31067 verb classes ←

chunk 19: 31091 root affixes

→ 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh

31091 After root. dhAtoH
31093 The affixes below are kRt, except the tiG. kRdatiG
31094 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless feminine. vAsarUpostriyAm
31095 kRtya down to NvultRcau. kRtyAHprAGNvulaH
31096 tavyat, tavya, anIyar, kelimar. tavyattavyAnIyaraH
31097 yat comes after vowel. acoyat
31098 a-pu-enders . poradupadhAt
31099 zak sah . zakisahozca
31106 vad gets kyap or yat and compounded after a noun. vadassupikyapca
31107 bhU, when meaning state, gets only. bhuvobhAve
31108 after han-, and replace han with t. hanastaca
31109 iN' stu zAs vR dR juS get ya to mean "should be". etistuzAsvRdRjuSaHkyap
31110 after nexttolast R, except kLp and cRt RdupadhAccAkLpicRteH
31120 kR vRS optionally. vibhASAkRvRSoH
31124 Nyat after R q hal. RhalorNyat
31125 after U u when meaning necessity. orAvazyake
31126 yu, vap, rap, lap, trap, cam, and AG plus su . Asuyuvapirapilapitrapicamazca
31133 Nvul and tRc . NvultRcau
31134 Add lyu Nini ac'' after the nandAdi grahAdi pacAdi. nandigrahipacAdibhyolyuNinyacaH
31135 jJA, prI, kRR and nexttolast ik get a . igupadhajJAprIkiraHkaH
31140 The roots from jval to kas, when preverbless, get a optionally. jvalitikasantebhyoNaH
31145 Svun means a pro. zilpiniSvun
32001 aN' when object. karmaNyaN
32002 hveJ veJ mAG' hvAvAmazca
32003 preverb-less A root gets a AtonupasargekaH
32004 sthA when latter supisthaH
32016 car gets a. careSTaH
32028 Add a after eji . ejeHkhaz
32058 spRz gets kvin unless after udaka. spRzonudakekvin
32059 Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc- . RtvigdadhRksragdiguSNigaJcuyujikruJcAJca
32060 kaJ and come after tyadAdi plus dRz, unless meaning seeing. tyadAdiSudRzonAlocanekaJca
32062 latter bhaj gets Nvi bhajoNviH
32063 In the veda, sah gets . chandasisahaH
32064 vah . vahazca
32076 kvip too . kvipca
32081 Sometimes means repetition. bahulamAbhIkSNye


dhAtoH ONPANINI 31091
After root.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 261

headline. "The affixes described next, down to the end of book three, come after roots."

These are called root affixes. They can be hard or soft.

They include, among others --

sanAdi affixes

Described at 31005 guptij ff.

vikaraNa affixes ("changer affixes")

described at 31043 cliluGi ff

kRt affixes

described from 31093 kRdatiG on

tense affixes

tenses -- described at 32110 luG ff

tiG affixes

listed at 34078 tiptas


kRd atiG ONPANINI 31093
The affixes below are kRt, except the tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 262

headline. The affixes described from here down to 34078 tiptas, exclusive, are called kRt affixes.

These kRt affixes are added to roots and make nounbases. Example --

nI is a root meaning "lead"

tRc is a kRt affix and means "-er" (more precisely: "a nounbase built by adding tRc after a root means the doer of that root")

nI + tRc makes netR-, which is a nounbase and means "leader"

As netR- is a nounbase, some sup must always be added after it. For instance, here we add su --

netR- m + sunetA "leader" ( same rules as pitA )

netR- f + su Rnne netR + GI + su ikoyaNaci netrI + s halGyA netrI "leaderess"

These are the kRt affixes kta "that was done", ktavatu "that did", tavya "that should be", tral "instrument of" after the root nI "lead" --

nI + ktanIta- "(that) was led"

nI + ktavatunItavat- "(that) led"

nI + tavya hardsoft netavya- "(that) should be led"

nI + tral hardsoft netra- "instrument of leading, eye"

After some kRt affixes, such as ktvA and tumun, no sup is ever seen --

nI + ktvAnItvA "after leading"

nI + tumun hardsoft netum "to lead"

These are called unchanging kRt affixes. Grammarians say that a sup was added to these and then removed. That's just a way of saying that nItvA, netum, etc. are words, even though rule suptiG doesn't teach so. Inria paints nItvA netum... pink, because they have no sup and no tiG.

