why didn't pAnini use auG + Gas when TA + Gas would have worked?

I'm not sure. For some reason pANini seems reluctant to add Gas or other sup after terms that end in A. Rule atoyeyaH should logically have yA- + Gas + iyas inside, but instead there is just yeyaH, from yA + iyas.

381 letters. -- 71.bse 720 -- popularity 3

550 (!!prathamayo) does not (work on) !A !a plus /au /zI.

(napuMsakA) (/zI)

napuMsakAc ca ONPANINI 71019
( au to zI) after neuter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 691

The z label of (z)I is useless here (but useful in jasazzI).

Examples --

ziras n + au → * ziras + (z)IzirasI "two heads"

madhu- n + au → * madhu + I ikocivibhaktau madhun + ImadhunI "two kinds of honey"

If the neuter ends in a, we will always have AdguNaH --

phala n + au → * phala + I AdguNaH phale "two results"

This zI affix appears --

after all neuters, by this rule

after masculine pronouns, by jasazzI

after Ap, by auGa::ApaH

Don't confuse this zI affix with the zi affix, that has short i and appears after neuter plurals only.

KAZIKA napuMsakAd aGgAd uttarasya auGaH zI ity ayam Adezo bhavati. kuNDe tiSThataH kuNDe pazya. yasyeticeti lopaH prAptaH. zyAM pratiSedho vaktavya iti na bhavati. dadhinI. madhunI. trapuNI. jatunI.

I have a doubt about phala + zI. Doesn't rule yasyetica say that we should erase a before all weak I affixes, including zI?

Well. The rule actually does say that. But in fact pANini intended that rule to work only before GI, not before zI.

553 letters. -- 71.bse 746 -- popularity 26

(jazzasozziH) (/zi)

jaH;zasoH ziH ONPANINI 71020
jas zas to zi (after neuter).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 692

jas and zas must always be replaced with zi after a neuter.

The (z)i affix is made by this rule only. It has z label to make anekAlzit work. Do not confuse it with zI, thats has long I.

Examples --

bahupur- n + jas → * bahupur- n + zibahupuri "full of cities"

nAman- + zas → * nAman- n + zi rAjAnam nAmAni "names"

If the neuter nounbase does not end in n r, rule napuMsakasyajhalacaH will usually work --

manas- + jas → * manas- n + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH manans- n + zi sAnta manAnsi nazcApa manAMsi "minds"

phala + jas → * phala + zi napuMsakasyajhalacaH phalan + zi rAjAnam phalAni

See also summary of prathamau after neuter .

KAZIKA napuMsakAdaGgAduttarayoH jazzasoH zi ity ayam Adezo bhavati. kuNDAni tiSthanti. kuNDAni pazya. dadhIni. madhUni. trapUNi. jatUni. jasA sahacaritasya zaso grahaNAd iha na bhavati, kuNDazo dadAti, vanzaH pravizanti iti.

398 letters. -- 71.bse 778 -- popularity 29

(aSTAbhyaauz) (!aSTA)

aSTAbhya:: auz ONPANINI 71021
After aSTA, ( jas zas) to au(z).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 693

The aSTA mentioned in this rule is the replacement of aSTan "eight" made by optional rule aSTana::A.

Example --

aSTan- (any gender) + jas aSTana::A aSTA- + jas → * aSTA- + auz vRddhireci aSTau "eight"

If we didn't choose to make aSTana::A work, this rule does not work --

aSTan- (any gender) + jas SaDbhyoluk aSTan- nalopaHprA aSTa "eight"

So, this rule may be reworded as "aSTa plus jas or zas makes aSTa or aSTau". This works in all genders. Example of neuter aSTau --

ekatazH-zyAma-karNAnAM zatAny aSTau dadasva me | hayAnAJM candra-zubhrANAGM gaccha gAlava mAciram || "Give me eight hundreds of horses, white like the moon, with one black ear each, gAlava. Leave. Now."

