34067 kartari karmaNi ←

chunk 24: 34099 Git tenses

→ 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

34099 from Git tense. nityaGGitaH
34100 i to . itazca
34101 tas thas tha mip to tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' . tasthasthamipAntAntantAmaH
34102 liG gets sIyuT. liGassIyuT
34103 Flat gets yAs and G label. yAsuTparasmaipadeSUdAttoGicca
34105 jha to ran. jhasyaran
34106 liG iT' to a'. iTot
34107 t th get suT. suTtithoH
34108 jhi to us. jherjus
34109 after sic, stammered, vid. sijabhyastavidibhyazca
34110 after A only. AtaH
34111 Optionally laG . laGazzAkaTAyanasyaiva
34112 After dviS too. dviSazca
34113 tiG and zit are hard. tiGzitsArvadhAtukam
34114 The rest are soft. ArdhadhAtukaMzeSaH
34115 liT replacers . liTca
34116 liG when wishing is optionally . liGAziSi

(nityaGGitaH) (/ma')

nityaM GitaH ONPANINI 34099
( chop vas mas) from Git tense.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 371

The Git tenses are liG laG lRG luG. When they are replaced with vas and mas, those turn into va''' ma'''.

Examples --

dviS + laG mas luGlaG adviS + mas → * advis + ma'''adviSma "we hated"

dviS + lRG mas → .. → advekSya + mas → * adveksya + ma''' atodIrgho advekSyAma "we would have hated"

luG mas → * ma'''

advikSAma "we hated"

@hard liG mas → * ma''' yAsuTpa yAma

dviSyAma "we'd hate / may we hate"

@soft liG mas → * ma''' yAsuTpa yAsma

dviSyAsma "may we hate"

dviS + luG mas → * dviS + ma''' luGlaG advis + maadviS + cli + ma ksa-aorist adviS + sa + ma atodIrghoyaJi adviS + sA + ma SaDhoHkassi advikSAma

dviS + loT mas → * dviS + ma''' ADuttama dviS + Ama''' puganta dveSAma "let's hate"

KAZIKA leTa iti nivRttam. Gito lakArasya ya uttamaH, tasya nityaM sakArasya lopo bhavati. upacAva, upacAma. nitya-grahaNaM vikalpa-nivRtty-artham.

You said this only works when the vas mas replaced a G tenses. But in your last example loT is not a G tense.

It is not, but we replace mas as if it were. See loTolaGvat.

What's the word nityam doing in the rule? You did not translate it.

Were it not here, the rule would get optionality from the trickle.

644 letters. -- 34B.bse 760 -- popularity 12

(itazca) (/t')

itaz ca ONPANINI 34100
i (of Git tense) to ( lopa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 372

In more words --

"The tip jhi sip that replaced a Git tense lose i."

Examples with tip --

pac + laG tip → * pac + t'''paca + t luGlaG apacza + tapacat "he cooked"

vac + luG tip → * vac + t''' → .. → avocat "he said" ( see vaca::um )

zuc + lRG tip → * zuc + t''' → .. → azociSyat "he would have grieved"

Examples with sip --

kSip + laG sip → * kSip + s''' luGlaG akSip + sa kSip + za + sakSipas "you shot"

bhU + @soft liG sip → * bhU + s''' → .. → bhU + yAs'''bhUyAs "may you be"

The jh''' will be replaced with ant''' or at''' by jhontaH or its exceptions --

nRt + laG jhi → * nRt + jh''' → .. → anRt + zyan + jh jhontaH anRtya + ant''' atoguNe anRtyant saMyogAnta anRtyan "they danced"

bhI + laG jhi → * bhI + jh''' → .. → abibhI + jh adabhyastAt abibhI + at''' ikoyaNaci abibhyat "they were afraid"

KAZIKA GitaH ityeva. GillakArasambandhina ikArasya nityaM lopo bhavati. apacat. apAkSIt. parasmaipadeSu ityeva, apacAvahi, apacAmahi.

Shouldn't this rule work on mip as well?

No. Because of the exception tasthastha below, it works only on tip jhi sip.