Back to types of affixes .


vA 'sa-rUpo 'striyAm ONPANINI 31094
In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless feminine.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 263

Headline, valid for all replacements of root affixes down to chapter 3.3 below.


Rule NvultRcau below says that all roots can take tRc to mean the doer.

The exception igupadha a bit below it says that after kSip, tRc is replacd with (k)a, making vikSipa-.

Because of this rule, however, the exception is optional, and kSip can still take tRc, and we can in fact say either vikSipa- or vikSeptR-.

The replacements that look the same are excepted. Example --

Rule karmaNy aN adds a(N).

Its exception Ato 'nupasarge kaH replaces a(N) with (k)a.

Stripping the labels off the affix and replacement, both are a. So here there is no option and (k)a is compulsory.

Also the feminine replacements are excepted. Example --

Rule striyAGktin says that (k)ti(n) makes feminine action nouns.

Its exception apratyayAt says that, after sanAdyanta roots, we get feminine a instead.

So, replacing ktin with a is compulsory.


kRtyAH prAG@ NvulaH ONPANINI 31095
kRtya down to NvultRcau.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 264

The kRtya affixes are described in the following rules. They are --

tavya tavyat anIyar kelimar yat kyap Nyat

These are kRt afixes, which mean, they are added to roots to form nounbases. Example. kR + Nyat + su makes kArya-, a nounbase. When you type that nounbase (with su added!) into inria, as


Inria parser will tell you that it is a pfp (meaning that it has one of the kRtya affixes, that it comes from root kR, that it is masculine, and that it carries su.

The number after pfp shows which affix the root got. When we type into inria --

kartavyaH karaNIyaH kRtyaH kAryaH

the hovertext shows [3] [2] [1] [1]. That means that the affixes are

[3] tavya or tavya(t)

[2] anIya(r)

[1] ya(t) (k)ya(p) or (N)ya(t)

The kRtya affixes have meanings like "should be, must be, could be, ought to be, is fit to" (not all mean the same thing).

Example. han + tavya (or tavyat) makes hantavya-, a nounbase that describes whatever must be killed. It may be used as a normal adjective, as in --

hantavyo 'rir eSa rAvaNaH "this rAvaNa is an enemy that must be killed"

But in fact it will be used as a verblike more often than not, as in --

hantavyo rAvaNaH "rAvaNa must be killed"

Longer example --

4036012a ahobhir dazabhir ye ca n' Agacchanti mam' AjJayA4036012c hantavyAs te durAtmAno rAja-zAsana-dUSakAH

"the ones that don't come within ten days as I command must be killed as wicked transgressors of their king's orders"

In both of the examples above, hantavya- describes the object of root han. A kRtya never describes the doer (by tayoreva).


tavyat;tavyAnIyaraH ONPANINI 31096
( kRtya are) tavyat, tavya, anIyar, kelimar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 265

These all mean "(that) should, could, might be, suitable to". Example --

smR + anIyarsmaraNIya- "(that) should be remembered"

smR + tavyasmartavya- "(that) must be remembered"

As in --

smaraNIyaM yuddham "the war should be remembered"

smartavyaM yuddham "the war must be remembered"

smaraNIyas tad yuddham asmAbhiH "we should remember that war"


aco yat ONPANINI 31097
yat (is a kRtya and) comes after vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 266

ya(t) is a kRtya, and means "(that) should be (done)" or "(that) can be (done)".

