special roots ←

chunk 62: special nounbases

→ special words

special nounbases
go- "cattle"
upAnah- "shoe"
nI- "leader of"
mahat- "big"
ap- "waters"
SaS- "six"
yuSmad- asmad-
idam- "this one"
adas- "that one"
anya-, ubha-, sarva-, kim-, vizva-.
kim- "what, who"
rai- "wealth"
catur- "four"
tri- "three"
pathin- "road, way"
anaDuh- "ox"
diz- f. "point of the compass"
dyo-, div- "sky, heaven"
nau- "ship"
rootnoun yuj-
strI- "woman".
sakhi- "friend".
ahan- "day"
bhavat "your honor"


special nounbasesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1162

ap- "waters"

adas- "that"

AsIna- "sitting" comes from As + zAnac (see IdAsaH)

asmad- "I, we, me, us"

ahan- n. "day"

anaDuh- m. "ox"

ap- f. "waters"

bhavat(u) "your honor"

catur- "four"

dadhi- asthi- sakthi- akSi- and others lose i by asthidadhi

div- f "sky, heaven". Affected by diva::Wt and diva::ut. Don't mix it up with diva- n, same meaning.

diz- "point of the compass, direction"

dyo-, div- "sky, heaven"

go- "cow"

idam- "this"

mahat- "big"

nau- "ship"

pathin- "way"

pati- "husband, lord"

pums- "man"

sakhi- "friend"

strI- "woman"

tri- "three"

upAnah- "shoe"

vah- "dragger"

yuj- "joiner"

yuSmad- "you"

rai- "wealth"

SaS- "six"


go- "cattle"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1163

The nounbase go- means cow or bull, usually cow. Its gender is f or m, and can be ascertained by looking under the tail.

Special rules that apply to go- --

gotoNit go- to gau- before su au jas

automzasoH go- + am = gAm, go + zas = gAs

GasiGasozca go- + Gas = gos

The only commonly used nounbases that end in o are go- and dyo- "sky". Of course, you can still make your own.


upAnah- "shoe"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1164

The nounbase upAnah- (shoe) is an urasclass.

It turns into upAnaD- when wordfinal, by hoDhaH and other rules.

An old proverb goes --

zvA yadi kriyate rAjA sa kinM n/AznAty upAnaham "If you make a dog a king, he will still chew on a shoe."


nI- "leader of"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1165

The rootnoun nI- (from root NIG nI carry, lead) means leader and is only used as a latter after its object --

senAnI- "army-leader"

grAmaNI- "village-leader, city-leader, maior" (with Natvam)

These words can be m or f. They are very rare examples of masculine nounbases that end in I, and of feminine nounbases that end in I but have no GI and are not nadI.

As they have no GI and don't end in a consonant, halGyA doesn't work on them --

grAmaNI- + sugrAmaNIs @mf "maior"

The endings TA and Ge are added directly to these, with no especial rules, just ikoyaNaci --

dhRSTadyumnena senAnyA somakAH kimMbalA iva

namaskRtvA kumArAya senAnye zaktipANaye

They get nAm --

senAnInAm ahaM skandasH sarasAm asmi sAgaraH

I'm not sure what happens to these before the other sup endings, sorry. Ask hyderabad for the full declension.


mahat- "big"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1166

The nounbase mahat(u) means "big".

It has a few quirks --

(A) When former, it turns into mahA --

mahat- + rAjan- → .. → mahArAja- "great king"

(B) It is udit, so it makes ugidacA work --

mahat + sumahants ( ugidacA (so far)

(C) After ugidacA works on it, sAnta works too --

mahat- + su ugidacA mahants sAnta mahAnts halGyA mahAnt saMyogAnta mahAn

mahat- + am ugidacA mahantam sAnta mahAntam "big"

(D) It can get /iman- --

mahat- + iman → .. → mahiman- "greatness"


ap- "waters"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1167

This nounbase means water and is used only before plural sup affixes. It is affected by the special rules ap tRn tRc --

ap- + jas aptRntRc Apas "waters"

and apo bhi --

ap- + bhis apobhi adbhis "with waters"

ap- + bhyas apobhi adbhyas "from waters"

No surprises before the other sup --

ap- + zasapas "the waters"

ap- + AmapAm "of the waters"

ap- + sup'apsu "in the waters"


SaS- "six"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1168

Besides being a sixlike, this nounbase has the bad habit of ending in S, so here I list all its forms --

SaS- + jas SaDbhyoluk SaS jhalAJjazonte SaD

SaS- + zasSaD (same steps)

SaS- + bhis jhalAJjazonte SaDbhis "with six"

SaS- + bhyas jhalAJjazonte SaDbhyas "from six"

SaS- + Am SaTcaturbhyazca SaS- + nAm jhalAJjazonte SaD + nAm yaronu SaNNAm "of six"

SaS- + sup' jhalAJjazonte SaDsu kharica SaTsu

SaS- "six" and daza "ten" add up to SoDaza "sixteen".


yuSmad- asmad-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1169

The pronoun yuSmad- means "you".

