34099 Git tenses ←

chunk 25: 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

→ 41076 taddhita

41001 Add sup after GI, Ap, and nounbase. GyApprAtipadikAt
41002 sup are svaujas amauTchaS TAbhyAmbhis GebhyAmbhyas GasibhyAmbhyas GasosAm Gyossup. svaujasamauTchaSTAbhyAmbhisGebhyAmbhyasGasibhyAmbhyasGasosAmGyossup
41003 When meaning a woman... striyAm
41004 a-enders, and aja-class, get A . ajAdyataSTAp
41005 R n get GIp . RnnebhyoGIp
41006 ugit . ugitazca
41010 svasrAdi and sixlike don't . naSaTsvasrAdibhyaH
41015 Tit Dha aN aJ dvayasac daghnac mAtrac tayap Thak ThaJ kaJ kvarap . TiDDhANaJdvayasajdaghnaJmAtractayapThakThaJkaJkvarapaH
41021 dvigu gets . dvigoH
41041 Sit and gaura-class . SidgaurAdibhyazca
41054 GIS after a latter that means one's own limb, is subordinate, and ends in non-cluster plus a. svAGgAccopasarjanAdasaMyogopadhAt
41055 nAsika udara oSTha jaGghA danta karNa zRGga aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha . nAsikodarauSThajaGghAdantakarNazRGgAcca
41056 kroDA-class and many-voweled don't nakroDAdibahvacaH
41057 But not after saha- naJ vidyamAna. sahanaJvidyamAnapUrvAcca
41063 Race . Unless it ends in ya or includes only women. jAterastrIviSayAdayopadhAt
41074 JyaG and SyaG get cAp. yaGazcAp


Gy;Ap;prAtipadikAt ONPANINI 41001
Add sup after GI, Ap, and nounbase.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 387

LISTENTO this sutra at "The Complete Sutrapath"

All nounbases have to get some sup (other rules decide which one they get). Examples --

azva- m ( meaning a horse ) → azva- m + su → .. → azvas "horse"

kukkuTa- ( meaning many roosters ) → kukkuTa- m + jas → .. → kukkuTAs "roosters"

If there is a feminine affix after the nounbase, the sup goes after the affix --

kukkuTa- ( meaning many hens ) → kukkuTa- f + jas jAtera kukkuTa + GI + jas yasyetica kukkuT + GI + jas ikoyaNaci kukkuTyas "hens"

azva- f ( meaning a mare ) → azva- + suazva- + Ap + su yasyetica azvA- + su halGyA azvA "mare"


sv;au;jas; am;auT;chaS; TA;bhyAm;bhis; Ge;bhyAm;bhyas; Gasi;bhyAm;bhyas; Gas;os;Am; Gy;os;sup ONPANINI 41002
sup are svaujas amauTchaS TAbhyAmbhis GebhyAmbhyas GasibhyAmbhyas GasosAm Gyossup.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 388

These twenty-one affixes are called sup affixes because they go from su to p (see Adirantyena). Or " noun endings", because what has one of these at the end is a noun (rule suptiGantampadam says so).

The affixes are divided into seven groups of three affixes each --

su au jas first endings -- svaujas

am au zas second endings -- amauTchaS

TA bhyAm bhis third endings -- TAbhyAmbhis

Ge bhyAm bhyas fourth endings -- GebhyAmbhyas

Gasi bhyAm bhyas fifth endings -- GasibhyAmbhyas

Gas os Am sixth endings -- GasosAm

Gi os sup' seventh endings -- Gyossup

See also tAnyeka.

See also western names of the cases .

See also table of sup affixes .

Back to types of affixes .


striyAm ONPANINI 41003
When meaning a woman...mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 389

headline. The following rules only work after nounbases that mean a woman. That is, they only work after feminine nounbases.

Those are rules that add the feminine affixes Ap, GI, UG and ti to nounbases. Not all nounbases get a feminine affix, but most do.

Examples --

The nounbase vidyut- "lightning" always means a woman, but gets no feminine affix because no rule gives it any. Same with prakRti- "matter" and mati- "opinion".

siMha- "lion" means a woman when it is used to refer to a lioness, and in that case it gets GI from rule jAtera below. And turns into siMhI-.

azva- "horse" means a woman when it refers to a mare, but it gets Ap from ajAdyataSTAp, an exception to jAtera. And turns into azvA-.

