11049 rule interpretation ←

chunk 6: 12001 automatic labels

→ 12027 length, accent, labels

12001 After gAG and kuTAdi what is not JNit is Git. gAGkuTAdibhyoJNinGit
12004 Hard apit . sArvadhAtukamapit
12005 liT is kit after non-cluster. asaMyogAlliTkit
12008 and san after rud vid muS grah svap pracch. rudavidamuSagrahisvapipracchassaMzca
12009 iT-less after ik ikojhal
12010 After ik-plus-/hal, . halantAcca
12011 Bent soft liG and sic before bent, . liGsicAvAtmanepadeSu
12012 After R too. uzca
12014 After han, sic . hanassic
12018 itvA is not . naktvAseT
12023 itvA is optionally kit after nth mph-enders nopadhAtthaphAntAdvA
12026 and iSan are optionally kit after a root that begins with a hal and ends in i u I U plus ral. ralovyupadhAddhalAdessaMzca


gAG;kuTAdibhyo '-JNin@ Git ONPANINI 12001
After gAG and kuTAdi what is not JNit is Git.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 67

gAG is the replacement of iG "study" made by gAGliTi ff. Example. Here sic becomes (G)s(ic), and the G label makes ghumA work --

adhi + gAG + sic + ta → adhi + gAg + (G)sic + ta ghumA adhi + gI + sta luGlaG adhyagIsta kric adhyagISta STunA adhyagISTa "he studied"

The kuTAdi are the zaclass roots from 06.0093 kuT "act crookedly" to 06.0136 kuG "groan". Example. Here tRc becomes (G)itR(c), and the G label makes puganta not work --

kuT + tRc ArdhadhAtukasyeD kuT + itR → kuT + (G)itRkuTitR- "a crook" ( with no puganta )

By a vArttika, the root AD 06.0013 vyac "deceive" works as if it were a kuTAdi. Here tA gets a G label that makes grahijyA work --

vyac + luT tipvyac + tA ArdhadhAtukasyeD vyac + itA → vyac + (G)itA grahijyA vicitA "he will deceive"

kuT + Nic + laT tip → .. → utkoTayati "it bends upwards"


sArvadhAtukam apit ONPANINI 12004
Hard apit (is Git).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 68

All hard apit affixes have G label.


za zyan znu znA always have G label, because of this rule.

tas jhi thas tha vas mas AtAm jha get G label from this rule, but only when they are hard (that is, when neither liTca nor liGAziSi worked).


zap is never Git -- as it is hard but pit, it never gets G from this rule, and it happens that it never gets G from any other rules

hard tip sip mip are hard, but also pit. So they do not get G label from this rule (they might still get G from yAsuTpa).

atus us are apit, but they are soft by liTca. So they are not Git (yet they are often kit by asaMyogAlliTkit).

Nal and lyap are neither hard nor apit. So they are aGit. The lyap has k label because it always replaces ktvA (see sthAnivad). But Nal never gets any k from anywhere.


asaMyogAl liT kit ONPANINI 12005
( apit) liT is kit after non- cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 69

The k label --

stops puganta hardsoft ata::upa etc by kGitica,

causes stretching by vacisvapi or grahijyA,

makes aniditA work.

Example of no puganta --

kSip + liT tas → kSip + (k)tas → .. → cikSipatus "both shot"

Example of no hardsoft --

kR + liT mas → kR + (k)maskR + macakR + macakRma "we made"

Example of stretching --

vac + liT tasvac + atus → vac + (k)atus vacisvapi uc + atus liTidhA u + uc + atus akassa Ucatus "both said"

Example of aniditA not working. Here AtAm does not get label k because it is after a cluster, so the M stays --

sraMs + liT AtAm Tita sraMs + Ate''' liTidhA sra + sraMs + Ate halAdizze sasraMsAte "both fall asunder"

kR + Nal acoJNiti kAr + Nal liTidhA kA + kAr + Nal hrasvaH ka + kAr + Nal kuhozcuH cakAra "made"

bhid + Nal puganta bhed + Nal liTidhA bibheda "he broke, he split"

See also summary of k G labels in tiG .


ruda;vida; muSa;grahi; svapi;pracchaH saMz ca ONPANINI 12008
( ktvA) and san (are kit) after rud vid muS grah svap pracch.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 70

Example: these six do not get puganta because itvA is kit here --

rud + ktvArud + itvA (wich is akit) → rud + i(k)tvAruditvA "after crying" ( no puganta here )

viditvA "after knowing"

muSitvA "after stealing"

rud + san + laT tip sanyaGoH rurud + sa + ti → .. → rurudiSati "wants to cry"

vividizati "wants to know"

mumuSiSati "wants to steal"

As svap and pracch are aniT roots, we would get suptvA pRSTvA anyway even if this rule did not exist. But the rule needs to mention these roots so that san causes stretching --

svap + san → svap + sa(k) vacisvapi sup + sa sanyaGoH su + supsa kric suSupsa "want to sleep"

pracch + san kirazcapaJcabhyaH pracch + iSan → pracch + (k)iSa grahijyA pRcch + (k)iSa sanyaGoH pRpRcchiSa sanyataH pipRcchiSa "want to ask"

grah + ktvA ArdhadhAtukasyeD grah + itvA → grah + (k)itvA grahijyA gRhitvA graholiTi gRhItvA "after grabbing"

grah + san → grah + (k)sa grahijyA gRh + sa sanyaGoH gRgRh + sa sanyataH gigRh + sa kuhozcuH jigRh + sa hoDhaH jigRDh + sa SaDhoHkassi jigRksa ekAcoba jighRksa kric jighRkSa "want to grab"


iko jhal ONPANINI 12009
iT-less ( san is kit) after ikmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 71 iT

And that's why there's no hardsoft in --

cicISati "wants to collect"

tuSTUSati "wants to praise"

cikIrSati "wants to make"

(lengthening from ajjhanagamAMsani)

This rule works on ik ender roots. For ik-plus-consonant enders, see next rule, halantAcca.