Examples after i --

ji + yat hardsoft je + yatjeya- "defeatable, that should be conquered"

ci + yatceya- "(that) should be piled up"

After A, Idyati works --

gA + yat Idyati ge + yatgeya- "singable, that should be sung"

pA + yatpeya- "drinkable"

This rule won't work after r RR, by RhalorNyat.

yato '-nAvaH


por ad-upadhAt ONPANINI 31098
a- pu-enders (get yat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 267

Roots that end in a plus a pu get yat. Examples --

zap + yatzapya- "cursable; deserving of being cursed"

labh + yatlabhya- "attainable; to be gotten"

This is an exception in advance to RhalorNyat, that would have lengthened the a otherwise.


zaki;sahoz ca ONPANINI 31099
zak sah (too get yat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 268

Only examples --

zak + yatzakya- "possible"

sah + yatsahya- "endurable"

Again exception in advance to RhalorNyat, that would have added Nyat.


vadaH supi kyap ca ONPANINI 31106
vad gets kyap or yat (when preverbless) and compounded after a noun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 269

This debars Nyat.

The kRtya affix (k)ya(p) means "(that) should be" or "(is) suitable for". kyap is used when this rule, or the following rules bhuvobhAve, hanastaca, etistuzA, RdupadhA, vibhASAkR say so. The p label makes hrasvasyapitikRtituk add t after short vowels. The k label makes it not cause puganta or hardsoft, of course, and also makes vacisvapi work.

So when we make a compound to mean "that should be said by the veda" in two words, the root vad gets either kyap or yat.

Example with yat --

brahman- + TA + vad + yat supodhA brahmavadya- "that should be said by brahma"

With kyap, the k label causes stretching --

brahman- + TA + vad + kyap supodhA brahma + vad + kyap vacisvapi brahma + ud + kyapbrahmodya- "that should be said by brahma"

If this rule can't work, we get Nyat. So, when not compounded --

vad + Nyat ata::upa vAdya- "that should be said"

And after a preverb --

pravAdyam "rumor"


bhuvo bhAve ONPANINI 31107
( Latter preverb-less) bhU, when meaning state, gets ( kyap) only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 270

The previous rule allowed either kyap or yat after vad. This is a niyama and allows kyap only after bhU.

So, to mean devatvam "the state of being a god", we can optionally use the compound devabhUyam, where bhUya- means "state" or "being, existence", and is made from bhU + kyap --

devatvaGM gataH → devabhUyaGM gataH "he turned into a god"

If bhU has a preverb, or is not compounded, it gets yat --

bhU + yat hardsoft bho + yat vAntoyi bhavya- "about to be, future"


hanas ta ca ONPANINI 31108
(To mean a state, kyap comes) after han-, and replace han with t.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 271

This boils down to " hatyA- means a killing, and is only allowed as a latter ".

This works only in a compound and when there is no preverb --

brahman- + han + kyap + Ap → brahma + hat + ya + ApbrahmahatyA- "brahmanicide"

The Ap is optional.


eti;stu;zAs; vR;dR;juSaH kyap ONPANINI 31109
iN' stu zAs vR dR juS get (k)ya(p) to mean "should be".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 272

This debars yat.

All examples --

iN' + kyap hrasvasyapitikRtituk itya- "that should be gone to"

stu + kyap → .. → stutya- "worthy of praise"

zAs + kyapzASya zAsa::ida ziSyaziSya- "one that should be instructed, a student"

vRtya- "to be surrounded"

dRtya- "to be respected"

juSya- "to be delighted in, to be approved of"


Rd-upadhAc c' .A-kLpi-cRteH ONPANINI 31110
( kyap) after nexttolast R, except kLp and cRtmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 273

Exception to acoyat. Examples --

dRz + kyap → dRzya- "it should be seen, it is worth seeing, it is visible"

vRdh + kyap → vRdhya- "must grow"

Here the k in (k)ya(p) prevented puganta.

