14056 nipAta, person ←

chunk 12: 21003 compounds

→ 23001 use of cases

21003 Up to kaDAra, compound. prAkkaDArAtsamAsaH
21005 unchanging compounds are made by the next rules. avyayIbhAvaH
21022 tatpuruSa start here. tatpuruSaH
21044 When used as a tag . saJjJAyAm
21050 Compass-points and numerals may compound to make a tag. diksaGkhyesaJjJAyAm
21051 with the meaning of a taddhita, when former, and when meaning a group. taddhitArthottarapadasamAhAreca
21052 And if the former is a numeral they are dvigu too. saGkhyApUrvodviguH
22006 naJ naJ
22008 sixth SaSThI
22010 doesn't when meaning specification. nanirdhAraNe
22016 that means a doer. kartarica
22023 The rest are longhorns. zeSobahuvrIhiH
22024 two or more to mean something else. anekamanyapadArthe
22028 "with him", if the action is shared. tenasahetitulyayoge
22029 dvandva compounds mean "and". cArthedvandvaH
22034 The one with the less vowels . alpActaram
22038 Optionally swap karmadhAraya compounds of kaDAra- etc. kaDArAHkarmadhAraye


prAk kaDArAt samAsaH ONPANINI 21003
Up to kaDAra, compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 157

headline. The next rules, down to 22038 kaDArAHka, explain what compounds are allowed.

Roughly explained, a compound noun is a noun that made by joining two nouns.

Examples in English.

The noun bluegrass means a kind of music. It is made from joining two words, blue and grass, so it's a compound.

The noun coralsnake means a sort of snake. This has a bit more logic than the bluegrass thing, that has hardly anything to do with grass and can't be painted blue.

Then the noun white-eye means a sort of bird. This has more logic than the above two, because these guys have a white circle around each eye.

Examples in Sanskrit.

kRSNazakuni means a sort of bird. Not the blackbird (Turdus merula and other species), but the crow, also called kAka (Corvus culminatus and other species).

sarvabhUtAni means all creatures. You may also say sarvANibhUtAni, which is not a compound, to mean all creatures.


avyayIbhAvaH ONPANINI 21005
unchanging compounds are made by the next rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 158

headline. The words built by following rules, down to 21020, are called avyayIbhAva "compounds turned into unchanging".

They are considered unchanging and not nouns, even though they have an am at the end, because they never take any other sup.

They are built by compounding a prAdi before a noun, making the compound neuter, and adding am, wich will be affected by svamorna or atom.

Examples --

prati "against, traversely" + loman- "hair" + su svamorna pratiloman nalopaHprA pratiloma "against the grain"

anuloma "along the grain"

anu + malinI + tIra + am atom anumAlinItIram "along the bank of the mAlinI"

They are used as adverbs of manner, as in --

zRNu vaptar mama giramM mA kSuraH pratiloma mAm "barber, pay heed to my word -- don't shave me against the grain"


tatpuruSaH ONPANINI 21022
tatpuruSa start here.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 159

headline. Compounds described from this point on, down to 22023 zeSobahuvrIhiH exclusive, are called tatpuruSa compounds.

Roughly explained, a tatpuruSa is a compound that means the same thing as its second half.

For instance, a policeman is a man, and a firefighter is a fighter, so these words are tatpuruSa compounds. Yet, Blackbeard was not a beard, but a pirate, so the compound "Blackbeard" is not a tatpuruSa (it is a longhorn, actually).

Back to types of compounds .


saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 21044
When used as a tag (a seventh may compound before any noun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 160

Examples --

yudhi + sthiras → yudhisthiras gaviyudhi yudhiSThiras "pn (of a king)"

araNyetilakAH "mere hype"

The compounding is compulsory when making a tag, and forbidden when these phrases are used in their proper meaning --

yudhi sthiraH "he's firm in battle"

araNye tilakAH "there are sesames in the forest"


dik;saMkhye saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 21050
Compass-points and numerals may compound (with what they describe) to make a tag.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 161

Counterexamples --

To mean five zamI trees, we must say paJca zamyaH in two words -- we may not join paJca and zamyaH in a compound, by the same reason that we cannot compound sundarI zamI into a compound.

To mean seven sages, we may say saptarSayas.

Examples with a numeral --

paJcan- + zamyas → paJcanzamyaH nalopaHprA paJcazamyas "Fivetrees (name of a village)"

sapta + RSayassaptarSayas "the Seven Sages" (name of the Big Dipper)

Example with a diz- --

pUrvA + iSukAmazamI → pUrva- + iSukAmazamI AdguNaH pUrveSukAmazamI "east iSukAmazamI" (name of a village)

aparA + iSukAmazamI → apara- + iSukAmazamI AdguNaH apareSukAmazamI "west iSukAmazamI" (name of a village)


taddhit%Arth%ottarapada-samAhAre ca ONPANINI 21051
( numeral and direction may compound) with the meaning of a taddhita, when former, and when meaning a group.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 162

(1) example with the meaning of a taddhita.

