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The soft liG is used once in a blue moon.
Voiced and unvoiced sounds.
long before r
san summary
bent tiG
flat tiG
ta ta synchretism
summary of prathamau after neuter
vApadAntasya in chanting.
Summary of k G labels in tiG,
Labels and accent.
How to replace with guNa or vRddhi.
uses of cases in rules
What's a "woman", exactly.
About the dhAtupATha.
Some affixes are augments.


The soft liG is used once in a blue moon.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1289

Even though pANini allows you to use rule liGAziSi whenever you want, making liG affixes soft, in practice, since vedic times, writers use this soft liG rarely if at all. And only when the affix is flat.

So, you shouldn't use the soft liG at all. If you want to express a wish, use the hard liG or the loT, as allowed by AziSiliGloTau.

In the BHG there is only one soft liG form, namely the apanudyAt (from nud + soft liG tip) in na hi prapazyAmi mamApanudyAd yac chokam ucchoSaNam indriyANAm. Which BTW is highly suspicious of not being PC, but just used metri causa for the hard version apanudet.


Voiced and unvoiced sounds.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1290

A speech sound is " voiced" when the vocal folds vibrate, and unvoiced otherwise. For more details, see --

wikipedia on Voice (phonetics).

The vowels are always voiced.

The haz are always voiced.

Including the M sound, that replaces m or n.

Including h, that is always voiced (even though English H is unvoiced).

The thirteen khar are always unvoiced.

Including H, K and F, that are replacements of s.

When chanting, we must replace a versefinal aH etc, that have an unvoiced H, with ahA etc, which have a voiced h inside (see the endverse exception ).


long before rmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1291

When a word appears to end in A I U and the next one starts with r, that A I U can be --

(1) A real A I U,

(2) An Ar Ir Ur As Is Us that lost r s, or

(3) An ar ir ur is us that lost r s, then became long by Dhralope.

Examples of (1) --

kukkuTI ramate "hen has fun"

kapI ramete "two monkeys have fun"

Example of (2) --

kukkuTIs + rakSati sasaju kukkuTIr + rakSati rori kukkuTI rakSati "protects the hens"

Example of (3) --

kapis + ramate sasaju kapir + ramate rori kapi + ramate Dhralope kapI ramate "monkey has fun"


san summarymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1292

Some rules that mention san --



The sa(n) affix turns a root that means "X" into another root that means "wants to X".

pac (root for "cook") + san → .. → pipakSa (root for "want to cook")


The root before san reduplicates


The stammer often gets i


If the original root takes bent, then so does the san root


bent tiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1293

Of the eighteen tiG affixes, the first nine are flat (the flat tiG ), and the last nine are bent. The bent are --

ta AtAm jha = he they2 they

thAs AthAm dhvam = you you2 y'all

iT' vahi mahi = I we2 we

Please chant again and again the mantra tAtAJjha thAsAthAndhvam iDvahimahiG until you can remember those nine affixes in that order.

These affixes are used directly when they replace a Git tense. For instance, when these nine replace laG, and we add them after plava, we get --

aplavata aplavetAm aplavanta

aplavathAs aplavethAm aplavadhvam

aplave aplavAvahi aplavAmahi

which mean --

he jumpedthey2 jumpedthey jumped
you1 jumpedyou2 jumpedy'all jumped
I jumpedwe2 jumpedwe jumped

In these, the a in fron comes from luGlaG, the A in aplavA comes from atodIrghoyaJi, and the e of aplavetAm and aplavethAm comes from AtoGitaH. The jha affix became anta''' by jhontaH.

When these affixes replace a Tit tense, rule Tita works on them.

See also flat tiG .


flat tiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1294

The first nine tiG affixes are flat --

tip tas jhi = he they2 they

sip thas tha = you you2 y'all

mip vas mas = I we2 we

Please chant again and again the mantra tiptasjhi sipthastha mibvasmas until you can remember those nine affixes in that order.

These nine affixes are used directly when they replace a Tit tense. For instance, when they replace laT, and we add them after cara, we get --

carati caratas caranti

carasi carathas caratha

carAmi carAvas carAmas.

These mean --

he is moving they2 are movingthey are moving
you1 are movingyou2 are movingy'all are moving
I am movingwe2 are movingwe are moving

Here, carajhi became caranti by jhontaH, and cara became carA by atodIrghoyaJi.

Important warning about the inria conjugation gadget. Looking at the first set of verb forms in page car 1, you will notice that inria displays the carati caratas caranti at the bottom, and the carAmi carAvas carAmas line at the top. I do the opposite thing, so that my affixes come out in the same order in which they appear in the tiptasjhi list. Also, I am using the same order that the verb tables at hyderabad use.

When these affixes replace a Git tense, rules itazca, tasthastha and nityaM GitaH work on them.

