24037 root replacements ←

chunk 15: 24072 some vikaraNa

→ 31005 sanAdyanta roots

24072 The lukclass get no zap. adiprabhRtibhyazzapaH
24074 yaG to luk, and also before ac''. yaGocica
24075 hu etc. get zlu juhotyAdibhyazzluH
24077 sic before flat after gAti sthA ghu pA bhU. gAtisthAghupAbhUbhyassicaHparasmaipadeSu
24079 after uclass before ta thAs. tanAdibhyastathAsoH
24081 After Am'', . AmaH
24085 Third person luT to DA rau ras. luTaHprathamasyaDAraurasaH
31001 affixes start here. pratyayaH
31002 go after. parazca
31003 acute at the start. AdyudAttazca
31004 pit and sup are grave. anudAttausuppitau


adi-prabhRtibhyaH zapaH ONPANINI 24072
The lukclass get no zap.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 206

Exception to kartarizap way below, that says that roots get zap before hard doer affix.

There are some roots that get nothing before hard doer. For instance, ad han dviS zIG iN'.

Such roots are called "ad-Adi roots" by Indian grammarians, and "class two roots" by Western grammarians. I call them " lukclass roots", because they get nothing instead of getting zap.

Examples --

ad + laT mipadmi "I eat"

dviS + laT mip puganta dveS + mi "I hate"

dviS + laG mas luGlaG adviSmas "we hated"

han + @hard liG tiphan + yAt'''hanyAt "he would kill"

AG + iN' + loT sip serhyapicca A + i + hi''' AdguNaH ehi "come!"

Careful here: this rule replaces zap with luk, but rules [3] to [10] of page verb classes do not replace zap. They are exceptions to kartarizap and add zlu zyan znu etc INSTEAD of adding zap.


yaGo 'ci ca ONPANINI 24074
(Sometimes) yaG to luk, and also before ac''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 207

The yaGluk roots (such as roru lAlap vAvad), have the same meaning as the yaG roots (roruya lAlapya vAvadya). They are made by adding yaG to any of the roots mentioned in dhAtorekAco, then luking off the yaG.

ru "roar" + yaG sanyaGoH ru + ru + yaG guNoyaG;lukoH ro + ru + ya → roru "keep roaring, roar loudly"

vad "talk" + yaG san;yaGoH vavadya dIrghokitaH vAvadya → vAvad "keep talking, talk a lot, rumble (as a drum)"

lap "chatter, prate" + yaG → .. → lAlap "keep chattering, have logorrhoea, prate senselessly"

lU "reap" + yaG → .. → lolUyalolU "keep reaping"

As they do not have G label, they are flatty --

vAvad + laT tip yaGovA vAvad + tip yaGovA vAvad + ItivAvadIti "keeps talking, talks a lot"

roru + laT tip yaGovA ruru + Itiroru + Iti hardsoft roro + Iti ecoya roravIti "keeps roaring; roars loudly"

(Notice that these got no zap. That's because of a vArttika, yaGluks are lukclass .)

An example before ac'' --

lU "reap" + yaG + ac'' sanyaGoH lUlU + ya + ac'' → lUlU + ac'' guNoyaGlukoH lolU + a aciznu loluva- "a great reaper"

(Here lUlU + ac'' did not trigger hardsoft, because of exception nadhAtulopa.)

The yaGluk are all allowed in the laukika according to pANini, but in practice they are mostly found in the veda, and make occasional cameos in the epics.


juhoty-AdibhyaH zluH ONPANINI 24075
hu etc. get zlummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 208 vikaraNa

Some roots get zlu when others would get zap (that is, before a hard doer affix). These are called zluclass roots, class three roots, or juhotyAdi roots (see verb classes ).

The zlu causes reduplication (by rule zlau) and disappears (by rule pratyayasya). Example --

dA + laT tip → dA + zlu + tip zlau dA + dA + zlu + tip pratyayasya dAdAti hrasvaH dadAti "gives"

Whenever this rule works, rules zlau and pratyayasya will too, so I won't always write all steps. Sometimes I'll just type --

dA + laT tip zlau dA + dA + tip hrasvaH dadAti "gives"

bhI + laT tip zlau bhI + bhI + tip → .. → bibhI + tip hardsoft bibheti "is afraid"

hu + laT tip zlau hu + hu + tip → .. → juhu + tip hardsoft juhoti "pours (ghee on the holy fire)"

bhI + zapbhe + zapbhay + zapbhay + zlu nalumatA bhI + zlu zlau bhI + bhI + zlu pratyayasya bhI + bhI

we always end up with the same thing we'd've got without adding zap. Therefore, pANini said "replace shap with shloo" instead of saying "do not add shap, but add shloo" just in order to save space . As I have no need to save space, I reworded with 'instead' with a view to save my students trouble.


gAti;sthA; ghu;pA; bhUbhyaH sicaH parasmaipadeSu ONPANINI 24077
sic (to luk) before flat after gAti sthA ghu pA bhU.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 209

In other words -- these five roots get no affix at all when they are before luG.

