34099 Git tenses ←

chunk 25: 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

→ 41076 taddhita

41001 Add sup after GI, Ap, and nounbase. GyApprAtipadikAt
41002 sup are svaujas amauTchaS TAbhyAmbhis GebhyAmbhyas GasibhyAmbhyas GasosAm Gyossup. svaujasamauTchaSTAbhyAmbhisGebhyAmbhyasGasibhyAmbhyasGasosAmGyossup
41003 When meaning a woman... striyAm
41004 a-enders, and aja-class, get A . ajAdyataSTAp
41005 R n get GIp . RnnebhyoGIp
41006 ugit . ugitazca
41010 svasrAdi and sixlike don't . naSaTsvasrAdibhyaH
41015 Tit Dha aN aJ dvayasac daghnac mAtrac tayap Thak ThaJ kaJ kvarap . TiDDhANaJdvayasajdaghnaJmAtractayapThakThaJkaJkvarapaH
41021 dvigu gets . dvigoH
41041 Sit and gaura-class . SidgaurAdibhyazca
41054 GIS after a latter that means one's own limb, is subordinate, and ends in non-cluster plus a. svAGgAccopasarjanAdasaMyogopadhAt
41055 nAsika udara oSTha jaGghA danta karNa zRGga aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha . nAsikodarauSThajaGghAdantakarNazRGgAcca
41056 kroDA-class and many-voweled don't nakroDAdibahvacaH
41057 But not after saha- naJ vidyamAna. sahanaJvidyamAnapUrvAcca
41063 Race . Unless it ends in ya or includes only women. jAterastrIviSayAdayopadhAt
41074 JyaG and SyaG get cAp. yaGazcAp




(GyApprAtipa) (!Gy)

Gy;Ap;prAtipadikAt ONPANINI 41001
Add sup after GI, Ap, and nounbase.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 416

LISTENTO this sutra at "The Complete Sutrapath"

All nounbases have to get some sup (other rules decide which one they get). Examples --

azva- m ( meaning a horse ) → * azva- m + su → .. → azvas "horse"

kukkuTa- ( meaning many roosters ) → * kukkuTa- m + jas → .. → kukkuTAs "roosters"

If there is a feminine affix after the nounbase, the sup goes after the affix --

kukkuTa- ( meaning many hens ) → * kukkuTa- f + jas jAtera kukkuTa + GI + jas yasyetica kukkuT + GI + jas ikoyaNaci kukkuTyas "hens"

azva- f ( meaning a mare ) → * azva- + suazva- + Ap + su yasyetica azvA- + su halGyA azvA "mare"

333 letters. -- 41.bse 18 -- popularity 9

92 [@root]s are !bhU etc.

126 The @stem of an affix is whatever it was added to originally, even if it grew afterwards.

224 (Affixes) go after.

566 That one replacement counts as the end of the previous and the beginning of the following.

830 /tyadAdi to !a (before /vibhakti).

1088 @First ending by default.

1424 types of affixes




(svaujasamau) (/sup)

sv;au;jas; am;auT;chaS; TA;bhyAm;bhis; Ge;bhyAm;bhyas; Gasi;bhyAm;bhyas; Gas;os;Am; Gy;os;sup ONPANINI 41002
sup are svaujas amauTchaS TAbhyAmbhis GebhyAmbhyas GasibhyAmbhyas GasosAm Gyossup.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 417

These twenty-one affixes are called sup affixes because they go from su to p (see Adirantyena). Or " noun endings", because what has one of these at the end is a noun (rule suptiGantampadam says so).

The affixes are divided into seven groups of three affixes each --

su au jas first endings -- svaujas

am au zas second endings -- amauTchaS

TA bhyAm bhis third endings -- TAbhyAmbhis

Ge bhyAm bhyas fourth endings -- GebhyAmbhyas

Gasi bhyAm bhyas fifth endings -- GasibhyAmbhyas

Gas os Am sixth endings -- GasosAm

Gi os sup' seventh endings -- Gyossup

See also tAnyeka.

See also western names of the cases .

See also table of sup affixes .

Back to types of affixes .