All zAnac enders and all kta enders get Ap by ajAdyataSTAp. So the feminine of supta- "(he) sleeps" is suptA- "(she) sleeps", of plavamAno vAnaraH "jumping monkey" is plavamAnA vAnarI "jumping she-monkey".


ajAdy;ataS TAp ONPANINI 41004
a-enders, and aja-class, get (T)A(p) (when meaning women).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 390

This means that most feminines that end in a get an A added at the end. Example --

drSTo giriH "the mountain was seen"

drSTA nadI "the river was seen"

Here the nounbase dRSTa- became feminine because it describes a feminine, nadI. So this rule added TAp to it. In detail, the word dRSTA is made this way --

dRSTa- f + su → dRSTa- + Ap + su akassa drSTA- + su halGyA dRSTA "she was seen"

This rule will not work if any of the exceptions below do. For instance, according to rule jAtera, a race word that ends in a gets GI when meaning a woman. Tigers are a race, so when we say tigress, exception jAtera below works, stopping this rule that would have added Ap --

vyAghra- f + su jAtera vyAghra + GI + su yasyetica vyAghrI- + su halGyA vyAghrI "tigress"

The exceptions rules below, such as jAtera and dvigoH, will not work on the a-enders of the aja-class, which is a list of exceptions to those exceptions. For instance, aja- "goat" is listed in the aja class, so rule jAtera does not work on it, but this rule does --

aja- f → aja + ApajA- "she-goat"

Similarly azvA- "mare", mUSikA- "she-mouse".


Rn@;nebhyo GIp ONPANINI 41005
R n get GIp (when f).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 391

Add (G)I(p) after nounbases that end in R n and are feminine.

This (G)I(p) is a variant of GI. The p label makes it accentless (by anudAttau).

Examples --

kartR- f + su → kartR- + GIp + su ikoyaNaci kartr + I + su halGyA kartrI "makeress"

rAjan- f + su → rAjan- + GIp + su alloponaH rAjnIs halGyA rAjnI stozzcu rAjJI "queen; main wife of king"

yogin- f + su → yoginI + su halGyA yoginI "female yogi"

The svasrAdi do not get this I.


ugitaz ca ONPANINI 41006
ugit (gets GIp when f).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 392

The ugit nounbases are those that end in an udit affix or an Rdit affix. This includes those formed with zatR, matup, vasu, Iyas(un).

Examples with zatR -enders --

pac + zatR f atoguNe pacat → pacat- + GIp zapzyanornityam pacantI- f "that cooks"

bhU + zatR f → .. → bhavat- f → bhavat- + GIpbhavantI- f "that becomes"

With matup -enders --

go- + matup f → gomatI- "cattleowneress"

saras- "lake" + vatup f → sarasvat- + GIsarasvatI- "she that has lakes" (name of a river)

bhA + (D)avat(up) f TeH bh + (D)avat(up)bhavat(u)- f → bhavatI- "your ladyship"

And with vid + vasu --

vid + vasu f → vid + vas + GI vasossamprasAraNam vidusI- kric viduSI- "female sage"


na SaT-svasr-AdibhyaH ONPANINI 41010
svasrAdi and sixlike don't (get any feminine affix).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 393

Exception to Rnne. The svasrAdi (svasR-class) are these seven feminine nounbases --

svasR- "sister"

tisR- "three" (see tricaturo)

catasR- "four" (see tricaturo)

nanAndR- "husband's sister"

duhitR- "daughter"

yAtR- "husband's brother's wife"

mAtR- "mother"

and the sixlike are the numerals from paJcan- to dAzan-.

Examples. svasR- and paJcan- got no GI in --

svasAraH paJca tiSThanti "five sisters wait"

svasRRH paJca pazyAmi "I see five sisters"

Here svasR- got no GI because it is a svasrAdi, and paJcan- didn't because it's a sixlike.

uStrI ekA "one camelette"

uStryau dve "two camelettes"


TiD;Dh';.AN; aJ;dvayasaj;daghnaJ; mAtrac;tayap;Thak; ThaJ;kaJ;kvarapaH ONPANINI 41015
Tit Dha aN aJ dvayasac daghnac mAtrac tayap Thak ThaJ kaJ kvarap (-enders get GIp when feminine).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 394

More exceptions to ajAdyataSTAp. Nounbases that end in these affixes get GIp when feminine, instead of Ap.

The Tit word in the rule includes all Tit affixes that end in a, such as Ta and Tac --

kuru + car + Ta f → kurucara + GIp yasyetica kurucarI- "she that walks with the kurus"

The Dha means " Dhak (eyak) and other Dha affixes" --

vRSNi + Dhak f → vRSNi + Dhak + I AyaneyI vRSNi- + eyak + I kitica vArSNi + eyak + I yasyetica vArSNeya + I yasyetica vArSNeyI- "daughter of vRSNi-"

Example with tayap --

paJca + tayap f + jas → paJca + taya + GI + jas → .. → paJcatayyas "there are five sorts of them"


dvigoH ONPANINI 41021
(a-ender) dvigu gets ( GIp).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 395

So from pUla- m "bundle" we get--

paJcapUlI- f "a group of five bundles"

This rule didn't work on triphalA- ("a certain mixture made of three fruits") because phAla- is an ajAdi (see ajAdyata).