But kLp cRt get the usual yat from acoyat --

kalpya- "must become able"

cartya- "must be hurt"


vibhASA kR-vRSoH ONPANINI 31120
kR vRS (get kyap) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 274

There are exactly two examples --

kR + kyap + am hrasvasyapitikRtituk kRtyam "it should be done"

vRS + kyap + amvRSyam "stimulating"

When we don't take the option, vRS gets yat (which is the default) --

vRS + yat + am puganta varSyam "stimulating"

and kR gets Nyat (by RhalorNyat below) --

kR + Nyat + am ata_upa kAryam "it should be done"


R;halor Nyat ONPANINI 31124
Nyat after R RR hal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 275

Nyat is a kRtya.

Exception to acoyat, that would make yat.

Examples after R --

kR + yat → kR + Nyat hardsoft kar + Nyat ata::upa kArya- "(that) has to be done"

tRR + yattRR + NyattArya- "(that) has to be crossed"

After hal --

pac + yat → pac + Nyat ata::upa pAc + Nyat cajoHku pAkya- "(that) has to be cooked"

vac + yat → vac + Nyat ata::upa vAcya- "(that) has to be said"

There are other rules that add Nyat, such as orAvazyake and Asuyu.

See also exceptions zakisahozca, poradupadhAt...

viSIdantam idaM vAkyam uvAca madhusUdanaH "kRSNa said these words (to arjuna), that was depressed"


or Avazyake ONPANINI 31125
( Nyat comes) after U u when meaning necessity.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 276

This debars yat.

The N in Nyat makes U u into au (see acoJNiti), and then dhAtostanni will work, so we get Avya-.

bhU → bhU + Nyat acoJNiti bhau + Nyat dhAtostanni bhAv + yabhAvya- "must be"

As in --

bhAvyamM puruSair vIryavadbhiH "men must be courageous"

When the root is objectful, the translation can have "must be" --

lU → lAvya- "must be cut"

pU → pAvya- "must be cleaned"

zru → zrAvya- "must be heard"

Yet, it is often a good idea to translate those using active English verbs --

asmabhisH sA kathA zrAvyA "that story must be heard by us"

asmabhisH sA kathA zrAvyA "we must hear that story"

When yat does not mean "must", this rule won't work, as in --

kaccit tasya vAkyaM zravyam "maybe we should listen to what he says"

Here zravya- comes from --

zru + yat hardsoft zro + ya dhAtostanni zravya- "should be heard"


Asu;yu;vapi;rapi;lapi;trapi;camaz ca ONPANINI 31126
yu, vap, rap, lap, trap, cam, and AG plus su (get Nyat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 277

Exception to acoyat, that would have given yat.

All examples --

yu + Nyat acoJNiti yau + ya dhAtostanni yAvya- "should be joined or mixed"

vap + Nyat acoJNiti vApya- "should be sown"





AG + su + Nyat acoJNiti A + sau + ya vAntoyi AsAvyam "it should be distilled"


Nvul;tRcau ONPANINI 31133
Nvul and tRc (may be added to all roots to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 278

In other words: these (N)vu(l) tR(c) affixes turn "go" into "goer", "make" into "maker", "run" into "runner" and so on.

Examples --

ji "conquer" + tRc hardsoft jetR- "conqueror"

nI "lead" + tRc hardsoft netR- "leader"

nI + tRc ( f) hardsoft netR- Rnne netR + GI ikoyaNaci netrI "leaderess"

nI + Nvul yuvora nI + (N)aka(l) acoJNiti nai + aka ecoya nAyaka- "leader"

ji + Nvul yuvora ji + (N)aka(l) acoJNiti jai + aka ecoya jAyaka- "conqueror"

These netR- nAyaka- nounbases " mean the doer", that is to say, they agree with the leader --

netA bhISmaH "bhISma is the leader"

netArau kumArau "the two princes are the leaders"

netrI durgA "the Goddess is the leaderess"

As these nounbases are not verblikes, the object of their root gets sixth, not second. In this example the object of the root ji of jetR- is devAnAm, not devAn --

devAnAm api jetAranM taM viduH pArthivA raNe "kings know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

We may replace ji + tRc (jetR-) with ji + Nvul (jAyaka-), as in --

pArthivAs taM vidur yuddhe devAnAm api jAyakam "kings know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