If the san has iT then hardsoft works as usual --

smi + san + laT tip → .. → smi + iSan + zap + tip → .. → sismayiSati "wants to smile"


hal-antAc ca ONPANINI 12010
After ik-plus- hal, ( iT-less san is kit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 72 iT

The k label makes kGitica work, so there is no puganta in --

yudh "fight" + san sanyaGoH yu + yudh + sa → yu + yudh + (k)sa kharica yuyutsa "be about to fight, want to fight"

Even though the rule just says "roots that end in ik plus consonant", we in fact also get kitness after riits that end in ik plus cluster, such as dimbh or tRMh.


liG;sicAv AtmanepadeSu ONPANINI 12011
Bent soft liG and sic before bent, (when iT-less, are kit after ik-plus- hal roots).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 73 iT

The root bhid ends in ik plus hal and is aniT.

Therefore, after bhid, the soft bent liG affixes (such as sISTa'''), when iT-less, are kit and don't cause puganta --

bhid + sISTa''' → bhid + sISTa(k) kharica bhitsISTa "may he split, may he break"

and sic too, when iT-less, is kit, but only before a bent, such as ta. So no puganta here either --

bhid + luG ta → .. → a + bhid + sic + ta → a + bhid + s(k) + ta jhalojhali abhidta "he broke" kharica abhitta

See also uzca below.

yaj + sISTa''' vrazcabhrasja yaSsISTa SaDhoHkassi yaksISTayakSISTa "may he sacrifice" kric

yaJ + luG tayaj + sic + ta luGlaG ayaj + s + ta jhalojhali ayajta vrazcabhrasja ayaSta STunA ayaSTa "he sacrificed"

liG;sicAv AtmanepadeSu is short for liGG AtmanepadeSu ca sij AtmanepadeSu ca.

liGG AtmanepadeSu means "the liG replacements when they are bent". Here sup' has its everyday meaning of expressing condition or circumstance.

sij AtmanepadeSu means " sic before bents" Here sup' means "before" by tasminniti.

sukSmatA 'sti na tu drohaK kaz cin manasi pANineH "pANini is slick, but he ain't mean."


uz ca ONPANINI 12012
After R too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 74

After R, iT-less bent soft liG, and iT-less sic before bent, are kit.

Examples. The aniT root kR gets no hardsoft here --

kR + sISTa''' → kR + sISTa(k) kric kRSISTa "may it be made; may he make"

kR + luG takR + sic + ta → kR + (k)s(ic) + ta luGlaG akR + s + ta hrasvAdaGgAt akRta "he made"

Conterexamples. After vR "choose or cover" we have iSiSTa and iSic, so this rule won't work, and the forms will be --

variSiSTa "may he choose"

avariSTa "he chose"

We may also say avarISTa, by vqtovA.


hanaH sic ONPANINI 12014
After han, sic (is kit before bent).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 75

This k label makes anudAtto work. Therefore, this rule can be reworded as --

" han loses n before sic before bent"

Example before a serious --

AG + han + luG ta → .. → Ahan + sic + ta → Ahan + (k)sic + ta anudAtto Aha + s + ta hrasvAdaGgAt Ahata "he hit"

Examples elsewhere --

Ahan + luG jha → .. → Ahasata "they hit"

Ahan + luG AtAm → .. → AhasAtAm "both hit"

Ahan + luG mahi → .. → Ahasmahi "we hit"


na ktvA seT ONPANINI 12018
itvA is not ( kit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 76

" itvA" is (k)tvA with iT added.

This rule says that itvA has no k label, notwithstanding sthAnivad. That's why there's no kGitica here --

div + ktvAdiv + itvA puganta devitvA "gambled and; shone and"

vRt + ktvAvRt + itvA puganta vartitvA "became and"

See also exception n'-.opadhAt tha;ph'-.AntAd vA.


n'-.opadhAt tha;ph'-.AntAd vA ONPANINI 12023
itvA is optionally kit after nth mph-endersmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 77

Optional exception to naktvAseT, that makes itvA compulsorily akit.

If we take this option and make itvA into a kit, then the nexttolast nasal goes --

granth + itvA → granth + (k)itvA aniditA grathitvA "composed and"

gumph + itvA → gumph + (k)itvAguphitvA

Alternatively, itvA is akit and the nasal stays --

granth + itvAgranthitvA "composed and"

gumph + itvAgumphitvA


ralo v;y-upadhAd dhal-AdeH saMz ca ONPANINI 12026
( itvA) and iSan are optionally kit after a root that begins with a hal and ends in i u I U plus ral.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 78

Some such roots are dyut likh.

Examples with itvA --

dyutitvA dyotitvA

likhitvA lekhitvA

With iSan --

didyutiSate didyotiSate

lilikhiSati lilekhiSati

vRt + itvA puganta vartitvA

vi + vRt + iSan + laT ta → .. → vivartiSate


and ktvA is of course also kit, because rule itvA is not (kit) didn't de- kit it --


11049 rule interpretation ←

chunk 6: 12001 automatic labels

→ 12027 length, accent, labels