34067 kartari karmaNi ←

chunk 24: 34099 Git tenses

→ 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes

34099 from Git tense. nityaGGitaH
34100 i to . itazca
34101 tas thas tha mip to tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' . tasthasthamipAntAntantAmaH
34102 liG gets sIyuT. liGassIyuT
34103 Flat gets yAs and G label. yAsuTparasmaipadeSUdAttoGicca
34105 jha to ran. jhasyaran
34106 liG iT' to a'. iTot
34107 t th get suT. suTtithoH
34108 jhi to us. jherjus
34109 after sic, stammered, vid. sijabhyastavidibhyazca
34110 after A only. AtaH
34111 Optionally laG . laGazzAkaTAyanasyaiva
34112 After dviS too. dviSazca
34113 tiG and zit are hard. tiGzitsArvadhAtukam
34114 The rest are soft. ArdhadhAtukaMzeSaH
34115 liT replacers . liTca
34116 liG when wishing is optionally . liGAziSi


nityaM GitaH ONPANINI 34099
( Chop vas mas) from Git tense.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 370

The Git tenses are liG laG lRG luG. When they are replaced with vas and mas, those turn into va''' ma'''.

Examples --

dviS + laG mas luGlaG adviS + mas → advis + ma'''adviSma "we hated"

dviS + lRG mas → .. → advekSya + mas → adveksya + ma''' atodIrgho advekSyAma "we would have hated"

luG mas → ma'''

advikSAma "we hated"

@hard liG mas → ma''' yAsuTpa yAma

dviSyAma "we'd hate / may we hate"

@soft liG mas → ma''' yAsuTpa yAsma

dviSyAsma "may we hate"

dviS + luG mas → dviS + ma''' luGlaG advis + maadviS + cli + ma kSa-aorist adviS + sa + ma atodIrghoyaJi adviS + sA + ma SaDhoHkassi advikSAma

dviS + loT mas → dviS + ma''' ADuttama dviS + Ama''' puganta dveSAma "let's hate"


itaz ca ONPANINI 34100
i (of Git tense) to ( lopa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 371

In more words --

"The tip jhi sip that replaced a Git tense lose i."

Examples with tip --

pac + laG tip → pac + t'''paca + t luGlaG apacza + tapacat "he cooked"

vac + luG tip → vac + t''' → .. → avocat "he said" ( see vaca::um )

zuc + lRG tip → zuc + t''' → .. → azociSyat "he would have grieved"

Examples with sip --

kSip + laG sip → kSip + s''' luGlaG akSip + sa kSip + za + sakSipas "you shot"

bhU + @soft liG sip → bhU + s''' → .. → bhU + yAs'''bhUyAs "may you be"

The jh''' will be replaced with ant''' or at''' by jhontaH or its exceptions --

nRt + laG jhi → nRt + jh''' → .. → anRt + zyan + jh jhontaH anRtya + ant''' atoguNe anRtyant saMyogAnta anRtyan "they danced"

bhI + laG jhi → bhI + jh''' → .. → abibhI + jh adabhyastAt abibhI + at''' ikoyaNaci abibhyat "they were afraid"


tas;thas; tha;mipAM tAM;taM; t'-.AmaH ONPANINI 34101
tas thas tha mip to tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' (in Git tenses).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 372

Whn a Git tense is replaced with tas thas tha mip, replace those with tAm''' tam''' ta''' am''' respectively --

Examples of tas to tAm''' --

car + laGcar + tas → car + tAm'''car + zap + tAm luGlaG acar + zap + tAmacaratAm "they2 walked"

Examples of thas to tam''' --

car + laG thas → car + tam''' → .. → acaratam "you2 walked"

dviS + lRG thas → dviS + tam''' luGlaG adviS + tamadviS + sya + tam puganta adveS + sya + tam SaDhoHkassi advekSyatam "you2'd've hated"

Examples of tha to ta''' --

car + laG tha → car + ta''' → .. → acarata "y'all walked"

cara + @hard liG tha → cara + ta'''cara + eta'''careta "y'all should walk"

Examples of mip to am''' --

car + laG mip → car + am''' → .. → acaram "I walked"

zru + luG mip → zru + am''' luGlaG azru + amazru + cli + amazru + sic + am sicivRddhiH azrauSam "I heard"

See also ta ta synchretism .


liGaH sIyuT ONPANINI 34102
( Bent) liG gets sIyuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 373

The liG affixes are hard more often than not (see page soft liG is quite useless ). So I'll explain the hard first.

When they are hard, this rule adds sIy in front of the affix and then rule liGassa erases the s. Therefore seven of the nine affixes end up looking like the bent laG affixes, but with Iy added in front.

The nine bent liG, when hard, are --

Ita''' IyAtAm''' Iran'''

IthAs''' IyAthAm''' Idhvam'''

Iya''' Ivahi''' Imahi'''

Notice that jha turned into ran by jhasyaran.