515 letters. -- 41.bse 82 -- popularity 79




(striyAm) (@fe)

striyAm ONPANINI 41003
When meaning a woman...mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 418

headline. The following rules only work after nounbases that mean a woman. That is, they only work after feminine nounbases.

Those are rules that add the feminine affixes Ap, GI to nounbases. Not all nounbases get a feminine affix, but most do.

Examples --

The nounbase vidyut- "lightning" always means a woman, but gets no feminine affix because no rule gives it any. Same with prakRti- "matter" and mati- "opinion".

siMha- "lion" means a woman when it is used to refer to a lioness, and in that case it gets GI from rule jAtera below. And turns into siMhI-.

azva- "horse" means a woman when it refers to a mare, but it gets Ap from ajAdyataSTAp, an exception to jAtera. And turns into azvA-.

All zAnac enders and all kta enders get Ap by ajAdyataSTAp. So the feminine of supta- "(he) sleeps" is suptA- "(she) sleeps", of plavamAno vAnaraH "jumping monkey" is plavamAnA vAnarI "jumping she-monkey".

KAZIKA adhikAro 'yam. yaditi Urdhvam anukramiSyAmaH striyAm ityevaM tad veditavyam. Gy-Ap-prAtipadikAt iti sarvAdhikAre 'pi prAtipadikamAtram atra prakaraNe sambadhyate, NyAporanena eva vidhAnAt. striyAm ityucyate. keyaM strI nAma? sAmAnyavizeSAH strItvAdayo gotvAdaya iva bahuprakArA vyaktayaH. kvacidAzrayavizeSAbhAvAtupadezavyaGgayA eva bhavanti, yathA brAhmaNatvAdayaH. strItvaM ca pratyayArthaH. prakRtyarthavizeSaNaM ca ityubhayathA api prayujyate, striyAm abhidheyAyAM striyAM vA yat prAtipadikaM vartate iti. vakSyati

There are also affixes, such as ktin and a', that make a feminine nounbase when added to a root. When I say feminine affix, I don't mean those.

800 letters. -- 41.bse 101 -- popularity 15




(ajAdyata) (/TAp)

ajAdy;ataS TAp ONPANINI 41004
a-enders, and aja-class, get (T)A(p) (when meaning women).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 419

This means that most feminines that end in a get an A added at the end. Example --

drSTo giriH "the mountain was seen"

drSTA nadI "the river was seen"

Here the nounbase dRSTa- became feminine because it describes a feminine, nadI. So this rule added TAp to it. In detail, the word dRSTA is made this way --

dRSTa- f + su → * dRSTa- + Ap + su akassa drSTA- + su halGyA dRSTA "she was seen"

This rule will not work if any of the exceptions below do. For instance, according to rule jAtera, a race word that ends in a gets GI when meaning a woman. Tigers are a race, so when we say tigress, exception jAtera below works, stopping this rule that would have added Ap --

vyAghra- f + su jAtera vyAghra + GI + su yasyetica vyAghrI- + su halGyA vyAghrI "tigress"

The exceptions rules below, such as jAtera and dvigoH, will not work on the a-enders of the aja-class, which is a list of exceptions to those exceptions. For instance, aja- "goat" is listed in the aja class, so rule jAtera does not work on it, but this rule does --

aja- f → * aja + ApajA- "she-goat"

Similarly azvA- "mare", mUSikA- "she-mouse".