Careful. When the tRc nounbases have first ending and are masculine, they may look like the luT tense. The netA in these two examples are verbs built from nI + luT --

netA bhISmasH senAm "bhISma will lead the army"

netA durgA senAm "durgA will lead the army"

These netA netrI however are built from nI + tRc --

netA bhISmasH senAyAH "bhISma is the leader of the army"

netrI durgA senAyAH "durgA is the leaderess of the army"

( jAyaka- can mean jetR- by this rule, and can also mean jetum by tumun;Nvulau. )

nAyaka- f ajAdyataSTAp nAyakA- pratyayasthA nAyikA- "leaderess"


nandi;grahi;pacAdibhyo lyu;Niny;acaH ONPANINI 31134
Add lyu Nini ac'' after the nandAdi grahAdi pacAdi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 279

These (l)yu (N)in(i) a(c) are kRt affixes. They mean the doer, by kartarikRt.

Example of a nandAdi with lyu --

nand + lyu yuvoranA nand + (l)ananandana- "delighter, son"

Example of a grahAdi with Nini --

grah + Nini ata::upa grAh + ingrAhin- "grabber, taker, receiver"

( Nini may also mean habitual doer, by bahulamAbhIkSNye. )

Example of a pacAdi with ac'' --

zvan- + pac + ac''zvan + paca nalopaHprA zvapaca- "dog-cooker, one that eats dog, a pariah"

Those roots can also get the ordinary doer affixes tRc tRn, so you may say grahItR- instead of grAhin- for "grabber".

See also ac disambiguation .


ig-upadha-jJA-prI-kiraH kaH ONPANINI 31135
jJA, prI, kRR and nexttolast ik get (k)a (to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 280

Examples with jJA prI kRR --

jJA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica jJ + ajJa- "knower"

prI + ka aciznu priya- "that likes"

kRR + ka RRta::i kir + kakira- "scatterer"

Examples with roots that have nexttolast ik --

kRz + kakRza- "lean, emaciated"

budh + kabudha- "wise"


jval-iti-kas-antebhyo NaH ONPANINI 31140
The roots from jval to kas, when preverbless, get (N)a optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 281

So, we can say --

jval + ac'' → jval + Na ata_upa jvAla- "flame"


jval + ac''jvala- "flame"

But prajvala- is compulsory.


zilpini Svun ONPANINI 31145
Svun means a pro.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 282

This (S)vu(n) is (S)aka(n), by yuvoranAkau.

According to a vArttika, only nRt "dance", khan "dig" and raJj "dye" may get this affix. rAJj also loses its nasal. So all examples are --

nartaka- "dancer"

khanaka- "miner"

rajaka- "dyer, washerman"

The feminines get GIS by Sid;gaurAdibhyaz ca -- nartakI, khanakI, rajakI.


karmaNy aN ONPANINI 32001
(Roots take) aN' when (compounded after their) object.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 283

(See aN disambiguation .)

The following rules, down to 32058 or so, add a rootnounmaker affix to the root that is compounded with its object. This rule allows aN' after most roots, for instance kR.

Example --

kumbhaGM karotikumbha + kR → kumbha + kR + aN' acoJ;Niti kumbhakAra- "potter"

There is another rule below that allows adding kvip to kR in the same situation, making kumbhakRt-.


hvA;vA;maz ca ONPANINI 32002
hveJ veJ mAG' (get aN' when latter after their object)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 284

Exception to Atonu below, that would otherwise prescribe (k)a.

So, we can use hvAya- "caller", vAya- "weaver", mAya- "measurer" when in composition after an object.