The taddhita aN may mean "prepared in" when talking about grains --

yavAH kumbhe saMskRtAH saMskRtaMbhakSAH yavAH kaumbhAH "barleygrains prepared in a pot"

This kaumbha- is kumbha plus aN --

kumbha "pot" + aN taddhiteSva kaumbha + a yasyetica kaumbha- "related to pots"

Therefore, according to this rule, we may also use the numeral paJca as a former to mean "prepared in", when talking about grains, and this time kumbha- gets no aN --

yavAH paJcasu kumbheSu saMskRtAH → paJca + kumbha + jas dvigurekavacanam paJcakumbha + supaJcakumbhas "(barleygrains) prepared in five pots"

Rule dvigurekavacanam worked here because paJcakumbhAH is a dvigu by rule saGkhyApUrvodviguH below.

(2) Example when the new compound will be the former of another compound.

Ordinarily cannot compound together pUrvA zAlA "the Eastern Hall". But we can do that if the new compound will be the former of another compound , as in --

asmai pUrvA zAlA priyA "he likes the Eastern hall" → pUrvazAlA-priyaH "one that likes the Eastern hall"

asmai paJca nAvaH priyAH "he likes five ships" → paJca + nau- + priya + su nAvodvigoH paJca + nau + Tac + priya + su ecoya paJcanAva-priyaH "one that likes five ships"

Rule nAvodvigoH worked here because paJcanau- is a dvigu by rule saGkhyApUrvodviguH below.

(3) Examples meaning a group --

paJca pUlAsH samAhRtAH "five bundles taken together" → paJca + pUla- dvigoH paJcapUlI- @f "a group of five bundles"

trINy ahAni samAhRtAni → trINi + ahan- → .. → tryaha- @m "a group of three days"


saGkhyA-pUrvo dviguH ONPANINI 21052
And if the former is a numeral they are dvigu too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 163

The compounds made by the previous rule are all tatpuruSa. If the first half is a numeral, they are dvigu too.

Example: "dvigu-", if it means "cowpair, a group of two cows", is a tatpuruSa, and, by this rule, it is also a dvigu compound. But if it means "(a guy) that has two cows" then it is not a tatpuruSa, and not a dvigu.

The dvigu are singular, by dvigurekavacanam.


naJ ONPANINI 22006
naJ (makes tatpuruSa compounds optionally)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 164

The unchanging naJ means na ("not", "there is no") and is used only as a former.

It takes the form a before consonants --

vyayam "it is changeable"

a-vyayam "it is unchangeable"

And an before vowels (see tasmAnnuDaci) --

Rtam "it's true"

an-Rtam "it's a lie"

The n of naJ is a real letter, but it gets eaten by naloponaJaH, making aJ. The J label just tells it apart from the ordinary na "no".

This naJ is the same "an / a" that appears in Greek words like an-archist, a-theist, a-gnostic. We may sometimes translate it as a(n)-, in-, un-, non-. Anorgasmic is who has no orgasms, unethical is what is not ethical, non wordfinal is what is not wordfinal, and immaculate is what is not maculate.

But it may also mean "lacking" --

azastra- "weaponless, unarmed"

azakuni- "birdless"

arAkSasa- "lacking rAkSasas, demonless"


sixth (compounds optionally before the noun it links to)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 165

And the compound is tatpuruSa.

Usually, when a first, third, etc links to a noun, in cases like zuklazH zakuniH "white bird" or lavaNena mizritam "mixed with salt", we can only turn the two words into a compound if a rule allows it. The opposite is the case for the words that carry sixth. They can always compound optionally with the noun they go with. Unless, of course, one of the exceptions below says they cannot.

Examples --

tasya "his" + puruSaH "man" → tasyapuruSaH supodhA tad- + puruSaH kharica tatpuruSaH "his man"

rajJas + puruSaH "man of the king, policeman" → rAjJaspuruSaH → .. → rAjapuruSaH "man of the king, policeman"

See exception nanirdhAraNe below.


na nirdhAraNe ONPANINI 22010
( Sixth) doesn't (compound) when meaning specification.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 166 km

Exception to SaSThI. The sixth that means "among" (see 23041) won't compound.

So in --

kRSNA gavAM sampanna-kSIra-tamA "the German Black Pied has the highest milk production among cow breeds"

We may not say kRSNA gosampannakSIratamA.


kartari ca ONPANINI 22016
( Sixth won't compound before a tRc, or a Nvul) that means a doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 167 km

Exception to SaSThI.

