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"Term" is a word invented by grammarians.
Doerless loT.


" Term" is a word invented by grammarians.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1082

Rule sthAnivad teaches that a replacement keeps the terms and labels of what it replaced. What is a " term"?

The terms are "technical terms" of grammar, that is, a term is a jargon word invented by grammarians. As for instance --

vRddhi "the vowels A ai au"

tiG " verb ending"

sup " noun ending"

la " tense"

ArdhadhAtuka " soft"

it " label"

kit "(that) has label k"

akit "(that) does not have label k"

iT "the i added before soft affixes by ArdhadhAtukasyeD"

and so on.

You can see more examples of terms in the jargon index of the cat page.


Doerless loT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1083

The loT tense is used mainly to express what the speaker would like others to do. These others are the doer of the loT tense.

A personal imperative makes clear who is supposed to do the action of the verb. Examples in English --

go west, young man! -- here the doer is "you", one person

drink these beers, y'all -- doer "y'all"

let them eat cake -- doer "they"

the kids should go to bed now -- doer "the kids"

An impersonal imperative expresses the idea that an action should be done, but doesn't say clearly who should do it --


Cake should be eaten.

Time to sleep!

In Sanskrit impersonal imperatives are extremely common. The loT tense is replaced with a bent affix that does not mean the doer. Examples --

modakAni bhujyantAm "time to eat cakes!"

supyatAm "sleep time!"

pIyantAm "beer!"

nRtyatAm "let the dancing begin!"

When the situation makes clear who the intended doer is, which is almost always, mentioning the doer explicitly is considered sort of impolite.

So, when you are talking to your dog, you may freely use a personal imperative this way --

Assva "sit!"

But when you are talking to a king in Sanskrit, Assva is grammatically correct but seldom used. They tend to use an impersonal imperative, like --

AsyatAm "let sitting happen"

There are other ways of making polite requests, like --

Asitum arhati devaH "your Majesty should sit"

and even a plain personal imperative can be made polite by just adding a polite calling --

Assva rAjan "be so kind as to take a seat, your Majesty"

In the Sanskrit of the mahAbhArata, using a second person to a superior is fine. In this verse a charioteer addresses his king with three of those in the same verse --

athAnyAn manyase rAjan brUhi kAn yojayAmi te "but if you think otherwise, just tell me which ones should I yoke for you, your Majesty"

the sup affixes ←

chunk 58: these should be moved elsewhere

→ about labels