567 letters. -- 34B.bse 810 -- popularity 73

(tasthasthami) (/tAm''')

tas;thas; tha;mipAM tAM;taM; t'-.AmaH ONPANINI 34101
tas thas tha mip to tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' (in Git tenses).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 373

Whn a Git tense is replaced with tas thas tha mip, replace those with tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' respectively --

Examples of tas to tAm''' --

car + laGcar + tas → * car + tAm'''car + zap + tAm luGlaG acar + zap + tAmacaratAm "they2 walked"

Examples of thas to tam''' --

car + laG thas → * car + tam''' → .. → acaratam "you2 walked"

dviS + lRG thas → * dviS + tam''' luGlaG adviS + tamadviS + sya + tam puganta adveS + sya + tam SaDhoHkassi advekSyatam "you2'd've hated"

Examples of tha to ta''' --

car + laG tha → * car + ta''' → .. → acarata "y'all walked"

cara + @hard liG tha → * cara + ta'''cara + eta'''careta "y'all should walk"

Examples of mip to am''' --

car + laG mip → * car + am''' → .. → acaram "I walked"

zru + luG mip → * zru + am''' luGlaG azru + amazru + cli + amazru + sic + am sicivRddhiH azrauSam "I heard"

See also ta ta synchretism .

itazca rule says replace mip with m, this rule says replace mip with am'''. So, this rule is stronger. Why?

This one. Otherwise, the "mip to am" in this rule would serve no purpose.

Could we say that this rule is stronger because exceptions follow rules, by vipratiSedhe?

No, saying that would be misleading. The common-sense principle "rules have nothing useless in them" overrides all other precedence guidelines, such as vipratiSedhe.

885 letters. -- 34B.bse 845 -- popularity 33

(liGassIyuT) (/sIy)

liGaH sIyuT ONPANINI 34102
( bent) liG gets sIyuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 374

The liG affixes are hard more often than not (see page soft liG is quite useless ). So I'll explain the hard first.

When they are hard, this rule adds sIy in front of the affix and then rule liGassa erases the s. Therefore seven of the nine affixes end up looking like the bent laG affixes, but with Iy added in front.

The nine bent liG, when hard, are --

Ita''' IyAtAm''' Iran'''

IthAs''' IyAthAm''' Idhvam'''

Iya''' Ivahi''' Imahi'''

Notice that jha turned into ran by jhasyaran.

And am''' turned into a' by iTot.

All nine got Iy in front, but six of those lost the y by lopovyo.

Examples --

dviS + @hard liG ta → * dviS + Ita'''dviSIta "he would hate"

plu + @hard liG taplava + ta → * plava + Ita''' AdguNaH plaveta "he would jump"

plu + @hard liG iT'plava + i → * plava + Iya''' AdguNaH plaveya "I would jump"

plu + @hard liG jhaplava + jha → * plava + Iran''' AdguNaH plaveran "they would jump"

For the soft liG bents, see soft bent liG .

Back to hard bent liG rules .

Question. Why no puganta in dviSIta?

Being apit and hard, these nine carry G by hard apit is Git .

783 letters. -- 34B.bse 905 -- popularity 12

(yAsuTpara) (/yAs)

yAsuT parasmaipadeS%UdAtto Gic ca ONPANINI 34103
flat ( liG) gets yAs(uT) and G label.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 375

This is an exception to liGassIyuT, that would otherwise have added sIy before all liG-replacers. By this exception, the flat liG get yAs in front, and only the bent liG get sIy.

Important: this rule will not work after a, because of exception atoyeyaH.

The u label of yAs(uT) is just padding. The T label is for Adyantau, so we must add yAs in front of our affix.

The s is real, but it will almost always be lost by liGassa --

dviS + @hard liG tipdviS + t''' → * dviS + GyAst liGassa dviS + yAt'''dviSyAt "he would hate; may he hate"

dviS + @hard liG masdviS + ma''' → * dviS + GyAsma liGassa dviS + yAma'''dviSyAma "we would hate; may we hate"

If the liG is soft (see soft liG), liGassa won't work --

dviS + @soft liG masdviS + ma''' → * dviS + GyAsmadviS + yAsma'''dviSyAsma "may we hate"

As in

adharmanM dviSyAsma "may we hate evil"

See hard flat liG for a list of the nine flat affixes with yA in front.

See soft flat liG for a list of the nine soft affixes with yAs in front.

See also hard flat liG after a .