So these pairs won't form compounds --

lokAnAmM bhettA "destroyer of worlds"

kumbhAnAGM kartA "maker of pots"

kumbhAnAGM kArakaH "maker of pots"

vajrasya bhartA "bearer of the Aegis"

kumbhakAra- "potter"

lokabhid- "planetcracker"


zeSo bahuvrIhiH ONPANINI 22023
The rest are longhorns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 168 km

headline. The compounds described by the next five rules ( anekamanyapadArthe to tenasaheti) are called longhorn compounds.

Actually, when we say " longhorn", we usually mean a compound made by anekamanyapadArthe. The compounds described by the next four rules are not properly longhorns, but they behave in grammar as if they were, so they are subject to rules such as bahuvrIhau prakRtyA pUrva-padam.


anekam anya-pad%Arthe ONPANINI 22024
(A longhorn is) two or more ( compounded) to mean something else.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 169 km

A longhorn is a sort of compound made by joining several nouns, and that describes something else than those words.


"longhorn" means a sort of cow (that has long horns). Therefore it doesn't mean a horn. Therefore it is a longhorn compound.

"white-eye" means a sort of bird (that has a white ring around the eyes). It does not mean any kind of eye, so it is a longhorn compound.

bahuvrIhi- (much-riced) means a person that has lots of rice, so a rich person. It does not mean a sort of rice, so it is a longhorn compound.


The word "foghorn" means a sort of horn, used to warn ships in foggy conditions. Therefore it is not a longhorn compound.

kRSNazakuni- (black-bird) means a crow (Corvus splendens). A crow is a kind of bird, so kRSNazakunis is not a longhorn compound when it means a crow.

There is a very important difference between English longhorn compounds and Sanskrit longhorn compounds. An English dictionary will tell you that the word "longhorn" is a noun can only be used to mean a certain breed of cattle. However, the corresponding Sanskrit dIrgha-zRGga- means "long-horned", and can be used to mean anything that has long horns, or just to mean "has long horns", not necessarily cattle --

dIrgha-zRGgazH zambUkaH "the snail has long horns"

dIrgha-zRGgaM zambUkamM pazyAmi "I see that the snail has long horns, I see a snail that has long horns"

The Sanskrit longhorn compounds are naturally adjectives that describe something else. Therefore they will take the gender of whatever they describe --

dIrgha-zRGgo gauH "long-horned bull; the bull is long-horned"

dIrgha-zRGgA gauH "long-horned cow"

dIrgha-zRGgI gauH "long-horned cow"

dIrgha-zRGgaM rakSaH "long-horned demon"

Like all adjectives, they can be used with or without the noun they describe --

dIrgha-zmazruH puruSaH "a long-bearded man, a man with a long beard; the man has a long beard"

dIrgha-zmazruH "a long-bearded one, the one with a long beard; he has a long beard; Longbeard (a nickname)"


tena sah%eti tulya-yoge ONPANINI 22028
"with him", if the action is shared.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 170

In more words --

"The form saha- may be compounded with a third-ender that does the same action as the doer of the sentence. The compound is a longhorn."

Example. If he came, and his sons came too, we might say --

Agato vipraH tasya ca putrA AgatAH "the priest came and his sons came too"

or more briefly --

Agato vipraH putraisH saha "the priest came with (his) sons"

where saha is a postposition that made the nounbase putra- get third ending.

According to this rule, however, we may, if we wish, replace putraisH saha with a compound of saha- and putrais. The compound nounbase will be sahaputra-, and it will describe the priest, so it takes the gender, number and case of vipras --

Agato viprasH sahaputraH "the priest came with (his) sons"

Notice that the compound will end in su because there is one priest, no matter how many sons came with him.

saputra Agato viprasH saputro vipra AgataH "the priest came with his sons, the priest came with his sons"


c/Arthe dvaMdvaH ONPANINI 22029
dvandva compounds mean "and".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 171

We may replace any number of nouns joined by "and" with a compound.

Example. You may replace optionally --

azvo gajaz ca "horse and elephant" with azva-gajau "horse and elephant"

mUSikAnAnM narANAJM ca "of mice and men" with mUSika-narANAm "of mice and men"

The compound has the same case as all the nouns, the same gender as the last one, and its number is the sum of the numbers --

sItArAmau ramete

rAmasIte ramete

There are many rules about dvandva compounds, but some shoul not be taken seriously, like alpActaram.


alpActaram ONPANINI 22034
The one with the less vowels (goes first in a dvandva).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 172

In a dvandva, place the word with less vowels first --

plakSa;nyagrodhau "the plakSa and the nyagrodha trees"

This rule is just a suggestion. Disobey it if you like. Everybody does that.


kaDArAH karmadhAraye ONPANINI 22038
Optionally swap karmadhAraya compounds of kaDAra- etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 173

So, these two compounds are good --

kaDAra-jaiminiH "jaimini the servant"

jaimini-kaDAraH "the servant jaimini"

14056 nipAta, person ←

chunk 12: 21003 compounds

→ 23001 use of cases