And am''' turned into a' by iTot.

All nine got Iy in front, but six of those lost the y by lopovyorvali.

Examples --

dviS + @hard liG ta → dviS + Ita'''dviSIta "he would hate"

plu + @hard liG taplava + ta → plava + Ita''' AdguNaH plaveta "he would jump"

plu + @hard liG iT'plava + i → plava + Iya''' AdguNaH plaveya "I would jump"

plu + @hard liG jhaplava + jha → plava + Iran''' AdguNaH plaveran "they would jump"

For the soft liG bents, see soft bent liG .

Back to rules that make the hard bent liG .


yAsuT parasmaipadeS%UdAtto Gic ca ONPANINI 34103
Flat ( liG) gets yAs(uT) and G label.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 374

This is an exception to liGassIyuT, that would otherwise have added sIy before all liG-replacers. By this exception, the flat liG get yAs in front, and only the bent liG get sIy.

Important: this rule will not work after a, because of exception atoyeyaH.

The u label of yAs(uT) is just padding. The T label is for Adyantau, so we must add yAs in front of our affix.

The s is real, but it will almost always be lost by liGassa --

dviS + @hard liG tipdviS + t''' → dviS + GyAst liGassa dviS + yAt'''dviSyAt "he would hate; may he hate"

dviS + @hard liG masdviS + ma''' → dviS + GyAsma liGassa dviS + yAma'''dviSyAma "we would hate; may we hate"

If the liG is soft (see soft liG), liGassa won't work --

dviS + @soft liG masdviS + ma''' → dviS + GyAsmadviS + yAsma'''dviSyAsma "may we hate"

As in

adharmanM dviSyAsma "may we hate evil"

See hard flat liG for a list of the nine flat affixes with yA in front.

See soft flat liG for a list of the nine soft affixes with yAs in front.

See also hard flat liG after a .


jhasya ran ONPANINI 34105
( liG) jha to ran.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 375

Exception to jhontaH ff.

This makes jha into ran, then it will turn into Iran''' or sIran''', this way --

@hard liG jha → ran liGassIyuT sIran''' liGassa Iran'''

@soft liG jha → ran liGassIyuT sIran'''

as in --

labh- + @hard liG jhalabh + Iran''' kartarizap labha + Iran''' AdguNaH labheran "they'd get"

dviS- + @hard liG jhadviS + Iran'''dviSIran "they'd hate"

in the soft liG, liGassa won't work, so sIran''' stays --

labh- + @soft liG jha → labh + ranlabh + sIran''' kharica lap + sIranlapsIran "may they get"

plu- + @soft liG jha → plu + ranplu + sIran''' hardsoft plo + sIran kric ploSIran "may they jump"

Back to rules that make the hard bent liG .


iTo 't ONPANINI 34106
liG iT' to a'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 376

This a' of course always gets sIyuT, making sIya'''. Which loses the s when it is hard (in practice: always), making Iya'''.

This sIya''' is supposed to stay in the soft liG, but I won't even bother to show any examples because no one has used the bent soft liG forms in the last two thousand years. So the sIyuT will almost always be hard and liGassa erases the s --

@hard liG iT' → a' liGassIyuT sIya''' liGassa Iya'''

Examples --

As + Iya'''AsIya "I would sit"

dviS + Iya'''dviSIya "I would hate"

and after a --

plu + zap + Iya'''plava + Iya AdguNaH plaveya "I would jump"

dRz + yak + Iya''' AdguNaH dRzyeya "I would be seen"

Back to hard bent liG .

Back to rules that make the hard bent liG .


suT tithoH ONPANINI 34107
t th (inside liG) get suT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 377

(By Adyantau, "get suT" means "get an s added in front".)

This rule works usefully only on the soft bent liG that have t th, namely, ta AtAm thAs AthAm.

These get s before the t by this rule, and sIyuT by liGassIyuT, and some kric and STunA, making --

@soft liG ta → sta liGassIyuT sIysta lopovyo sIstA kric sISta STunA sISTa''' "may he"

AtAm → .. → sIyAstAm''' "may both"

thAs → .. → sISThAs''' "may you"

AthAm → .. → sIyAsthAm''' "may you2"

I won't bother to show any examples because the soft bent liG appears only in the veda, as far as I know. As I am veda-illiterate, I can't remember any of it used anywhere.


jher jus ONPANINI 34108
( liG) jhi to (j)us.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 378

Exception to jhontaH and other rules, that would have made ant''' or at''' instead. Example --

dviS + @soft liG jhi → dviS + jus yAsuTpa dviS + yAsusdviSyAsus "may they hate"

By rule usya, the us affixes eat up the A that is right before them --

dviS + @hard liG jhi → dviS + jus yAsuTpa dviS + yAsus liGassa dviS + yA + us usya dviS + yus'''dviSyus "they would hate"


sij;abhyasta;vidibhyaz ca ONPANINI 34109
( jhi to jus) after sic, stammered, vid.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 379 luG