KAZIKA liGaH ityeva. parasmaipada-viSayasya liGo yAsuD-Agamo bhavati, sa ca udAtto bhavati, Gic ca. sIyuTo'pavAdaH. AgamAnudAttatve prApte, GittvaM tu liGa eva vidhIyate, tatra tatkAryANAM sambhavAd, na Agamasya. kuryAt, kuryAtAm, kuryuH. sthanivadbhAvAdeva liGAdezasya Gittve siddhe yAsuTo GidvacanaM jJApanArtham - lakArAzrayaGittvam AdezAnAM na bhavati iti. acinavam. akaravam.

Why does the rule say that a flat liG affix gets G label?

Because otherwise yAs + tip, yAs + sip and yAs + mip, having no G label, would trigger puganta and hardsoft, making incorrect forms like dveSyat. Right is dviSyAt dviSyAs dviSyAm.

No. My question was, why does the rule BOTHER to say that the replacement of liG gets G label, given that, even if the rule didn't say so, I would have thought that all replacements of liG must have G label by sthAnivad?

Oopsie sorry. It says so because sthAnivad does not work here. Please see Git tenses do not pass G on for the details.

Why is the exception atoyeyaH placed in the back of beyond, instead of right below here? After all, that exception ends up being used more often than not.

Rule yAsuTpa works both on hard and soft liG. But that exception must work only on the hard, so it was placed where it gets the words " hard" and "liG" from the trickle.

What is the word udAttas doing in this rule? You did not bother to translate it.

That word teaches that the yAs syllable carries the acute. As in "dviSyÁt", "bhavét", "bhUyÁsam". NVM that, accent is not important nowadays.

1628 letters. -- 34B.bse 976 -- popularity 21

(jhasyaran) (/ran)

jhasya ran ONPANINI 34105
( liG) jha to ran.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 376

Exception to jhontaH ff.

This makes jha into ran, then it will turn into Iran''' or sIran''', this way --

@hard liG jha → * ran liGassIyuT sIran''' liGassa Iran'''

@soft liG jha → * ran liGassIyuT sIran'''

as in --

labh- + @hard liG jhalabh + Iran''' kartarizap labha + Iran''' AdguNaH labheran "they'd get"

dviS- + @hard liG jhadviS + Iran'''dviSIran "they'd hate"

in the soft liG, liGassa won't work, so sIran''' stays --

labh- + @soft liG jha → * labh + ranlabh + sIran''' kharica lap + sIranlapsIran "may they get"

plu- + @soft liG jha → * plu + ranplu + sIran''' hardsoft plo + sIran kric ploSIran "may they jump"

Back to hard bent liG rules .

412 letters. -- 34C.bse 346 -- popularity 5

681 After /zIG, (this !at from /jha gets) !ruT.

1055 @Soft @bent /liG rules.

1332 Rules @trickle words down.

(iTot) (/a')

iTo 't ONPANINI 34106
liG iT' to a'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 377

This a' of course always gets sIyuT, making sIya'''. Which loses the s when it is hard (in practice: always), making Iya'''.

This sIya''' is supposed to stay in the soft liG, but I won't even bother to show any examples because no one has used the bent soft liG forms in the last two thousand years. So the sIyuT will almost always be hard and liGassa erases the s --

@hard liG iT' → * a' liGassIyuT sIya''' liGassa Iya'''

Examples --

As + Iya'''AsIya "I would sit"

dviS + Iya'''dviSIya "I would hate"

and after a --

plu + zap + Iya'''plava + Iya AdguNaH plaveya "I would jump"

dRz + yak + Iya''' AdguNaH dRzyeya "I would be seen"

Back to hard bent liG .

Back to hard bent liG rules .

484 letters. -- 34C.bse 370 -- popularity 9

91 But the final /tu !s !m of a /vibhakti aren't (labels).

355 @tense to /tiG.

356 /tiG are /tiptasjhi /sipthastha /mibvasmas /tAtAJjha /thAsAthAndhvam /iDvahimahiG.

619 Erase !a before @soft.

1055 @Soft @bent /liG rules.

1332 Rules @trickle words down.

(suTtithoH) (!suT)

suT tithoH ONPANINI 34107
t th (inside liG) get suT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 378

(By Adyantau, "get suT" means "get an s added in front".)

