61084 merge rules ←

chunk 31: 61111 non-mergers

→ 63091 lengthening rules

61111 R plus Gasi or Gas makes ur. Rta::ut
61112 after sakhi- and uncompounded pati-. khyatyAtparasya
61113 After a, ru to u . atororaplutAdaplute
61114 before haz too. hazica
61122 optionally after go-. sarvatravibhASAgoH
61125 Extralong and nonjoiner vowels stay before vowel. plutapragRhyAacinityam
61127 Optionally, ik stays and shortens before non-similar. ikosavarNezAkalyasyahrasvazca
61128 ak before R. RtyakaH
61131 div- to u. diva::ut
61132 Delete su of sas eSas before consonant. etattadossulopokoranaJsamAsehali
61163 cit enders get acute on the last. citaH
61165 kit . kitaH
61172 after long aSTan- aSTanodIrghAt
61185 An affix with t label has falling on its first titsvaritam
61193 The syllable before a lit affix gets the acute. liti
Jit is what has label J
nit is what has label n.
61197 Jnit puts acute at the start. JnityAdirnityam
61213 yat-enders , except nAvyaH. yatonAvaH
61217 rit affixes have acute in the next-to-last vowel. upottamaMriti
62001 In a longhorn, the former keeps its accent. bahuvrIhauprakRtyApUrvapadam
63009 After hal or a, seventh stays, if tag. haladantAtsaptamyAssaJjJAyAm
63025 Replace R -enders with An in a dvandva. AnaGRtodvandve
63046 mahat- to A before samereferent or jAtIya. AnmahatassamAnAdhikaraNajAtIyayoH
63067 arus-, dviSat-, and vowel-enders get mum . arurdviSadajantasyamum
63073 Delete the n of naJ. naloponaJaH
63074 Vowel after naJ gets nuT. tasmAnnuDaci
63082 optionally in a longhorn. vopasarjanasya


Rta:: ut ONPANINI 61111
R plus Gasi or Gas makes ur.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 552

Examples --

pitR + Gas → pitur "of father"

kartR- + Gasi → kartur "from maker"

"R merges with the a of Gas Gasi into ur"

Therefore, in detail, we have --

pitR + Gas → piturs saMyogAnta pitur "of father"


khya;tyAt parasya ONPANINI 61112
( Gas Gasi to u) after sakhi- and uncompounded pati-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 553

Only examples:

sakhi- + Gas OR Gasi ikoyaNaci sakhy + as → sakhyus "of friend"

pati- + Gas OR Gasi ikoyaNaci paty + as → patyus "of husband"

This rule won't work on compounded pati- --

senA- + pati- + Gas gherGiti senApates "a general's"


ato ror aplutAd aplute ONPANINI 61113
After a, ru to u (before a).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 554 sandhi

This rule only works after sasaju works, and after it works, AdguNa and eGaHp will always work. The effect of these four rules together is --

"replace wordfinal as plus the next a with o"

Example --

azvas + atra → azvotra "horse is here"

Writing that in more detail --

azvas + atra sasaju azva + ru + atra → azva + u + atra AdguNaH azvo + atra eGaHp azvotra

More examples --

rAmas + abravIt → rAmobravIt "rAma said"

ziras- + adhinivAsini → zirodhinivAsini "o peak-dwelleress"

See also Spelling of o before deleted a. .


hazi ca ONPANINI 61114
(After a, ru to u) before haz too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 555

When ru is after a and before haz, we replace that ru with u. This rule will only work when sasaju has replaced a wordfinal s with ru, and after this rule works, AdguNaH will always work. So the effect of the three rules combined is always --

" wordfinal as to o before haz "

Example before the haz letter d --

azvas + dravati → azvo dravati "horse runs"

If you want the small details --

azvas + dravati sasaju azva + ru + dravati → azva + u + dravati AdguNaH azvo dravati

More examples --

kapayas + nadyAm → kapayo nadyAm "the monkeys are in the river"

manas- + bhis svAdiSva manas ( word ) + bhis → manobhiH "with minds"


sarvatra vibhASA goH ONPANINI 61122
(a stays) optionally after go-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 556

Optional exception to eGaHpa.