The previous rule jherjus replaces liG jhi with jus. We must also replace jhi --

after sic

kR + luG jhi → .. → akR + sic + jhi → akR + s + jus vadavraja akArSus kric akArSus "they did"

yA + luG jhi → .. → ayA + sic + jhi → ayA + s + jus yamarama ayAsiSus "they went"

in the laG after a stammered --

dA + laG jhia + dadA + jhi → adadA + jus usya adadus "they gave"

bhI + laG jhia + bibhI + jhi → abibhI + jus jusica abibhe + us ecoya abibhayus "they were afraid"

hu + laG jhia + juhu + jhi → ajuhu + jus jusica ajuho + us ecoya ajuhavus "they poured"

and in the laG of vid "know". Only example --

vid + laG jhivid + jus → .. → avidus "they knew"

Rules laGaHzA and dviSazca, too, may turn jhi into jus.


( jhi to jus) after A only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 380 luG

AFAIK, this rule might be reworded as " sija does not work after bhU". Only example --

bhU + luG jhi luGlaG abhU + jhiabhU + ant''' bhuvovug abhUvant saMyogAnta abhUvan "they were"


laGaH zAkaTAyanasy/aiva ONPANINI 34111
Optionally laG ( jhi to jus after A).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 381

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4251

This rule applies to lukclass roots that end in A. Example --

yA + laG jhi luGlaG ayA + jhi → ayA + jus usya ayus "they went"

In the alternative, we get jhontaH as usual --

yA + laG jhiayA + jhi jhontaH ayA + anti → .. → ayAn "they went"

vasamAneSu pArtheSu matsyasya nagare tadA mahAratheSu channeSu mAsA daza samatyayuH

"then while the powerful pANdavas were living incognito in virATa's city, ten months passed"

Notice that samatyayAn would have worked fine here.


dviSaz ca ONPANINI 34112
After dviS too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 382

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4253

After dviS, laG jhi to jus optionally.

Only example --

dviS + laG jhi luGlaG adviS + jhi → adviSus "they hated"

In the alternative, we get adviSan by jhontaH etc.


tiG;zit sArvadhAtukam ONPANINI 34113
tiG and zit are hard.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 383

LISTENTO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgufLwRkIuA&feature=youtu.be&t=70m56s

The zit root affixes, and the tiG, are called " hard affixes" (sArvadhAtukam).


tip tas jhi mip vas mas are hard because they are in the tiG list.

zap, za, zyan, zAnac, zatR are hard because they are zit and are root affixes.

Lastly, as rule sthAnivad says that replacements inherit hard-ness, all replacements of hard tiG are also hard. Such as the t''' in apazyat and the am''' in adveSam.

See also next rule, ArdhadhAtukaM zeSaH.


ArdhadhAtukaM zeSaH ONPANINI 34114
The rest are soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 384

The root affixes that are not zit and not tiG are called " soft".


TA, Ge, aN etc are neither soft nor hard, because they are not root affixes.

lyap is soft because it is a root affix, it is not zit, and it is not a tiG.

tip tas jhi etc, when they replace liT, are soft, because of the exception liTca.

Therefore their replacements Nal atus us etc. are also soft. And that's why cikSipus did not get zap.


liT ca ONPANINI 34115
liT replacers (are soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 385

LISTENTO https://youtu.be/hgufLwRkIuA?t=4261

Exception to tiGzit.

So in

zuc + liTzuc + jhizuc + us liTidhA zuzucus "they were heartbroken"

kR + liT tipkR + NalcakR + Nal acoJNiti cakAra "he did, made"

the jhi and tip are soft. Their softness kept kartarizap and tanAdikR from working.

Also, as the jhi affix is soft here, sArvadhAtukamapit did not make it Git.


liG AziSi ONPANINI 34116
liG when wishing is optionally ( soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 386 tense

( Before going any further, read soft liG is quite useless . Ty. )

By rule AziSiliG;loTau, we may use either liG or loT to mean "I want this to happen", as in --

gam + loTgam + tip → .. → gacchatu "I wish he goes, may he go"

gam + liGgam + tip → .. → gacchet "I wish he goes, may he go"

the tip in these two verbs is hard, by tiGzit.

Now, according to this rule, we may make the hard liG tip be soft. This makes different rules work on it, so that tip no longer turns into et''', but into yAt''' --

gam + liGgam + @hard tip → gam + @soft tip → .. → gamyAt "I wish he goes, may he go"

This soft liG is called ben or benedictive in inria, and AzIrliG in the hyderabad verb forms generator. The ordinary hard liG is called opt or optative in inria, and vidhiliG in hyderabad.

34067 kartari karmaNi ←

chunk 24: 34099 Git tenses

→ 41001 sup endings and feminine affixes