KAZIKA ajAdibhyaH prAtipadikebhyaH akArAntAc ca prAtipadikAt striyAM TAp pratyayo bhavati. ajA. devadattA. striyAm iti kim? ajaH. devadattaH. pakAraH sAmAnyagrahaNArthaH. TakAraH sAmAnyagrahaNAvighAtArthaH. ajA eDakA. kokilA. caTakA. azvA. khaTvA. devadattA. taparakaraNaM tatkAlArtham. zubhaMyAH. kIlAlapAH brAhmaNI. halGyAbbhyo dIrghAt sutisyapRktaM hal iti sulopaH syAt. ajAdigrahaNaM tu kvacij jAti-lakSaNe GISi prApte, kvacit tu puMyoga-lakSaNe, kvacit tu puSpaphalauttaralakSaNe, kvacit tu vayolakSaNe GIpi, kvaciT TillakSaNe. halantAnAM tavaprApta eva kasmiMzcidAb vidhIyate. zUdrA ca amahatpUrvA jAtiH iti paThyate. tasya ayam arthaH. zUdrazabdaS TApam utpAdayati jAtiz ced bhavati. zUdrA. puMyoge GISaiva bhavitavyam. zUdrasya bhAryA zUdrI. mahatpUrvasya pratiSedhaH. mahAzUdrI. mahAzUdrazabdo hyAbhIrajAtivacanaH, tatra tadantavidhi-nA TAp prAptaH pratiSidhyate. grahaNavatA prAtipadikena tadantavidhir na iti kathaM tadantavidhiH? etad eva jJApakaM bhavati asmin prakaraNe tadantavidhiH iti. tena atidhIvarI, atipIvarI, atibhavatI, atimahatI iti bhavati. ajA, eDakA, caTakA, azvA, mUsikA iti jAtiH. bAlA, hoDhA, pAkA, vatsA, mandA, vilAtA iti vayaH. pUrvApahANA, aparApahANA. Tit, nipatanAN Natvam. saMbhastrAjInazaNapiNDebhyaH phalAt. samphalA. bhastraphalA. ajinaphalA. zaNaphalA. piNDaphalA. triphalA dvigau. bahuvrIhau triphalI saMhatiH. sadacprAkkANDaprAntaztaikebhyaH puSpAt. satpuSpA. prAkpuSpA. kAnDapuSpA. prAntapuSpA. zatapuSpA. ekapuSpA. pAkakarNa iti GISo 'pavAdaH. zUdrA ca amahatpUrvA jAtiH. kruJcA, uSNihA, devavizA halantAH. jyeSThA, kaniSThA, madhyamA puMyogaH. kokilA jAtiH. mUlAnnaJaH. amUlA.

783 letters. -- 41.bse 391 -- popularity 36




(RnnebhyoGIp) (/GIp)

Rn@;nebhyo GIp ONPANINI 41005
R n get GIp (when f).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 420

Add (G)I(p) after nounbases that end in R n and are feminine.

This (G)I(p) is a variant of GI. The p label makes it accentless (by anudAttau).

Examples --

kartR- f + su → * kartR- + GIp + su ikoyaNaci kartr + I + su halGyA kartrI "makeress"

rAjan- f + su → * rAjan- + GIp + su alloponaH rAjnIs halGyA rAjnI stozzcu rAjJI "queen; main wife of king"

yogin- f + su → * yoginI + su halGyA yoginI "female yogi"

The svasrAdi do not get this I.

KAZIKA RkArAntebhyo nakArAntebhyazca prAtipadikebhyaH striyAM GIp pratyayo bhavati GakAraH sAmAnyagrahaNArthaH. kartrI. hartrI. daNDinI. chatriNI.

260 letters. -- 41.bse 575 -- popularity 16




(ugitazca) (!ugit)

ugitaz ca ONPANINI 41006
ugit (gets GIp when f).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 421

The ugit nounbases are those that end in an udit affix or an Rdit affix. This includes those formed with zatR, matup, vasu, Iyas(un).

Examples with zatR -enders --

pac + zatR f atoguNe pacat → * pacat- + GIp zapzyanornityam pacantI- f "that cooks"

bhU + zatR f → .. → bhavat- f → * bhavat- + GIpbhavantI- f "that becomes"

With matup -enders --

go- + matup f → * gomatI- "cattleowneress"

saras- "lake" + vatup f → * sarasvat- + GIsarasvatI- "she that has lakes" (name of a river)

bhA + (D)avat(up) f TeH bh + (D)avat(up)bhavatu- f → * bhavatI- "your ladyship"

And with vid + vasu --

vid + vasu f → * vid + vas + GI vasossamprasAraNam vidusI- kric viduSI- "female sage"

KAZIKA ugiti yatra sambhavati yathAkathaMcit tadugicchAbdarUpaM, tadantAt striyAM GIp pratyayo bhavati. bhavatI. atibhavatI. pacantI. yajantI. dhAtorugitaH pratiSedho vaktavyaH. ukhAsrat. parNadhvat brAhmaNI. aJcatezca upasaGkhyAnam. prAcI. pratIcI. udIcI.