KAZIKA azTAbhyaH iti kRtAkAro 'STanzabdo gRhyate. tasmAduttarayoH jazzasoH auzityAdezo bhavati. aSTau tiSThanti. aSTau pazya. kRtAkArasya grahaNaM kim? aSTa tiSThanti. aSTa pazya. etadeva kRtAtvasya grahaNaM jJApakam aSTana A vibhaktAv ity Atva-vikalpasya. SaDbhyo lug ity asya ayam apavAdaH, nAprApte tasminn idam Arabhyate. yas tu supo dhAtuprAtipadikayor iti, tasmin prApte ca aprApte ca iti sa na bAdhyate, aSTaputraH, aSTabhAryaH iti. tadantagrahaNam atra iSyate. paramASTau. uttaramASTau. priyASTanaH ityatrAtvasya abhAvAdauztvaM na bhavati.

464 letters. -- 71.bse 800 -- popularity 1

(SaDbhyoluk) (!SaDb)

SaDbhyo luk ONPANINI 71022
After sixlike, ( jas zas) to luk.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 694

Example --

paJcan- + jas → * paJcan nalopaHprA paJca "five"

As in

azvAH paJca "five horses"

KAZIKA SaTsaMjJakebhya uttarayoH jazzasor luk bhavati. SaT tiSThanti. SaT pazya. paJca. sapta. nava. daza. SaTpradhAnAt tadantAdapi bhavati. uttamaSat. yatra tu upasarjanaM SaT tato na bhavati, priyaSaSaH, priyapaJcAnaH iti.

55 letters. -- 71.bse 854 -- popularity 8

32 /Dati -enders (are @sixlike).

394 /svasrAdi and @sixlike don't (get any [@feminine affix]).

663 @Tail to (/lopa before /Dit).

693 After !aSTA, (/jas /zas) to {au(z)}.

774 Optionally !aSTan- to !A before /vibhakti.

1183 /SaS- "six"

1380 different kinds of nothing

(svamornapu) (!svam)

sv;amor napuMsakAt ONPANINI 71023
su and am to ( luk) after neuter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 695

Examples --

madhu- n + su OR am → * madhu "honey"

nAman- n + su OR am → * nAman nalopaHprA nAma "name"

ziras- n + su OR am → * ziras "head"

mahat- n + su OR am → * mahat "big"

As in --

lakSmaNasya ziro mahat "lakSmaNa's head is big"

See exception atom below.

KAZIKA su am ityetayoH napuMsakAduttarayoH lug bhavati. dadhi tiSThati. dadhi pazya. madhu tiSThati. madhu pazya. trapu. jatu. tadbrAhmaNakulam ityatra lukA tyadAdyatvaM 7-2-102 bAdhyate, pUrvavipratiSedhena nityatvAd vA. luko hi nimittam 'ato 'm' 7-1-24 iti lakSaNAntareNa vihanyate, na punastyadAdyatvena eva. 'yasya ca lakSaNAntareNa nimittaM vihanyate na tadanityaM bhavati' (pari. 47).

160 letters. -- 71.bse 860 -- popularity 32

(atom) (!atom)

ato 'm ONPANINI 71024
After ( neuter) a, ( su and am) to am.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 696

Exception to svamorna. Examples --

phala- n + su → * phala- + am amipUrvaH phalam "result, fruit"

phala- n + am → * phala- + am amipUrvaH phalam "result, fruit"

KAZIKA akArAntAn napuMsakAd uttarayoH svamor am ity ayam Adezo bhavati. kuNDaM tiSThati. kuNDaM pazya. pITham. makAraH kasmAn@ na kriyate? dhIrghatvaM prApnoti.

Wait. In your last example, you are replacing am with am. Isn't that the same thing as not doing anything at all?

It is, yes.

But that feels wrong. You might have translated the rule as "after neuter a, su to am ", instead.

That wouldn't have worked. Such a wording would have made svamorna work on phala + am.

Oh. Then, you might have translated the rule as "after neuter a, su to am, and am stays".

Indeed I might have. You too may translate it that way if you want.

444 letters. -- 71.bse 883 -- popularity 12

64131 on wimpiness ←

chunk 36: 71009 sup replacement

→ 71027 yuSmad and asmad