preverbs ←

chunk 64: DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

→ short definitions

True r is the wordfinal r that is not a ru.
words with true r
seT aniT veT
About the postpositions
prAdi are pra etc.
rootnouns are rootlike nouns.
ending means sup or tiG
Wordfinal is what is at the end a word.

(@truer) (@tru)

True r is the wordfinal r that is not a ru.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1280

There are two kinds of wordfinal r --

the ru, that carry label u, used to be s earlier

and the rest, that don't carry label u, were r from the start.

I call the wordfinal r that doesn't carry label u " true r ".

A ru always comes from rules such as sasaju, ahan, nazchavyaprazAn, that replaced s (or some other wordfinal letter) with ru. Example --

azva + suazvas sasaju azva + ru beforepause azvaH

The words with true r had r from the start. Examples --

punar hasati "laughs again"

hasati punar beforepause hasati punaH "laughs again"

The words that end in s and turn into ru are at least a hundred times more common that the words that end in true r. So when you hear a word that ends in H you are always going to guess that it originally ended in s, and then got sasaju and kharava. This means that you need to know the most common words with true r .

626 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 3 -- popularity 5

1000 [@True r] stays before /sup'.

1626 @inria uses !H to mean !s.

(wordswithtruer) (wo)

words with true rmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1281

Words that end in true r are few. These are some of the most common --


punar "again"

prAtar "in the morning"

antar "between, amidst; inner"


pitar "hey father"

(and also mAtar, kSattar, bhrAtar, svasar, and all the other words made by adding the calling after an R nounbase that got no GI.)

ahar "day" ( made from ahan- n + su by rule ahan )

There are also a handful of nounbases that end in r, such as

gir- f "speech"

dhur- f "yoke"

pur- f "city"

( Most of those are rootnouns, and rvoru will work on them. )

This nounbasefinal r will become wordfinal when svAdiSva says so --

gir + sup' svAdiSva gir ( word ) rvoru gIrsu kric gIrSu "in words"

dhur + sup'dhUrSu "in yokes" ( same steps )

and when halGyA, supodhA, svamorna or other rules erase their sup --

gir + su halGyA gir rvoru gIr "speech"

Some sentences with the true r-enders punar, prAtar, and kSattar --

punar eva tadA bhImo rAjAnam idam abravIt

tato rAtryAM vyatItAyAmM prAtar utthAya sa dvijaH

droNasya vacanaM zrutvA dhRtarASTro 'bravId idam | samyag Aha guruH kSattar upAvartaya pANDavAn ||

781 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 36 -- popularity 1

(/seT) (/seT)

seT aniT veTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1282

There are three groups of roots --

seT roots make ArdhadhAtukasyeDvalAdeH work.

aniT roots don't.

veT roots optionally do.

Crude recipe to figure out which root is in which class --

Roots that have more than one vowel are all seT.

For the one-vowellers, the rule of thumb is --

" Most R-RR-U- hal-enders are seT, and most of the others are aniT. "

This rule sorts out correctly most of the roots (for instance bhU car are seT, dA nI kR are aniT). But it fails with

(A) the few dozens of veT roots,

(B) a handful of vowel roots, and

(C) a hundred of consonant roots, like the very common: dviS kSip dRz zak.

So you might memorize the hundred-odd exceptions and be done with it, as Kale's grammar advises. But I've never done that; instead, if I want to see if a root is seT or veT or aniT, I look at the entry for that root in the mmw. It always lists derivatives and if many have an iT, I conclude that the root might be seT. Another thing you could do, TBH, is look at the ashtadhyayi dot com dhAtupATha but TBH I never did that myself.

816 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 131 -- popularity 36

(@preposition) (@pre)

About the postpositionsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1283

The postpositions are certain unchanging words that link to a noun, that always takes the same case.