410 letters. -- 41.bse 605 -- popularity 4

66 Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders.

1418 about /ktavatu

1431 /vasu with /sup.




(naSaTsvasrA) (/svas)

na SaT-svasr-AdibhyaH ONPANINI 41010
svasrAdi and sixlike don't (get any feminine affix).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 422

Exception to Rnne. The svasrAdi (svasR-class) are these seven feminine nounbases --

svasR- "sister"

tisR- "three" (see tricaturo)

catasR- "four" (see tricaturo)

nanAndR- "husband's sister"

duhitR- "daughter"

yAtR- "husband's brother's wife"

mAtR- "mother"

and the sixlike are the numerals from paJcan- to dAzan-.

Examples. svasR- and paJcan- got no GI in --

svasAraH paJca tiSThanti "five sisters wait"

svasRRH paJca pazyAmi "I see five sisters"

Here svasR- got no GI because it is a svasrAdi, and paJcan- didn't because it's a sixlike.

KAZIKA SaT-saMjJAkebhyaH svasrAdibhyaz ca prAtipadikebhyaH strI-pratyayo na bhavati. yo yataH prApnoti sa sarvaH pratiSidhyate. paJca brAhmaNyaH. sapta. nava. daza. svasrAdibhyaH svasA. duhitA. nanAndA. yAtA. mAtA. tisraH. catasraH. SaT-saMjJAnAm ante lupte TAb-utpattiH kasmAn na syat. pratyAhArAc cApA siddhaM doSastvittve tasmAn na ubhau.

paJcan- got no jas because of SaDbhyoluk.

Summarizing several rules: 3 4 get no GI because they are svasrAdi, 5 6 7 8 9 10 get no GI because they are sixlike. eka- dvi- get no GI because no rule gives them any, and get Ap from ajAdya. So with uSTrI- "female camel" --

uStry ekA "one camelette"

uStryau dve "two camelettes"

uStryas tisraH "three camelettes"

uStryaH paJca "five camelettes"

697 letters. -- 41.bse 635 -- popularity 4

636 (Before @strong except @calling, lengthen @nexttolast) of /ap- /tRn /tRc, !svasR !naptR !neSTR, !tvaSTR !kSattR !hotR, !potR !prazastR.

777 Replace {R}-enders, !uzanas-, !purudaMsas- and !anehas- (with !an before non-@calling /su).




(TiDDhANaJdva) (!Ti)

TiD;Dh';.AN; aJ;dvayasaj;daghnaJ; mAtrac;tayap;Thak; ThaJ;kaJ;kvarapaH ONPANINI 41015
Tit Dha aN aJ dvayasac daghnac mAtrac tayap Thak ThaJ kaJ kvarap (-enders get GIp when feminine).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 423

More exceptions to ajAdyataSTAp. Nounbases that end in these affixes get GIp when feminine, instead of Ap.

The Tit word in the rule includes all Tit affixes that end in a, such as Ta and Tac --

kuru + car + Ta f → * kurucara + GIp yasyetica kurucarI- "she that walks with the kurus"

The Dha means " Dhak (eyak) and other Dha affixes" --

vRSNi + Dhak f → * vRSNi + Dhak + I AyaneyI vRSNi- + eyak + I kitica vArSNi + eyak + I yasyetica vArSNeya + I yasyetica vArSNeyI- "daughter of vRSNi-"

Example with tayap --

paJca + tayap f + jas → * paJca + taya + GI + jas → .. → paJcatayyas "there are five sorts of them"

392 letters. -- 41.bse 694 -- popularity 10




(dvigoH) (!dvigo)

dvigoH ONPANINI 41021
(a-ender) dvigu gets ( GIp).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 424

So from pUla- m "bundle" we get--

paJcapUlI- f "a group of five bundles"

This rule didn't work on triphalA- ("a certain mixture made of three fruits") because phAla- is an ajAdi (see ajAdyata).

KAZIKA dvigu-saMjJakAt prAtipadikAt striyAM GIp pratyayo bhavati. paJcapUlI. dazapUlI. kathaM triphalA? ajAdiSu dRzyate.