Inria flags these verb forms with "aor [1]". Coulson calls them " root aorist", because no affix is added to the root.

Examples with sthA and bhU --

sthA + luG tipsthA + t''' luGlaG asthA + tasthA + sic + t → asthAt "he waited"

bhU + luG tipbhU + sic + tip → bhU + tip luGlaG abhU + tipabhU + t'''abhUt "he was"

Examples with ghu roots --

adAt "he gave"

adhAt "he put"

The "gAti" mentioned in the rule is the gAG that sometimes replaces iN' eti "go" --

iN' + luG tip iNogAluGi gA + tip luGlaG agA + tipagA + t'''a + gA + sic + t → agAt "he went"

mAG + iN' + luG tip → .. → mA gAH "don't go"

But this rule will not work after the gA that replaced root gai "sing" --

gai + luG tipgai + sic + tip Adeca_u gA + sic + tip → .. → agAsIt "he sung"

The pA mentioned in the rule is the zapclass pA pibati that means "drink" --

apA + sic + t''' → apAt "he drunk"

and NOT the pA pAti that means "protect, rule"

apAsId rAjA "the king ruled"

This rule only works before flat. So if the same gAG mentioned above gets the bent affix AtAm, the sic stays --

iN' + karmaNi luG AtAmgA + AtAm sic gA + s + AtAm luGlaG agAsAtAm

As in --

agAsAtAGM grAmau devadattena "two villages were gone to by devadatta"

Back to aorist types .


tanAdibhyas ta;thAsoH ONPANINI 24079
( sic to luk optionally) after uclass before ta thAs.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 210 luG

Examples --

tan + luG ta → .. → atan + sic + ta → atan + ta anudAtto atata "he expanded"

atathAs "you expanded"

If we don't take the option, we get iSic as usual, as all the uclass are seT --

ataniSTa "he expanded"

ataniSThAs "you expanded"

This rule works before the bent ta "he", but not before the flat ta''' "y'all" --

tan + luG tha → .. → atan + iS + ta''' STunA ataniSTa "y'all expanded"


After Am'', ( liT to luk).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 211

After adding Am'' to a root that is before a liT replacer, this rule chops off the liT, wraps it in plastic and keeps it in the fridge (not in the freezer!). See --

IkS + liTIkS + taIkS + ezIkS + Am'' + ez → IkSAm → .. → IkSAJMcakre "he made others cook"


luTaH prathamasya DA;rau;rasaH ONPANINI 24085
Third person luT to DA rau ras.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 212

After tAs, replace

tip tas jhi ta AtAm jha


DA rau ras DA rau ras.

By rules TeH and rica, the tAs combines with those into --

tA tArau tAras tA tArau tAras

Examples --

kR + luT tipkR + tAs + tip → kR + tAs + DA TeH kR + tA hardsoft kartA "he will make"

kR + luT takR + tAs + ta → kR + tAs + DA TeH kR + tA hardsoft kartA "he will make"

kR + luT jhikR + tAs + jhi → kR + tAs + ras rica kR + tAras hardsoft kartAras "they will make"


pratyayaH ONPANINI 31001
affixes start here.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 213

The things taught in books three, four and five are called affixes.

Examples of affixes, and the rules that describe them --

san 31005 guptij ff

anIyar 31096 tavyattavyA

tRc 31133 NvultRcau

tip tas 34078 tiptas

su au jas 41002 svaujas

GIp 41005 RnnebhyoGIp

aN 41083 prAgdIvyatoN

kap 54151 uraHprabhRtibhyaHkap

See also parazca right below.


paraz ca ONPANINI 31002
(Affixes) go after.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 214

affixes are always added to something. They are usually added AFTER something. As for instance, the affix su may be added after all nounbases --

azva + suazvas "horse"

Exceptions. Rules Adyantau and midaco cause some affixes to be added in front of, or in the middle of, whatever they are added to. For instance, when car gets aT affix, it turns into acar (see luGlaG).


Ady-udAttaz ca ONPANINI 31003
(Affixes have) acute at the start.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 215 accent

Affixes move the accent to their first vowel unless otherwise specified. Example. When we join --

kR + ktakRta- "was done"

kR + tavyakartavya- "should be done"

...the acute will be on the ta -- kRtá, kartávya.

This won't work with the affix tavya(t), because it is tit, which makes titsvaritam work.

Back to labels and accent .


anudAttau sup;pitau ONPANINI 31004
pit and sup are grave.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 216 accent

Exception to AdyudAttazca.

24037 root replacements ←

chunk 15: 24072 some vikaraNa

→ 31005 sanAdyanta roots