This rule works usefully only on the soft bent liG that have t th, namely, ta AtAm thAs AthAm.

These get s before the t by this rule, and sIyuT by liGassIyuT, and some kric and STunA, making --

@soft liG ta → * sta liGassIyuT sIysta lopovyo sIstA kric sISta STunA sISTa''' "may he"

AtAm → .. → sIyAstAm''' "may both"

thAs → .. → sISThAs''' "may you"

AthAm → .. → sIyAsthAm''' "may you2"

I won't bother to show any examples because the soft bent liG appears only in the veda, as far as I know. As I am veda-illiterate, I can't remember any of it used anywhere.

426 letters. -- 34C.bse 464 -- popularity 1

1055 @Soft @bent /liG rules.

(jherjus) (/jus)

jher jus ONPANINI 34108
( liG) jhi to (j)us.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 379

Exception to jhontaH and other rules, that would have made ant''' or at''' instead. Example --

dviS + @soft liG jhi → * dviS + jus yAsuTpa dviS + yAsusdviSyAsus "may they hate"

By rule usya, the us affixes eat up the A that is right before them --

dviS + @hard liG jhi → * dviS + jus yAsuTpa dviS + yAsus liGassa dviS + yA + us usya dviS + yus'''dviSyus "they would hate"

Wait, I'm confused. Did the us in ajuhavus come from this rule?

No. That's a laG, and got its jus from sija.

326 letters. -- 34C.bse 541 -- popularity 11

(sijabhyasta) (!sij)

sij;abhyasta;vidibhyaz ca ONPANINI 34109
( jhi to jus) after sic, stammered, vid.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 380 luG

The previous rule jherjus replaces liG jhi with jus. We must also replace jhi --

after sic

kR + luG jhi → .. → akR + sic + jhi → * akR + s + jus vadavraja akArSus kric akArSus "they did"

yA + luG jhi → .. → ayA + sic + jhi → * ayA + s + jus yamarama ayAsiSus "they went"

in the laG after a stammered --

dA + laG jhia + dadA + jhi → * adadA + jus usya adadus "they gave"

bhI + laG jhia + bibhI + jhi → * abibhI + jus jusica abibhe + us ecoya abibhayus "they were afraid"

hu + laG jhia + juhu + jhi → * ajuhu + jus jusica ajuho + us ecoya ajuhavus "they poured"

and in the laG of vid "know". Only example --

vid + laG jhivid + jus → .. → avidus "they knew"

Rules laGaHzA and dviSazca, too, may turn jhi into jus.

KAZIKA aliGarthaH ArambhaH. sicaH parasya, abhyastasaMjJakebhyo, vettezca uttarasya jher jus, Adezo bhavati. abhyastavidigrahaNam asijartham. Gita iti ca anuvartate. sicastAvat akArSuH. ahArSuH. abhastAt abibhayuH. ajihrayuH. ajAgaruH. videH aviduH.

But inria grammar says that the imperfect third person plural of vid [2] is avidan.

Bug! It is avidus.

The bhg has kavayo viduH somewhere. Is that vidus a liT? Or maybe a laG with the a removed?

Nope. That is a laT, with present meaning, "they know". Allowed by special rule vidolaTovA.

645 letters. -- 34C.bse 621 -- popularity 7

381 (/jhi to /jus) after !A only.

926 /iSic disappears before /It''' /Is'''.

(AtaH) (!Ata)

( jhi to jus) after A only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 381 luG

AFAIK, this rule might be reworded as " sija does not work after bhU". Only example --

bhU + luG jhi luGlaG abhU + jhiabhU + ant''' bhuvovug abhUvant saMyogAnta abhUvan "they were"

Now I'm confused... shouldn't " jhi to jus only after A" forbid the jus of bibhIyus "they'd fear"? bibhI does not end in A.

No. This rule is an exception ONLY to the previous rule, sija. The jus of bibhIyus came from jherjus.

283 letters. -- 34C.bse 701 -- popularity 4

63 @Vowel with !t means its own time.

544 (Delete !A !a) before /us /jus.