143 letters. -- 41.bse 710 -- popularity 2

169 (@numeral and @direction may @compound) with the meaning of a /taddhita, when @former, and when meaning a group.




(SidgaurAdi) (!Si)

Sid;gaurAdibhyaz ca ONPANINI 41041
Sit and gaura-class (get GIS).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 425

Sit means words made with Sit affixes, for instance the affix Svun (which is (S)aka(n) by yuvora). nartaka- "pro dancer" has Svun (see zilpiniSvun), so the feminine is

nartaka- @f → * nartaka- + GIS yasyetica nartakI- "pro danseuse"

The gaura class are a list of exceptions that should not take GIS, but they do. For instance, matsya "fish" is a gaura-class --

matsya- @f → * matsya- + GIS yasyetica matsyI- sUryatiSyA matsI- "female fish"

and so is zRGga- "horn" --

tri- + gaura- @f → * trizRGgI- "female triceratops"

मत्स्य । मनुष्य । शृङ्ग । पिङ्गल

KAZIKA GIS anuvartate. SidbhyaH prAtipadikebhyo gaurAdibhyazca striyAm GIS pratyayo bhavati. zilpini Svun nartakI. khanakI. rajakI. gaurAdibhyaH gaurI. matsI. gaura. matsya. manuSya. zRGga. haya. gavaya. mukaya. RSya. puTa. druNa. droNa. hariNa. kaNa. paTara. ukaNa. Amalaka. kuvala. badara. bamba. tarkAra. zarkAra. puSkara. zikhaNDa. suSama. salanda. gaDuja. Ananda. sRpATa. sRgeTha. ADhaka. zaSkula. sUrma. suba. sUrya. pUSa. mUSa. ghAtaka. sakalUka. sallaka. mAlaka. mAlata. sAlvaka. vetasa. atasa. pRsa. maha. maTha. cheda. zvan. takSan. anaDuhI. anaDvAhI. eSaNaH karaNe. deha. kAkAdana. gavAdana. tejana. rajana. lavaNa. pAna. medha. gautama. AyasthUNa. bhauri. bhauliki. bhauliGgi. audgAhamAni. AliGgi. Apicchika. AraTa. ToTa. naTa. nATa. malATa. zAtana. pAtana. savana. Astarana. AdhikaraNa. eta. adhikAra. AgrahAyaNI. pratyavarohiNI. sevana. sumaGgalAt saMjJAyAm. sundara. maNDala. piNDa. viTaka. kurda. gUrda. paTa. pANTa. lophANTa. kandara. kandala. taruNa. taluna. bRhat. mahat. saudharma. rohiNI nakSatre. revatI nakSatre. vikala. niSphala. puSkala. kaTAcchroNivacane. pippalyAdayazca. pippalI. harItakI. kozAtakI. zamI. karIrI. pRthivI. kroSTrI. mAtAmaha. pitAmaha. mAtAmaha-pitAmahayoH mAtari Sic ca 42036 iti SittvAd eva siddhe jJApanArthaM vacanam, anityaH SillakSaNo GISiti, tena daMSTrA ity upapannaM bhavati.

387 letters. -- 41.bse 731 -- popularity 4

341 {tra(n)} after !dhe means "wet nurse"

342 {dA(p) nI zas}, {yu yuj} /stu', {tud si} /sic', {mih pat daz}, nah (get /tran) to mean a tool.




(svAGgAccopa) (!svA)

svAGgAc c%opasarjanAd asaMyog%opadhAt ONPANINI 41054
GIS (is optional) after a latter that means one's own limb, is subordinate, and ends in non- cluster plus a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 426

Exception to ajAdya. If a latter is subordinate and ends in non- cluster plus a, the feminine gets Ap or GIS.

Example. Here mukham is a limb, and is a subordinate part of the longhorn compound candramukha- "moon-faced" --

candra iva mukham asyAH "her face is like the moon" → .. → candramukha- → * candramukha + GIS yasyetica candramukhI "beautiful lady"

(BTW, "moonfaced" means beautiful .)