Examples --

The postposition saha means "together" and is always linked to a noun that has third, like here umayA ("with umA") --

Agato hara:: umayA saha "ziva came with umA"

The postposition prati means "towards" and is used with a noun that means the place towards which motion happens. That noun always carries second --

gacchatasH sAgaramM prati "they are going towards the sea"

This postposition prati is not the same thing as the preverb prati --

pratigacchatasH sAgaram "they are going towards the sea"

Postpositions usually come right after whatever they link by sense to --

Agato hara:: umayA saha "ziva came with umA"

but sometimes they appear in front --

Agato harasH sahomayA "ziva came with umA"

or even in the middle --

Agato hara:: umayA saha devyA "ziva came with the goddess umA"

The exception to that is the A that means "up to". It is always used before a noun that has fifth --

A samudrAt "up to the sea"

789 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 317 -- popularity 2

1284 /prAdi are !pra etc.

1652 /saha and /sArdham "with"

(/prAdi) (/prAd)

prAdi are pra etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1284

The prAdi are --

adhi abhi AG anu

ati apa api ava

dur dus ni nir nis

pari pra parA prati

sam su' upa ud vi

They are words, and also unchanging.

(see also eGipararUpam).

Most of the prAdi are used often as preverbs, and seldom as postpositions.

For instance, anu means "after" in thesens4e of following.

Use as preverb --

siMho 'nudravati mRgam "lion after-runs deer, lion chases deer"

Use as postposition --

siMho dravati mRgam anu "lion runs after deer, lion chases deer"

The use as postposition is uncommon in the epics, but very common in the veda.

See also list of preverbs.

446 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 406 -- popularity 6

163 [@unchanging compound]s are made by the next rules.

1270 /ku' means evil or bad

(@rootnoun) (@rootn)

rootnouns are rootlike nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1285

A rootnoun is a nounbase that looks like a root. Examples --

nI- "leader", from root nI "lead"

ac- "that is at", from aJcu "be at"

They are formed by adding to the root some kRt affixes that add no real letters, such as kvip. I call those affixes rootnounmaker affixes. Example --

nI ( root ) + kvipnI- ( nounbase ) "leader"

The root may get a t added at the end --

ji + kvip hrasvasyapitikRtituk jit- "defeater, victor, conqueror"

bhR + kvip hrasvasyapitikRtituk bhRt- "that carries"

Most of these nounbases can only be used as a latter --

senA- + nI-senAnI- "army-leader, generalissimo"

grAma- + nI- Natvam grAmaNI- "village-leader, mayor"

pra + ac'''prAc- "eastern"

pustaka- + bhRt-pustaka-bhRt "book-carrier"

A rarity -- dhR "hold" plus kvip makes dhRt- "holder", but when it gets su, it is often replaced with dhRk in the epics --

pinAka-dhRk "ziva (the bearer of the pinAka)"

ekazH zakti-patAka-dhRk "one armed with lance and trident"

644 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 454 -- popularity 34

(@ending) (@en)

ending means sup or tiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1286

When I say ending, I mean either

-- a sup ( noun ending) from list svaujas


-- a tiG ( verb ending) from list tiptas

The noun endings are added to nounbases, and the verb endings are added to roots.

For instance, the ending of apacam is the affix mip, because inria reader says that apacam has "impft ac sg 1", meaning that --

pac + laG mip → .. → apacam

260 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 528 -- popularity 2

132 Use @plural when meaning @many.

133 Dual, singular mean two, one.

(@wordfinal) (@wordf)

wordfinal is what is at the end a word.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1287

example 1:

manasas is a word because it has Gas, so suptiG applies

therefore the second s of manasas is wordfinal

therefore rule sasaju applies to the second s of manasas

and does not apply to the first s of manasas

example 2:

aplavata is a word because it has ta,

so the last a is wordfinal,

So rule atoguNe won't work on aplavata + azvaH, but akassa will.

example 3:

the manas- part of manas + sup' = manassu is a word because rule svAdiSva says so.

so the first s of manassu is wordfinal

so sasaju aplies to it, making a wordfinal ru,

which is turned into H by kharava,

which is then caught by visarjanIyasyasaH, making s again.

490 letters. -- 10500definitions.bse 605 -- popularity 74

preverbs ←

chunk 64: DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

→ short definitions