special nounbases ←
Ignore verse fillers.
All of these are hangers.
api "even, too"
ca "and, too"
eva "indeed, specially; only"
cid "some / any"
sma has at least two uses --
(1)It makes present verbs mean past time. So instead of these laG verbs --
we can also use laT verbs and sma --
(2) Rule smottare laG ca says that sma can be used in prohibitions with mAG and laG or luG --
sma is also used in the epics either with other senses (I wish I knew which), or just as a filler (see ignore).
Many verses have small words that are not really necessary for the meaning, but help make the verse fit.
For instance, suppose you want to put the verb
"if you don't listen to friends that say unpleasant beneficial things..."
But if we cannot find one such, then a poor poet might add any of the words that can be inserted almost anywhere, such as those meaning "and", "then", "but", "oh!", "he", "this", "that", "so", "as", "too", "ahem", "I tell ya", and so on --
In the epics this is done quite often.
Translators must be warned that sometimes these words are used in their proper meaning, and other times we just should ignore them. A particularly treacherous one is tu, that sometimes means "but", sometimes "changing subject", "on the other hand", and sometimes should be just ignored.
These three hangers mean the same thing.
They are only used after question words like kim- "who? what?",
Instead of cid, we may also use cana or api; this comes in handy sometimes when making verses come right --
iva means "like" or "is like" --
When iva appears after a word that expresses a feeling, just ignore it. Example --
na means "no", and trandates as "no", "not", "doesn't", "didn't", "isn't", "non-" etc etc --
There is also a naJ that means "non-".
You may also use
When api does not start a question, it is a hanger.
Sometimes it is just a replacement for cid --
Elsewhere, it means "too, even", and comes right after the word it includes --
In this sentence, the first api starts a question, and the one after
There is also another
ca is always placed AFTER the word it joins. Examples --
Adding some extra ca is fine too, but don't forget that the very last word in the list must always carry one --
If you want to keep your Sanskrit teacher annoyed, just keep translating things like
vA means "or", and is a hanger, like ca.
The expressions vA and
Two vA may mean "either... or" --
As in --
In grammar rules, vA is not a hanger -- as in vAmi, vAzari, vAmzasoH, vAvasAne. It means " optionally" rather than just "or".
The hanger eva gives emphasis to the previous word. It may translate into "only", "indeed", "for sure", "it is him who". Examples --
When literal words are quoted, iti is added after the last word.
he said "
Sometimes the quoted words are not literal. For instance, suppose the queen tells a servant
Your majesty, the queen said "give this letter to the king".
but saying "to you" instead of "to the king" is fine too--
Your majesty, the queen told me to give this letter to you.
Sometimes iti is used without a verb of saying, and then it may translate as "saying" or "thinking" --
special nounbases ←