But if we don't take this option, we say candramukhA-, with ajAdya.

Please remember that keza- m "strand of hair of the head" is a limb. So, when f, it gets Ap or GIS --

atikrantA kezAnatikezA "a woman that is beyond hair, a female ascetic that shaves herself"

atikrantA kezAn → * atikezI "a woman that is beyond hair, a female ascetic that shaves herself"

KAZIKA bahuvrIheH ktAntAdantodAttAd iti sarvaM nivRttam. vA-grahaNam anuvartate. svAGgaM yadupasarjanam asaMyogopadhaM tadantAt prAtipadikAt striyAM vA GIS pratyayo bhavati. candramukhI, candramukhA. atikrAntA kezAn atikezI, atikezA mAlA. svAGgAd iti kim? bahuyavA. upasarjanAtiti kim? azikhA. asaMyog%opadhAtiti kim? sugulphA. supArzvA. aGgagAtrakaNThebhya iti vaktavyam. mRdvaGgI, mRdvaGgA. sugAtrI, sugAtrA. snigdhakaNThI, snigdhakaNThA. adravaM mUrtimat svAGgaM prANistham avikArajam. atatsthaM tatra dRSTaM cet tena cettattathAyutam.

557 letters. -- 41.bse 750 -- popularity 2

428 {kroDA}-class and [@many]-voweled (body-parts) don't (get /GIS.)




(nAsikoda) (!nAs)

nAsik%odar%auSTha;jaGghA;danta;karNa;zRGgAc ca ONPANINI 41055
nAsika udara oSTha jaGghA danta karNa zRGga aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha (get optional GIS sometimes).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 427

These eleven take either GIS or Ap when subordinate and latter, as in --

bimboSThA "red-lipped lady"

bimboSThI "red-lipped lady"

(The bimbA is the Momordica monadelpha, whose fruits are red as red cherries.)

This rule is necessary because the previous rule won't work on oSTha etc (they end in a cluster plus a), and the next rule won't work on the many-voweled nAsika udara.

KAZIKA svAGgAc ca upasarjanAtityeva. bahvajlakSaNe saMyogopadhalakSaNe ca pratiSedhe prApte vacanam. saha:naJ;vidyamAna-lakSaNas tu pratiSedho bhavaty eva. nAsikAdyantAt prAtipadikAt striyAM vA GIS pratyayo bhavati. tuGga-nAsikI, tuGga-nAsikA. tilodarI, tilodarA. bamboSThI, bamboSThA. dIrghajaGghI, dIrghajaGghA. samadantI, samadantA. cArukarNI, cArukarNA. tIkSNa-zRGgI, tIkSNa-zRGgA. pucchAc ceti vaktavyam. kalyANa-pucchI, kalyANa-pucchA. kabaramaNiviSazarebhyo nityam. kabarapucchI. maNi-pucchI. viSapucchI. zara-pucchI. upamAnAt pakSAc ca pucchAt ca. ulUka-pakSIsenA. ulUka-pucchI zAlA.

The original rule does not mention aGga gAtra kaNTha puccha. I got them from vArttikas -- aGga-gAtra-kaNThebhya iti vaktavyam, pucchAc c%eti vaktavyam.

452 letters. -- 41.bse 760 -- popularity none




(nakroDAdi) (!nakr)

na kroD^Adi;bahv-acaH ONPANINI 41056
kroDA-class and many-voweled (body-parts) don't (get GIS.)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 428

Exception to svAGgAcco above, that would have made GIS optional. These always get Ap by ajAdya.

Example with a kroDA-class, kroDA- f --

kalyANa-kroDA @f "beautifully-breasted"

Example with a many-voweled nounbase, jaghana- m --

pRthu-jaghanA @f "big-butted"

KAZIKA svAGgAd iti GIS prAptaH pratiSedhyate. kroDAdy-antAt bahv-aj-antAt prAtipadikAt striyAM GIS pratyayo na bhavati. kalyANa-kroDA. kalyANA-khurA. kalyANokhA. kalyANabAlA. kalyANazaphA. kalyANagudA. kalyANaghoNA. kalyANanakhA. kalyANamukhA. kroDAdirAkRtigaNaH. subhagA. sugalA. bahvacaH khalvapi pRthu-jaghanA. mahA-lalATA.