(laGazzAka) (!laG)

laGaH zAkaTAyanasy/aiva ONPANINI 34111
Optionally laG ( jhi to jus after A).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 382

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4251

This rule applies to lukclass roots that end in A. Example --

yA + laG jhi luGlaG ayA + jhi → * ayA + jus usya ayus "they went"

In the alternative, we get jhontaH as usual --

yA + laG jhiayA + jhi jhontaH ayA + anti → .. → ayAn "they went"

The word laGas "only laG" of this rule might look redundant, as, because of some complicated reasons, without it, this rule would work only in the laG anyway. Yet, the words are included to clarify that this rule works only on laG proper, but never on the loT that became laG-like by loTo laGvat. So we always say yAntu "let them go" with jhi, never with jus.

This rule does not work on the zluclass roots; those get jus complusorily by sija.

The word eva in the rule clarifies that the name of the grammarian zAkaTayANa is not used just pUjArtham, ie, that the rule is optional. This zAkaTayANasyaiva @trickles to the next rule, making it optional.

KAZIKA AtaH ityeva. AkArAntAduttarasya laGAdezasya jheH jusAdezo bhavati zAkaTAyanasya AcAryasya matena. ayuH. avuH. anyeSAM mate ayAn. nanu GitaH ityanuvartate. atra laGeva akArAntAdanantaro Git sambhavati na anyaH, tat kiM laGgrahaNena? evaM tarhi laGG eva yo laG vihitaH tasya yathA syAt, laGvadbhAvena yas tasya mA bhUt, loTo laGvad iti. yAntu. vAntu. sijabhyastavidibhyazcety ayam api jher jus loTo na bhavati. bibhyatu. jAgratu. vidantu. jusbhAvamAtraM hi mukhyena laGA vizeSyate. evakAra uttarArthaH.

657 letters. -- 34C.bse 797 -- popularity 1

(dviSazca) (!dviSa)

dviSaz ca ONPANINI 34112
After dviS too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 383

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4253

After dviS, laG jhi to jus optionally.

Only example --

dviS + laG jhi luGlaG adviS + jhi → * adviSus "they hated"

This rule is optional. If we choose to not apply it, we get adviSan by jhontaH etc.

KAZIKA laGaH zAkaTAyanasya ityeva. dviSaH parasya laGG Adezasya jher jusAdezo bhavati, zAkaTAyanasya AcAryasya matena. adviSuH. anyeSAM mate adviSan.

139 letters. -- 34C.bse 841 -- popularity 1

380 (/jhi to /jus) after /sic, @stammered, /vid.

(tiGzitsArva) (@hard)

tiG;zit sArvadhAtukam ONPANINI 34113
tiG and zit are hard.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 384

LISTENTO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgufLwRkIuA&feature=youtu.be&t=70m56s

The zit root affixes, and the tiG, are called " hard affixes" (sArvadhAtukam).


tip tas jhi mip vas mas are hard because they are in the tiG list.

zap, za, zyan, zAnac, zatR are hard because they are zit and are root affixes.

Lastly, as rule sthAnivad says that replacements inherit hard-ness, all replacements of hard tiG are also hard. Such as the t''' in apazyat and the am''' in adveSam.

See also next rule, ArdhadhAtukaM zeSaH.

KAZIKA tiGaH zitaz ca pratyayAH sArvadhAtuka-saMjJA bhavanti. bhavati. nayati. svapiti. roditi. pacamAnaH. yajamAnaH. sArvadhAtukapradezAH sArvadhAtuke yak ityevam AdayaH.

Why is being hard important?

Example. When we join bhU + laT tip, the tip affix is hard. Had it not been hard, rule kartarizap would not add zap next. So we would have gotten bhoti instead of the correct bhavati.

You made up that " hard" word. In all the other books about pANini that I have read, your "hard affixes" are simply called "sArvadhAtuka affixes". Why did you introduce a new word without need?

Because my students understand me far sooner when I say "this rule works before hard and soft" than when I say "this rule works before sArvadhAtuka and ArdhadhAtuka affixes". For some reason, they appear to mix up sArvadhAtuka and ArdhadhAtuka.

Why did you say " root affix"?

zi, zas, zI are not hard, even though they are zit, because they are not root affixes.

No. I meant, how do you know that this rule applies to root affixes only?

Because we have the trickle of dhAtoH "after root".

1036 letters. -- 34C.bse 850 -- popularity 75

(ArdhadhAtu) (@soft)

ArdhadhAtukaM zeSaH ONPANINI 34114
The rest are soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 385

The root affixes that are not zit and not tiG are called " soft".