Sid;gaurAdibhyaz ca ONPANINI 41041
Sit and gaura-class (get GIS).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 396

Sit means words made with Sit affixes, for instance the affix Svun (which is (S)aka(n) by yuvora). nartaka- "pro dancer" has Svun (see zilpiniSvun), so the feminine is

nartaka- @f → nartaka- + GIS yasyetica nartakI- "pro danseuse"

The gaura class are a list of exceptions that should not take GIS, but they do. For instance, matsya "fish" is a gaura-class --

matsya- @f → matsya- + GIS yasyetica matsyI- sUryatiSyA matsI- "female fish"

and so is zRGga- "horn" --

tri- + gaura- @f → trizRGgI- "female triceratops"


svAGgAc c%opasarjanAd asaMyog%opadhAt ONPANINI 41054
GIS (is optional) after a latter that means one's own limb, is subordinate, and ends in non- cluster plus a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 397

Exception to ajAdya. If a latter is subordinate and ends in non- cluster plus a, the feminine gets Ap or GIS.

Example. Here mukham is a limb, and is a subordinate part of the longhorn compound candramukha- "moon-faced" --

candra iva mukham asyAH "her face is like the moon" → .. → candramukha- → candramukha + GIS yasyetica candramukhI "beautiful lady"

(BTW, "moonfaced" means beautiful .)

But if we don't take this option, we say candramukhA-, with ajAdya.

Please remember that keza- m "strand of hair of the head" is a limb. So, when f, it gets Ap or GIS --

atikrantA kezAnatikezA "a woman that is beyond hair, a female ascetic that shaves herself"

atikrantA kezAn → atikezI "a woman that is beyond hair, a female ascetic that shaves herself"


nAsik%odar%auSTha;jaGghA;danta;karNa;zRGgAc ca ONPANINI 41055
nAsika udara oSTha jaGghA danta karNa zRGga aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha (get optional GIS sometimes).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 398

These eleven take either GIS or Ap when subordinate and latter, as in --

bimboSThA "red-lipped lady"

bimboSThI "red-lipped lady"

(The bimbA is the Momordica monadelpha, whose fruits are red as red cherries.)

This rule is necessary because the previous rule won't work on oSTha etc (they end in a cluster plus a), and the next rule won't work on the many-voweled nAsika udara.

The original rule does not mention aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha. I got them from vArttikas -- aGga-gAtra-kaNThebhya iti vaktavyam, pucchAc c%eti vaktavyam.


na kroD^Adi;bahv-acaH ONPANINI 41056
kroDA-class and many-voweled (body-parts) don't (get GIS.)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 399

Exception to svAGgAcco above, that would have made GIS optional. These always get Ap by ajAdya.

Example with a kroDA-class, kroDA- f --

kalyANa-kroDA @f "beautifully-breasted"

Example with a many-voweled nounbase, jaghana- m --

pRthu-jaghanA @f "big-butted"


sahanaJvidyamAnapUrvAcca ONPANINI 41057
But not after saha- naJ vidyamAna.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 400

Exception to the three former rules, that make GIS optional. If the former is saha- naJ vidyamAna-, Ap is compulsory.

Examples --

sakezA- @f "that has hair"

akezA- @f "hairless"

vidyamaNakezA- @f "that has hair"


jAter a-strIviSayAd a-yopadhAt ONPANINI 41063
Race (that ends in a gets GIS when f). Unless it ends in ya or includes only women.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 401

Exception to ajAdyataSTAp.

This GIS is a variant of GI.

A race is a group of living beings related by common descent, place of residence, way of life, etc. Such as brahmins, newyorkers, third-sex people.

brAhmaNa- f → brAhmaNa- + GI yasyetica brAhmaNI- "brahmin lady"

vyAghra- f → vyAghra-+ GI yasyetica vyaghrI- "tigress"

kSatriya- + ApkSatriyA- "kSatriya lady"

makSika- f ajAdya makSikA- "fly"


yaGaz cAp ONPANINI 41074
JyaG and SyaG get cAp.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 402

These (J)ya(G) and (S)ya(G) are taddhita that form names of descendants. For instance, a descendant of kausalya is called a kausalya --

apatyaGM kausalyasya "descendant of kausalya" → kausalya- + JyaG + → kausalya- "descendant of kausalya"

Now, if the descendant is female, it needs to get a feminine affix. Then this rule says it gets (c)A(p) --

kausalya- "descendant of kausalya" + cAp → kausalyA- "a female descendant of kausalya"

This cAp is a variant of Ap.

Back to Ap.

34099 Git tenses ←

chunk 25: 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

→ 41076 taddhita