The pronoun asmad- means "I, we, me, us".

See also yuSmad- asmad- tables.


idam- "this one"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1170

idam- "this" is a pronoun. Related to Latin " idem ".

etad- also means "this".

Rules related to idam- --

idoypuMsi makes ayam

yaHsau makes iyam


adas- "that one"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1171

adas- is a pronoun. It refers to what is away, same as tad-

With su, makes asau, by adasa::ausulopazca.

Makes amIbhis by nedamadasorakoH.


anya-, ubha-, sarva-, kim-, vizva-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1172

The following nounbases are all pronouns --

kim- "what, who"

anya- "another"

sarva- "all, every, the whole of"

vizva- "all, every, the whole of"

ubha- "both"

ubhaya- "both"


kim- "what, who"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1173

kim- means "who?", "what?" or "which one?" and is a pronoun.

When used alone, translate as "what?" or "who?" or "which one?". Make it neuter if the answer is expected to be a thing, --

kim icchasi "what would you like?"

masculine if a living being,

ko 'karot "who did it?"

feminine if the living being is suspected to be female --

akarot kA "who (which one of the girls) did it?"

kAm upayacchasi "which one will you marry?"

And of course use a plural if the answer is reasonably expected to be plural --

ko vane vasanti "who (sg) lives in the forest?"

ke vane vasanti "who (pl) live in the forest?"

When it is linked to a noun, translate as "which?" --

azvaGM kam icchasi "which horse would you like?"

The neuter singular kim is sometimes used at the start of a yes / no questions, as in --

kim azvam icchasi "do you want a car?" (same meaning as apy azvam icchasi)

Most of the forms of this pronoun appear to be derived from a nounbase ka-, as in --

ka- m + sukas "who?"

ka- f + su ajAdya ka + Ap + s halGyA kA "who?"

ka- m + TA TAGasi kena "by whom?"

ka- m + Gas TAGasi kasya "whose?, who has?"

Being a pronoun, we of course have --

ka- m + jas jasazzI ke

ka- m + Amka + sAmkesAm kric keSAm

ka- m + Gika + sminkasmin "in which one?, where?, about whom?"

ka- f + Gas ajAdya kA + Gas sarvanAmnaHsyADDhrasvazca kasyAs "whose?, who has?"

Yet, the true nounbase is kim-, which turns into ka- before all sup affixes --

kim- m + su kimaHkaH ka- + s

Of course the ka- reverts to kim when the sup is luked by svamorna or supodhA --

kim- n + su kimaHkaH ka- + s svamorna ka- + luk nalumatA kim


rai- "wealth"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1174

rai- "wealth" is the only commonly used nounbase that ends in ai. In the dual and plural, and sometimes in the singular, it means "items of wealth", that is, treasures.

It is affected by rAyohali.


catur- "four"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1175

catur- is affected by these rules (among others) --





tri- "three"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1176

tri- is affected by these rules (among others) --




masculine: trayas trIn tribhis tribhyas trayANAm triSu

neuter: trINi trINi, then same as masculine.

feminine: tisras tisras tisRbhis tisRbhyas tisRNAm tisRSu


pathin- "road, way"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1177

This pathin- turns

into panthA- before strong su (see itotsarva, pathima, thonthaH)

into panthAn- before other strong, (see thonthaH)

and into path- before wimpy (see bhasyaTerlopaH).

03281106a Agatau svaH pathA yena phalAny avacitAni ca

03281106c yathAgataM zubhe gaccha panthAnamM mA vicAraya


anaDuh- "ox"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1178

Th nounbase anaDuh- comes from anas "cart" and vah- "dragger, puller" (a rootnoun, from vah). So it doesn't have to refer to oxen; it can mean any beast of burden of either sex.

anaDuh- is affected by caturana and vasusraMsu.


diz- f. "point of the compass"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1179

The dizas are East, South, West and North. Collectively these are called "the cardinal points", "the quarters of the sky", or "the directions".

This rootnoun diz- has kvin, so it is affected by kvinpratyayasya.

The words that mean East also mean forward, South right, West back, and North left.