TA, Ge, aN etc are neither soft nor hard, because they are not root affixes.

lyap is soft because it is a root affix, it is not zit, and it is not a tiG.

tip tas jhi etc, when they replace liT, are soft, because of the exception liTca.

Therefore their replacements Nal atus us etc. are also soft. And that's why cikSipus did not get zap.

KAZIKA tiGaH zitaz ca varjayitvA anyaH pratyayaH zeSo dhAtusaMzabdanena vihitaH ArdhadhAtuka-saMjJo bhavati. lavitA. lavitum. lavitavyam. dhAtoH ity eva. vRkSatvam. vRkSatA asti. lUbhyAm. lUbhiH. jugupsate.

Why did you say " root affix"?

No. I mean, how do you know that this "zeSa" in the sUtra means "the rest of the root affixes", and not in general "the rest of the affixes"?

See note at the bottom of tiGzit.

464 letters. -- 34C.bse 903 -- popularity 58

(liTca) (!liTc)

liT ca ONPANINI 34115
liT replacers (are soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 386

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4261

Exception to tiGzit.

So in

zuc + liTzuc + jhizuc + us liTidhA zuzucus "they were heartbroken"

kR + liT tipkR + NalcakR + Nal acoJNiti cakAra "he did, made"

the jhi and tip are soft. Their softness kept kartarizap and tanAdikR from working.

Also, as the jhi affix is soft here, sArvadhAtukamapit did not make it Git.

KAZIKA liD AdezaH tiGG ArdhadhAtuka-saMjJo bhavati. sArvadhAtuka-saMjJAyA apavAdaH. pecitha. zekitha. jagle. mamle. nanu ca ekasaMjJAdhikArAdanyatra samAvezo bhavati? satyam etat. iha tu evakAro 'nuvartate, sa niyamaM karisyati.

Wait. If jhi is not Git, why didn't puganta work in zuzucus "they wept"?

Because asaMyogAlliTkit made jhi into a kit here.

321 letters. -- 34C.bse 931 -- popularity 10

(liGAziSi) (@softl)

liG AziSi ONPANINI 34116
liG when wishing is optionally ( soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 387 tense

( Before going any further, read soft liG is quite useless . Ty. )

By rule AziSiliG;loTau, we may use either liG or loT to mean "I want this to happen", as in --

gam + loTgam + tip → .. → gacchatu "I wish he goes, may he go"

gam + liGgam + tip → .. → gacchet "I wish he goes, may he go"

the tip in these two verbs is hard, by tiGzit.

Now, according to this rule, we may make the hard liG tip be soft. This makes different rules work on it, so that tip no longer turns into et''', but into yAt''' --

gam + liGgam + @hard tip → * gam + @soft tip → .. → gamyAt "I wish he goes, may he go"

This soft liG is called ben or benedictive in inria, and AzIrliG in the hyderabad verb forms generator. The ordinary hard liG is called opt or optative in inria, and vidhiliG in hyderabad.

KAZIKA AziSi viSaye yo liG sa ArdhadhAtukasaMjJo bhavati. sArvadhAtukasaMjJAyA apavAdaH. samAvezazca evakArAnuvRtterna bhavati. laviSISTa. paviSISTa. AziSi iti kim? lunIyAt. punIyAt.

Why do we say "when wishing"?

By vidhinimantra, liG has other senses, such as "he would go" or "let him go". When the liG has those other meanings, this rule will never work. So for "he would go", gacchet is allowed, but not gamyAt.

When should I use the soft liG myself?

Basically, never. Please see the soft liG is used once in a blue moon .

What rules made gacchet and gamyAt above?

In those examples, the hard tip affix turned into et''', and the soft tip affix turned into yAt'''. Click et''' or yAt''' for the small details.

I have a grammar book that says that ploSISTa is a soft liG, "may he jump". Yet, typing ploSiSTa into inria reader I get gray. How come?

ploSiSTa is correct, but inria doesn't recognize the bent soft liG. That's okay, as the bent liG is never found in Classical Sanskrit.

How come inria declension , as of 2021, says that the soft liG of plu [1] is pluyAt?

Bug. That should be ploSiSTa, with ta not tip.

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