Examples --

go::agram "(a country etc) whose main economic activity is bovine husbandry"

go::azvebhyas "from cattle and horses"

Alternatively go'gram, go'zvebhyas. With eGaHpa.


pluta;pragRhyA:: aci nityam ONPANINI 61125
Extralong and nonjoiner vowels stay before vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 557

Exception to all sandhi rules that affect vowel before vowel (such as akassa, ikoyaNaci, eGaHpa, AdguNaH). Those rules won't work after certain vowels (which happen to be all wordfinal).

One such vowel is the I of the word kapI that means "two monkeys". This I is a nonjoiner, so it triggers neither ikoyaNaci --

kapI: aveNatAnM tUryau "the two monkeys played their musical instruments"

nor akassa --

tau kapI: icchataH phalam "those two monkeys like the result"

There is another word kapI that means "one she-monkey" and has an ordinary I. Rules ikoya and akassa work as usual with this one --

sA kapI + icchati saGMgItam akassa sA kapIcchati saGMgItaM "that she-monkey likes music"

veNukaGM kapI + avAdayat ikoyaNaci veNukaGM kapy avAdayat "she-monkey played her flute"


iko 'savarNe zAkalyasya hrasvaz ca ONPANINI 61127
Optionally, ( wordfinal) ik stays and shortens before non- similar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 558

Optional exception to ikoyaNaci.

dadhi + aicchat → dadhi_aicchat

The wordfinal shortens if it's long --

kumArI + atra → kumAri_atra "the princess is here"

An example from the rAmAyaNam. Su + a does not turn into Sva here --

su-mahAMs tvat-sahAyeSu hary-RkSeSu asaMzayaH


Rty akaH ONPANINI 61128
ak (optionally stays and shortens) before R.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 559

Ordinarily, because of AdguNaH, ikoyaNaci, akassa, we have --

a A + Rar

i I + RyR

u U + RvR


But this exception allows hiatus as well --

atra + RSayaH → atra RSayaH "the sages are here"

bhavanti + RtavaH → bhavanti RtavaH "there are seasons"

If the ak is long, it shortens --

kumArI + RSiz ca → kumAri RSiz ca "the princess and the sage"


diva::ut ONPANINI 61131
( wordfinal) div- to u.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 560

This div- is a f kvin-ender rootnoun that means "sky".

Examples with div made wordfinal by svAdiSva --

div- + bhis → diu + bhis ikoyaNaci dyubhis "with skies"

div- + sup' → diu + su ikoyaNaci dyu + su kric dyuSu "in the skies"

Examples with div made wordfinal by supodhA --

divam + spRzati "touches the sky" → div- + spRz + su → dyu + spRz + su halGyA dyuspRz kvinpra dyuspRk "skyscraper" ( anything that touches the sky )

div- + pati + su → dyu + pati + sudyupatis "skylord" ( the Sun )

When the v is not wordfinal this rule won't work, so we say divau, divas.

If the su is strong, this rule won't work (because the su is strong, the v is not made wordfinal by svAdiSva), and we get dyaus (by diva::aut).

But in the end of a compound like vimaladiv- "that has clear skies", when it is neuter, the su will be erased by svamor, and this rule works, and we say --

vimaladyu dinam "a day with clear sky"


etat;tadoH su-lopo 'kor a-naJ-samAse hali ONPANINI 61132
Delete su of sas eSas before consonant.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 561

eSas and sas mean "this" and "that". They are the masculine pronouns tad- and etad- with su added --

azvo mayA dRSTasH saH "I saw that horse"

azvo mayA dRSTa eSaH "I saw this horse"

If they are before a consonant, in saMhitA, they lose their final, turning into sa and eSa --

azvo mayA sa dRSTaH "I saw that horse"

azva eSa mayA dRSTaH "I saw this horse"

asas tarati "someone else crosses" (not that one)

aneSas tarati "someone else crosses" (not this one)


citaH ONPANINI 61163
cit enders get acute on the last.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 562

When an affix is cit, the last vowel of the result of adding stem and affix gets the acute. As in --

uccais + akac → uccakais ( accent on the ai )

kR + liT jhacakR + irec → cakrire ( accent on the e )

kR + tRc → kartR- ( accent on the R )

There is another kartR- made with tRn --

kR + tRnkartR- ( with accent on the a by JnityAdi )

Back to labels and accent .


kitaH ONPANINI 61165
kit ( taddhita -ender has acute on the end).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 563

For instance, the kRt affix kta is kit. So in --

nI + ktanItaH "was led"

the accent is on the taH.