So, sometimes you'll come across mistranslations from Sanskrit that go, like, "the Himalaya is at the left of India". That doesn't mean the left as drawn on a map, but the left as you face the rising Sun.

Sometimes the quarters are said to be four, E S W N. Other times they are said to be eight, because the intermediate quarters SE SW NE NE are included too. Other times they are said to be then, because the directions upward and downward are added. So the expression dizo daza of the epics means "all directions".


dyo-, div- "sky, heaven"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1180

Grammarians say that dyo- works like go-. Yet, some of those dyo- forms allowed by grammarians are never found.

div- sometimes turns into dyu by diva::ut, and sometimes into dyau by diva::aut


nau- "ship"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1181

There aren't any special rules about nau- f "ship". Its remarkable point is that it is the only nounbase that ends in au. And also the only one after which all of the svaujas stay unchanged.

nau + sunaus

No rule deletes the calling --

nau + @callingnaus "hey ship!"

Before vowels, ecoya works --

nau + jas ecoya nAvas "ships"

nau + zas ecoya nAvas "ships"


rootnoun yuj-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1182

The rootnoun yuj- means "joiner".

It has kvin, by RtvigdadhRk.

It gets num by yujerasamAse

It can be used alone.

With nonneuter su, it makes yuG --

yuj + kvin + su yujerasamAse yunjs halGyA yunj saMyogAnta yun kvinpra yuG "joiner"


strI- "woman".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1183

This base is always nadI, so it gets nAm, ai, As, Am -- strINAm

Loses su, -- strI

shortens before calling -- stri

It is strI when word -- strIbhis, strISu

replaces I with iy before vowels by striyAH -- striyai, striyAs, striyAm (with Gi)

Before am zas that iyaG replacement is optional, by vA'm;zasoH. -- strIm, striyAm, strIs, striyas


sakhi- "friend".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1184

The nounbase sakhi- m means "friend" or "brother-in-law".

sakhi- with non- calling su makes sakhA --

sakhi + su anaGsau sakhanssakhA "friend" ( same rules as rAjA )

But the calling su works normally --

sakhi + @calling hrasvasyaguNaH sakhe + s eGhra sakhe "hey friend"

sakhi- becomes sakhAy- before the other strong --

sakhi + au sakhyura sakhyai + au ecoya sakhAyau "two friends"

sakhi + jas → .. → sakhAyas "friends"

sakhi + am → .. → sakhAyam "friend"

Gas Gasi after sakhi- become us by --

sakhi + Gas khyatyAtparasya sakhi + us ikoyaNaci sakhyus "friend's"

The feminine has GI, sakhI-, means "friend" or "sister-in-law", and works normally, like all nadI.


ahan- "day"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1185

The neuter nounbase ahan- means "day".

Because of rule ahan, it turns into ahas before valAdi weak --

ahan- + bhyAm ahan ahas + bhyAm hazica ahobhyAm

ahan- + bhis → .. → ahobhis

ahan- + bhyas → .. → ahobhyas

ahan- + sup' → .. → ahassu

Because of rule rosupi, it turns into ahar when svamorna or supodhA luked the sup --

ahan- + suahar

ahan- + amahar

ahan- + Gas + Agama- + GiaharAgame "when the day comes, at dawn"

Before the other endings it works normally --

ahan + zi rAjAnam ahAni

ahan + TA alloponaH ahnA

ahan + Gi alloponaH ahnI

ahan + Gi vibhASAGizyoH ahani

ahan- also becomes ahas- in few compounds, for instance before rAtri- "night" --

ahorAtraH "day and night"

ahorAtram "twenty-four seven".

When latter, ahan- can become aha- by rAjAhassa --

/tri + ahan- → .. → tryaha- "group of three days"

Or ahna- sometimes, I don't know yet by what rule, sorry --

apara + ahan- → .. → aparahNa-


bhavat(u) "your honor"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1186

This bhavat- nounbase has vatup affix and basically means "you".

bhavat- + subhavAn "you" ( same steps as hanumAn )

bhavat- + jasbhavantas "y'all"

Yet, its old meaning is something like "your honor", so the verb that goes with it will always take third person endings such as tip --

pazyatu bhavAn "please see"

unlike the verb that goes with yuSmad-, that always takes second person endings like sip --

pazya tvam "please see"

Translating bhavAn as "your honor" is most often overkill, as the word is used to address everyone. In some styles of 21st century spoken Sanskrit yuSmad- is nearly out if use, so you'll use bhavAn even addressing kids. This is very convenient for students as they don't need to use any second person affixes.

special roots ←

chunk 62: special nounbases

→ special words