special words ←

chunk 64: preverbs

→ DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

List of preverbs.
upa "near; down"
AG "coming"
anu "after"
ava "down"
dus means bad, hard to do, or evil
ku' means evil or bad
su' means good, very, or easily
ni "down"
pari "around"
pra "pre-"
prati "towards; against"


List of preverbs.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1198

The meanings of the prAdi can be quite unpredictable. And in some cases they are meaningless (pravizati and vizati both mean "enter", Arohati and rohati are both "climb"). So take the following list as "general guidelines", not as accurate translations --

abhi "towards, approaching"

adhi "towards, approaching"

AG as in Agacchati "comes", from gacchati "goes" (not same as AG', and old name for TA)

anu "following"

apa "away; south"

ati "surpassing, beyond, too much"

ava "down; south"

ni "down"

pari "around"

sam "coming together"

ud "up; north"

upa "near; down"

vi "all around, spreading outwards, going apart"

See also the upasarga list at learnsanskrit dor org.


upa "near; down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1199


AG "coming"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1200

The preverb A(G) expresses movement towards here --

gacchati "goes"

Agacchati "comes"

patanty ulkAH "meteors are falling"

Apatanty ulkAH "meteors are falling towards us"

In some cases, AG has no meaning --

rohati "climbs"

Arohati "climbs"

Rule aT;ku;pv;AG;nu mentions this AG so as to remind us that Natvam can skip it over when it is before a Nopadeza root --

pari + AG + naddha ikoyaNaci paryA + naddha Natvam paryANaddha-


anu "after"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1201

When anu is a preverb it can mean "after" in the sense of "following" --

gacchati "goes"

anugacchati "goes after, follows"

dravati "runs"

anudravati "runs after, chases"

anuplavate "jumps after, swims after, sails after"

With bhU, it makes "experience" --

bhavati "is there"

anubhavati "experiences"


ava "down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1202

ava usually means "downward" --

rohati "climbs"

avarohati "climbs down, descends"

But joined to verbs meaning "go", it makes "understand" --

gacchati "goes"

avagacchati "understands"

eti "goes"

avaiti "understands"

To mean "undergo" in the sense of "experience (duress etc.)", those won't work. Use anu + bhU instead.


dus means bad, hard to do, or evilmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1203

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

It is often found in front of action nouns with the meaning of "hard to do" --

dus + labh + khaldurlabhaH "hard to get"

duSkara- "hard to do"

dusHsaha "hard to endure"

duSprApa "hard to get"

(Notice that dus sometimes sounds like duS before p ph k kh. See id;ud-upa)

It can also be compounded in front of any noun to mean "bad" or "evil" --

durlAbhaH "a bad acquisition"

durmati- "weak-minded; evil-minded"

Those can get the su' that means "very" --

sudurlabhaH "very hard to get"

See also ku', su'.


ku' means evil or badmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1204

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

kupuruSa- "bad man"

kuputra- "wicked son"

See also su', dus.


su' means good, very, or easilymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1205

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

Don't confuse it with the su affix.

sukRta- "well done"

sumahat- "very big"

sulabha- "easy to get"

See also ku', dus.


ni "down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1206

The preverb ni may mean "down" --

patati "flies"

nipatati "flies down"

utpatati "flies up" (see ud)

Notice that ava too means "down".


pari "around"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1207

The preverb pari means "around" --

kUpaGM gacchati "goes to the well"

kUpamM parigacchati "goes around the well"


pra "pre-"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1208

The preverb pra may mean --

in front, forward

start to

previously, pre-


But, in the epics, it often appears to be used as filler.

Back to list of preverbs.


prati "towards; against"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1209

prati as a preverb means --


pratigacchati "goes towards"

backwards, against, counter-, back --

pratigacchati "goes back"

vijitya gAz ca prati-yAtu pArthaH "let him take the cows and go back"

pratihanti "he counterstrikes"

prativadati "speaks back, answers"

before a noun it can mean --


pratyac- "western" (has ac''')


pratiloma "against the hair"

every (only before time words)

pratidinam "every day"


sammmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1210

The preverb sam sometimes means "coming together", sometimes "all together" --

girim agacchan "they went to the mountain (each one on its own)"

giriM samagacchan "they went to the mountain (together); they gathered at the mountain"

It can mean also "completely", like the "up" in English "eat up" --

bhakSayatv ekaH "only one person should eat this"

samM-bhakSayatv ekaH "only one person should eat this up"

In the epics, sam often appears to be just filler. I mean to say, verbs such as samagacchat often appear to mean exactly the same thing as agacchat "came".

Back to list of preverbs.


udmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1211

The preverb ud means "up" --

patati "flies"

utpatati "flies up, takes off"

nipatati "flies down, lands" (see ni)

When not a preverb, it can mean "up" or "north".

"Up" can mean "north" because when you are "oriented", that is, looking to the Orient (rising sun), the himAlaya, which is the highest part of the country, falls to your left.


vimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1212

The preverb vi means "away" --

krINAti he buys

vikrINAti he sells

stIrNa- "spread"

vistIrNa- "spread far and wide"

dravanti "they run"

vidravanti "they run away in all directions"

IkSate "he looks"

vIkSate "he looks all around, he commands a view of"

trasta- "scared"

vi-trasta- "scared out of his wits, terrified, panicked"

zruta- "heard about"

vi-zruta- "heard about all over, famous, renowned"

In the epics, vi is often just to be ignored.

As a former before a noun, vi means "lacking, deprived of" --

vi-ratha- "deprived of his car"

vi-varNa- "discolored"

vi-yoga- "disconnection"

vi-zoka- "sorrowless"

special words ←

chunk 64: preverbs

→ DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------