means doer means object means nothing ←
→ footnotes 2
Voiced and unvoiced sounds.
ta ta synchretism
summary of prathamau after neuter
Labels and accent.
How to replace with
uses of cases in rules
What's a "woman", exactly.
Some affixes are augments.
So, you shouldn't use the soft liG at all. If you want to express a wish, use the hard liG or the loT, as allowed by AziSiliGloTau.
In the BHG there is only one soft liG form, namely the
A speech sound is " voiced" when the vocal folds vibrate, and unvoiced otherwise. For more details, see --
wikipedia on Voice (phonetics).
Including the M sound, that replaces
The thirteen khar are always unvoiced.
Including H, K and F, that are replacements of
When chanting, we must replace a versefinal
When a word appears to end in
(1) A real
Examples of (1) --
Example of (2) --
Example of (3) --
Some rules that mention san --
The root before san reduplicates
The stammer often gets
If the original root takes bent, then so does the san root
Of the eighteen tiG affixes, the first nine are flat (the flat
thAs AthAm dhvam = you you2 y'all
Please chant again and again the mantra tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG until you can remember those nine affixes in that order.
These affixes are used directly when they replace a Git tense. For instance, when these nine replace laG, and we add them after plava, we get --
which mean --
|he jumped||they2 jumped||they jumped|
|you1 jumped||you2 jumped||y'all jumped|
|I jumped||we2 jumped||we jumped|
In these, the
When these affixes replace a Tit tense, rule Tita works on them.
See also flat
The first nine tiG affixes are flat --
Please chant again and again the mantra tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas until you can remember those nine affixes in that order.
These nine affixes are used directly when they replace a Tit tense. For instance, when they replace laT, and we add them after cara, we get --
These mean --
|he is moving||they2 are moving||they are moving|
|you1 are moving||you2 are moving||y'all are moving|
|I am moving||we2 are moving||we are moving|
Important warning about the inria conjugation gadget. Looking at the first set of verb forms in page car 1, you will notice that inria displays the
When these affixes replace a Git tense, rules itazca, tasthastha and nityaM GitaH work on them.
See also bent tiG.
With flattybendy roots such as
su am turn into luk (by svamorna) or into am (by atom).
Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 - Verse 1
for some enlightenment.
An apit is kit by asaMyogAlliTkit when it replaces liT.
An apit is Git by sArvadhAtukamapit when it replaces anything but liT and soft liG.
The flat liG affixes ( hard or soft) are Git by yAsuT.
The bent hard liG affixes are Git by sArvadhAtukamapit.
The bent soft liG affixes are neither kit nor Git by any rule.
You don't need to learn about accent unless you are planning to learn to chant the vedas, and if you ae planning so, you better get teaching from someone qualified and ignore everything I say.
Yet, it is nice for you to know that the labels
I have translated some of the rules that have to do with accent, just in case you are curious --
(A) The cit affixes have acute on the final, by citaH
(B) the Jnit make the first syllable of the word acute, by JnityAdi
(C) a kit taddhita gets acute on the final, by kitaH
(D) the lit make acute the syllable before the affix, by liti
(E) the pit are accentless, by anudAttau
(F) rit affixes get the acute in their nexttolast vowel, by upottamaMriti
(G) the tit take falling on the first, by titsvaritam, and
(H) all other affixes get acute at the start of the affix by AdyudAttazca.
Example. In PC Sanskrit, that is, in the language described by
Because of the most-alike rule, when any rule tells us to "replace with guNa" --
The letters that raise the tongue,
The letters that bring the lips together,
And the others,
Examples of --
fifth may mean "after" -- tasmAdityu
sixth may mean "replace" -- SaSThIsthAneyogA
seventh may mean "before" -- tasminniti
The third used in rules stozzcu and STunA means "with", that is, "near" (before or after, but touching).
The word strI- means "woman" in ordinary Sanskrit, but in grammarian jargon it means --
any female being,
any word that means any female being,
any word that behaves grammatically as if it did,
and anything or anyone that can be meant by any such word (including some men)
Sanskrit grammarians often value shortness more than accuracy, so don't panic if a grammarian says
Some examples of " women" --
These examples carry a first ending. Some of them have a feminine affix before the ending, and some don't.
The dhAtupATha ("root-recitation") is a list of two-thousand-odd roots.
You should know three things about the dhAtupATha --
(1) Most of the roots there are useless for you. Just like most of the words of the Merriam-Webster are useless for you.
(2) The list of roots is divided into ten groups, also called verb classes , which are named after the first root listed in each group. So the first class is called
(3) When I write AD 02.0003, I mean the third root of the second group (the zapclass) of the ashtadhyayidotcom
The augments are certain short affixes. Some of them are --
Those can be added to another affix, or a root, or a letter, or anything really. Unlike taddhita affixes, that come only after a noun, or kRt affixes and tenses, that only appear after roots.
There are three sorts of augments --
Titaugments -- added in front of whatever they are added to. See Adyantau for examples.
kitaugments -- added at the end, like most affixes. See Adyantau again.
mitaugments -- added after last vowel. See midaco.
means doer means object means nothing ←
→ footnotes 2