Back to labels and accent .


aSTano dIrghAt ONPANINI 61172
( weak is acute) after long aSTan-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 564 accent

aSTan has a long at the end only when rule aSTana:: A vibhaktau worked, changing it into aSTA-. Therefore --




are antodAtta, I mean, they have acute on the last vowel.


tit svaritam ONPANINI 61185
An affix with t label has falling on its firstmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 565

Exception to AdyudAttazca, that makes affixes acute in the first by default.

So --

kR + Nyat + sukAryam "(that) has to be done"

has falling on the ya.

Back to labels and accent .


liti ONPANINI 61193
The syllable before a lit affix gets the acute.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 566

lit means "what has ell as a label". (Not same as liT, a past tense.)

Exception to AdyudAttazca.

Example. The words cak(A)ra and cak(a)ra get accent in the middle because these words were made with Nal, a lit affix.

Back to labels and accent .


Jit is what has label Jmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 567

Some Jit affixes:

aJ ghaJ iJ JyaG vuJ naJ

Rule svaritaJi says Jit roots, like kR and UrNu, are flattybendy.


nit is what has label n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 568

The nit affixes put the accent at the start (by JnityA), just like the Jit affixes.

Some nit affixes --










Jnity Adir nityam ONPANINI 61197
Jnit puts acute at the start.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 569 accent

The Jit affixes and the nit affixes place the accent on the first vowel of whatever they are added to.

CAREFUL. I said Jnit with n, NOT JNit with N. Reread again, and say JnityAdirnityam VERY carefully. With two n.

Examples. zyan, vun and yaJ are Jnit affixes. That's why this yudhyate has the accent on the yu --

yudh + kartari laT tayudh + zyan + ta Tita yudhyate "he's fighting"

While this other yudhyate has the accent on the yak --

yudh + akartari laT tayudh + yak + ta Tita yudhyate "fighting is going on"

panini research tool 61197


yato '-nAvaH ONPANINI 61213
(Two-vowel) yat-enders (accent the first), except nAvyaH.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 570 accent

This debars tit svaritam.

Example with the kRt affix yat --

ji + yat hardsoft je + yajeya- "defeatable" ( accent on je )

Counterexample with the taddhita affix yat'' --

nau + yat'' vAntoyi nAv + yanAvya- "suitable for ships, navigable" ( accent on vyam )

Back to labels and accent .


upottamaM riti ONPANINI 61217
rit affixes have acute in the next-to-last vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 571

Exception to AdyudAttazca.

A rit is whatever has label r. Examples with the rit affixes anIya(r) kelima(r) --

kR + anIyarkaraNIya- ( accent on NI )

pac + kelimarpacelima- ( accent on li )

Back to labels and accent .


bahuvrIhau prakRtyA pUrva-padam ONPANINI 62001
In a longhorn, the former keeps its accent.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 572 vedic

So the latter loses it.

This is not a vedic rule, but in practice it might as well be -- I want to remind the reader that nowadays accent rules are only applied when reciting the veda . So that you won't lose sleep because of the horror story below.

Traditional example (translated into English) --

The word "indra-kíller" is a tatpuruSa compound), and means someone who will kill indra. The word indra lost its accent when compounded.

But "índra-killer" is a longhorn compound, and means someone whose killer is indra. Namely, someone who was or will be killed by indra.

There is an old story about tvaSTR-, who prayed to brahmA to get an indrakiller son, but, when praying, put the accent in the wrong place. He did not get what he wanted, but what he had asked for. Gods use REAL Sanskrit, and not the botched debased accentless dialect that passes for it this wretched kaliyuga.

Yet, when you are not talking to gods, nor chanting the veda, NVM about accents.