198 letters. -- 41.bse 787 -- popularity none




(sahanaJvi) (!saha)

sahanaJvidyamAnapUrvAcca ONPANINI 41057
But not after saha- naJ vidyamAna.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 429

Exception to the three former rules, that make GIS optional. If the former is saha- naJ vidyamAna-, Ap is compulsory.

Examples --

sakezA- @f "that has hair"

akezA- @f "hairless"

vidyamaNakezA- @f "that has hair"

KAZIKA svAGgAc ca upasarjanAtiti, nAsikaudaraoSThajaGghAdantakarNa. zRggAc ca 41055 iti ca prApto GIS pratiSidhyate. saha naJ vidyamAna evaM pUrvAt prAtipadikAt striyAM GIS pratyayo na bhavati. sakezA. akezA. vidyamAnakezA. sanAsikA. anAsikA. vidyamAnanAsikA.

157 letters. -- 41.bse 803 -- popularity none




(jAterastrI) (/GIS)

jAter a-strIviSayAd a-yopadhAt ONPANINI 41063
Race (that ends in a gets GIS when f). Unless it ends in ya or includes only women.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 430

Exception to ajAdyataSTAp.

This GIS is a variant of GI.

A race is a group of living beings related by common descent, place of residence, way of life, etc. Such as brahmins, newyorkers, third-sex people.

brAhmaNa- f → * brAhmaNa- + GI yasyetica brAhmaNI- "brahmin lady"

vyAghra- f → * vyAghra-+ GI yasyetica vyaghrI- "tigress"

This rule won't work on ya-enders --

kSatriya- + Ap ajAdya kSatriyA- "kSatriya lady"

Nor on the "races" that have only women, such as amazons, nuns, and flies --

makSika- f ajAdya makSikA- "fly"

KAZIKA jAtivAci yat prAtipadikaM na ca striyAm eva niyatam astrIviSayam ayakAropadhaM ca tasmAt striyAM GIS pratyayo bhavati. AkRtigrahaNA jAtir liGgAnAM ca na sarvabhAk. sakRdAkhyAtanirgAhyA gotraM ca caraNaiH saha. kukkuTI. sUkarI. brAhmaNI. vRSalI. nADAyanI. cArAyaNI. kaThI. bahvRcI. jAteH iti kim? muNDA. astrIviSayAtiti kim? makSikA. ayopadhAtiti kim? kSatriyA. yopadhapratiSedhe hayagavayamukayamatsyamanuSyANam apratiSedhaH. hayI. gavayI. mukayI. matsI. manuSI.

About the third-sex people, see Wikipedia on Hijra (South Asia).

401 letters. -- 41.bse 810 -- popularity 19




(yaGazcAp) (/cAp)

yaGaz cAp ONPANINI 41074
JyaG and SyaG get cAp.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 431

cAp is a variant of Ap. It works the same as TAp, but makes citaH work.

These (J)ya(G) and (S)ya(G) are taddhita that form names of descendants. For instance, a descendant of kausalya is called a kausalya --

apatyaGM kausalyasya "descendant of kausalya" → kausalya- + JyaG + → kausalya- "descendant of kausalya"

Now, if the descendant is female, it needs to get a feminine affix. Then this rule says it gets (c)A(p) --

kausalya- "descendant of kausalya" + cAp → * kausalyA- "a female descendant of kausalya"

Back to Ap.

KAZIKA yaG-antAt prAtipadikAt striyAM cAp pratyayo bhavati. JyaGaH SyaGazca sAmAnyagrahaNam etat. AmbaSThyA. sauvIryA. kausalyA. SyaG kArISagandhyA. vArAhyA. bAlAkyA. SAc ca yaJaH. SAt paro yo yaJ tadantAc cAp vaktavyaH. zArkarAkSyA. aputimASyA. gaukakSyA. uttarasUtre cakAro 'nuktasamuccayArthaH, tena vA bhaviSyati.

384 letters. -- 41.bse 853 -- popularity 1
















34099 Git tenses ←

chunk 25: 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

→ 41076 taddhita