See also bent tiG.


ta ta synchretismmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1295

With flattybendy roots such as /dviS krI /rudh, there can be doubt if a verb that ends in ta has ta or ta''' --

dviS + laG tha luGlaG adviS + thaadviS + ta''' STunA adviSTa "y'all hated"

dviS + laG ta luGlaG adviS + ta STunA adviSTa "he hated"


summary of prathamau after neutermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1296

After neuters,

su am turn into luk (by svamorna) or into am (by atom).

au turns into zI

jas zas turn into zi


vApadAntasya in chanting.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1297

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 - Verse 1

wikipedia on Free variation

for some enlightenment.


Summary of k G labels in tiG,mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1298

An apit is kit by asaMyogAlliTkit when it replaces liT.

An apit is Git by sArvadhAtukamapit when it replaces anything but liT and soft liG.

The flat liG affixes ( hard or soft) are Git by yAsuT.

The bent hard liG affixes are Git by sArvadhAtukamapit.

The bent soft liG affixes are neither kit nor Git by any rule.


Labels and accent.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1299

You don't need to learn about accent unless you are planning to learn to chant the vedas, and if you ae planning so, you better get teaching from someone qualified and ignore everything I say.

Yet, it is nice for you to know that the labels n of tRn tumun, last t of tavyat, r of kelimar, l of lyap are just for accent, therefore you don't need to worry about them.

I have translated some of the rules that have to do with accent, just in case you are curious --

(A) The cit affixes have acute on the final, by citaH

(B) the Jnit make the first syllable of the word acute, by JnityAdi

(C) a kit taddhita gets acute on the final, by kitaH

(D) the lit make acute the syllable before the affix, by liti

(E) the pit are accentless, by anudAttau

(F) rit affixes get the acute in their nexttolast vowel, by upottamaMriti

(G) the tit take falling on the first, by titsvaritam, and

(H) all other affixes get acute at the start of the affix by AdyudAttazca.

Example. In PC Sanskrit, that is, in the language described by pANini, the mriyate that means "he dies" has the accent on the mri, because zyan made (B) work, while the mriyate meaning "there is death here" has the accent on the ya, because (H) says yak gets the accent. But you don't need to know that, and may pronounce both words the exact same way, because nearly all speakers do that, and no one is going to complain.


How to replace with guNa or vRddhi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1300

Because of the most-alike rule, when any rule tells us to "replace with guNa" --

The letters that raise the tongue, i I e ay, turn into e, which raises tongue.

The letters that bring the lips together, u U o au, turn into o, which joins lips.

And the others, R RR L, turn into a. No wait... actually, they turn into ar al by uraNraparaH.

Examples of --

I to e --

nI + tumun hardsoft netum

u to o --

dru + tumun hardsoft drotum

R to ar --

kR + tumun hardsoft kartum

L to al --

kLp + zap + te''' puganta kalpate

bhg 6 46


uses of cases in rulesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1301

fifth may mean "after" -- tasmAdityu

sixth may mean "replace" -- SaSThIsthAneyogA

seventh may mean "before" -- tasminniti

The third used in rules stozzcu and STunA means "with", that is, "near" (before or after, but touching).


What's a " woman", exactly.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1302

The word strI- means "woman" in ordinary Sanskrit, but in grammarian jargon it means --

any female being,

any word that means any female being,

any word that behaves grammatically as if it did,

and anything or anyone that can be meant by any such word (including some men)

Sanskrit grammarians often value shortness more than accuracy, so don't panic if a grammarian says strI nadI " river is woman " where a Western grammarian would have said " the word nadI is a feminine nounbase with GI added and su deleted ".

Some examples of " women" --

yoSit "woman"

nArI "woman"

sItA "pn"

bAlA "little girl"

vRddhA "old woman"

mAtA "mother"

ajA "she-goat"

matis "opinion"

vidyut "flash of lightning"

bRhannalA "arjuna when in drag"

siMhyau "two lionesses"

kukkuTyas "hens"

These examples carry a first ending. Some of them have a feminine affix before the ending, and some don't.


About the dhAtupATha.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1303

The dhAtupATha ("root-recitation") is a list of two-thousand-odd roots.

You should know three things about the dhAtupATha --

(1) Most of the roots there are useless for you. Just like most of the words of the Merriam-Webster are useless for you.

(2) The list of roots is divided into ten groups, also called verb classes , which are named after the first root listed in each group. So the first class is called bhvAdi "those that start at bhU", the second class adAdi " ad and so on", the third class juhotyAdi "hu and so on". And so on.

(3) When I write AD 02.0003, I mean the third root of the second group (the zapclass) of the ashtadhyayidotcom dhAtupATha .


Some affixes are augments.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1304

The augments are certain short affixes. Some of them are --

nuT sIyuT yAsuT

tuk muk

num mum

Those can be added to another affix, or a root, or a letter, or anything really. Unlike taddhita affixes, that come only after a noun, or kRt affixes and tenses, that only appear after roots.

There are three sorts of augments --

Titaugments -- added in front of whatever they are added to. See Adyantau for examples.

kitaugments -- added at the end, like most affixes. See Adyantau again.

mitaugments -- added after last vowel. See midaco.

means doer means object means nothing ←

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