BTW, I found this in a blog, might be interesting --

tvaSTR mispronounces indrazatru


hal;ad-antAt saptamyAH saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 63009
After hal or a, seventh stays, if tag.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 573

That is to say, supodhA does not work in a taG whose former is a nounbase that ends in a or consonant, and got seventh.

For instance, the nounbase of araNye "in the forest" is araNya-, ending in a --

araNya- + Gi AdguNaH araNye "in the wild"

Therefore when this araNye is former in a tag, supodhA does not work --

araNyetilakAH "disappointing things"

But if araNye tilakAH is used in its literal meaning of "wild sesame plants", then the compounding is not allowed.

araNye tilakAH "there are sesame plants in the forest"

See gaviyudhibhyAM sthiraH for another example.


AnaG Rto dvandve ONPANINI 63025
Replace R -enders with An(aG) (when former) in a dvandva.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 574


mAtR + pitR- + au → mAtAn + pitR- + au nalopaHprA mAtA + pitR- + aumAtA;pitarau "parents"


An@ mahataH samAnAdhikaraNa-jAtIyayoH ONPANINI 63046
mahat- to A before samereferent or jAtIya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 575

Examples --

mahat- + rAja → mahArAja- "great king"

mahAbAhu- "big-armed"

mahAjAtIya- "moderately large"


arur;dviSad;aj-antasya mum ONPANINI 63067
arus-, dviSat-, and vowel-enders get mum (when they are former before a khit-ender).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 576

Some compounds (such as janamejaya-, paranMtapa-, arunMtuda-, parapuraJMjaya-) get m in the middle. This happens when the latter was made with a khit affix ( khaz or khac), and the former is arus-, or dviSat- (the one from dviSomitre), or ends in a vowel.

Examples of khaz and khac enders --

ej + Nic + khazeji + khazeji + zap + khaz hardsoft eje + a + khaz ecoya ejaya + khaz atoguNe ejaya "that makes (them) tremble"

tap + khactapa

ji + khac hardsoft je + a ecoya jaya

All of these must compound with their object. The object gets mum by this rule. Example with a vowel-ender, para- "enemy" --

para- + tap + khac → paramtapa- monusvA paraMtapa anusvA paranMtapa- "enemy-scorcher"

examples with dviSat- and arus-, thatalso mean "enemy" --

dviSat- + tap + khac → dviSamt tapa- saMyogAnta dviSamtapa- monusvA dviSaMtapa anusvA dviSanMtapa- "enemy-scorcher"

arus- + tud + khaz → arumstuda saMyogAnta arumtuda monusvA aruMtuda anusvA arunMtuda- "enemy-beater"

janamejaya- "he that makes people tremble (pn of a king)"

nitambamejayA- "she that twerks vigorously"

parapuraJMjaya- "conqueror of the cities of the enemy"


na-lopo naJaH ONPANINI 63073
Delete the n of naJ.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 577

na(J) means "no" or "lacking". It is used only as a former.

The J of naJ is a label, and the n is deleted by this rule, so only a stays. This "a" is the same negative element that appears in words like a-theist, a-scorbic, an-hidrid.

In a tatpuruSa --

naJ + brahmaNaHabrahmaNaH "fake brahmin, he's not a brahmin"

In a longhorn --

naJ + brahmaNaHabrahmaNaH "(a country) devoid of brahmins"

If what is after naJ starts with a vowel, next rule tasmAnnuDaci will work.


tasmAn@ nuD aci ONPANINI 63074
Vowel after naJ gets nuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 578

Addition to naloponaJaH. When naJ is before a vowel-starter, that vowel-starter gets nuT. In other words, we add n in front of the vowel-starter, this way --

Example. Rtam starts with a vowel, so it gets nuT here --

naJ + Rtam "true" naloponaJaH a + Rtam → a + (Rtam + nuT) AdyantauTakitau a + nRtamanRtam "untrue, an untruth"


v'' .opasarjanasya ONPANINI 63082
( saha- to sa-) optionally in a longhorn.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 579

Example. Compounding saha- with putrais we get sahaputra-. This is a longhorn because rules zeSobahuvrIhiH and tenasahetitulyayoge say so. Therefore this rule applies, and we can say saputra- too.

61084 merge rules ←

chunk 31: 61111 non-mergers

→ 63091 lengthening rules