In detail --

hveJ + aN' Adeca_u hvA + a AtoyukciNkRtoH hvAy + a

As in --

svargahvAya- "heavencaller"

veJ + aN' → .. → vAya-

tantuvAya- "threadweaver"

mAG' + aN' → .. → mAya-

dhAnyamAya- "grainmeasurer"


Ato 'nupasarge kaH ONPANINI 32003
preverb-less A root gets (k)a (when latter after its object)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 285

As (k)a is a kGit soft, it makes the A disappear, by Atolopa::iTica --

gAvo dadAtigAvas + dA supodhA go + dA → go + dA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica go + d + (k)agoda- "cow-giver"

ajAdyataSTAp will work --

vara- + dA f → vara + dA + (k)a Atolopa varada ajAdyataSTAp varadA- giveress of boons


supi sthaH ONPANINI 32004
sthA when latter (gets ka)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 286

So, when sthA is a rootnoun, it becomes stha.

sama- + sthA → sama + sthA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica sama-stha- "that stays in a flat place"


careS TaH ONPANINI 32016
car (when latter after its location) gets (T)a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 287

As in --

kuruSu carati → kuru + car + Takurucara- mn "that goes among the kurus"

The T label makes TiDDhA work--

kurucara- f TiDDhA kurucara- + GI yasyetica kurucarI- "she that goes among the kurus"


ejeH khaz ONPANINI 32028
Add (kh)a(z) after eji (when it is compounded after its object).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 288

This rule explains the formation of janamejayaH, the name of a king of old.

The causative root eji means "to cause to tremble". Adding khaz we get an anomalous nounbase ejaya- that means the doer, namely, it means "that causes to tremble". It can only be used compounded after its object (the object is whoever is made to tremble).

As khaz is hard by tiGzit, and means the doer of the making-to-tremble action by kartarikRt, rule kartarizap works --

eji- + khazeji + zap + khaz hardsoft eje + a + khaz ecoya ejaya + khaz atoguNe ejaya

Compounding this ejaya after jana- "people" we get "the one that makes people tremble" --

janam + ejaya- supodhA jana + ejaya- arurdviSa janam + ejaya-janamejaya- "he who makes people tremble"


spRzo 'n-udake kvin ONPANINI 32058
spRz (when latter) gets kvin unless after udaka.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 289

Examples --

jalena spRzati → jala- + spRz + kvin + sujalaspRz- + su halGyA jalaspRz kvinpratyayasya jalaspRkh jhalAMjazonte jalaspRg "that touches with water"

ghRtaM spRzati → .. → ghRtaspRg "that touches ghee"

Counterexample --

udakena spRzatiudaka- + spRz + aN' + su puganta udakasparzas "that touches with water"


Rtvig;dadhRk; srag;dig; uSNig;aJcu; yuji;kruJcAM ca ONPANINI 32059
Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc- (have kvin).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 290

(k)v(in) is a rootnounmaker affix. This rule just states that these eight rootnouns --

Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc-

were formed by adding kvin after some roots.

The eight roots are --

yaj dhRS sRj diz snih aJcu yuj kruJc

For instance, the nounbase diz- "direction" is made from the root diz "point at", with kvin added --

diz ( root ) + kvindiz + v verapRktasya diz- ( nounbase )

diz- f + su halGyA diz kvinpra dikh jhalAJjazonte dig beforepause dik

If diz- had not been a kvin-ender, rule vrazca would have turned diz into diD.


tyad-AdiSu dRzo 'n-Alocane kaJ ca ONPANINI 32060
kaJ and ( kvin) come after tyadAdi plus dRz, unless meaning seeing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 291

dRz root ordinarily means "see" or "look", but when latter it can mean also "such". So these compounds ordinarily mean "such". As in yuddham IdRzam "such a fight".

yad- + dRz + kaJ Asarva ya + A + dRza-yAdRza- "one such that"

tad- + dRz + kaJ → .. → tAdRza- "such a one"

yad- + dRz + kvinyAdRz- "one such that"

tad- + dRz + kvintAdRz- "such a one"

And in the kvin case, when this z is wordfinal, kvinpra works --

tAdRz- + su halGyA tAdRz kvinpratyayasya tAdRk

tAdRz- + bhis kvinpratyayasya tAdRkh + bhis jhalAJjazonte tAdRgbhis

As the affix kaJ is listed in TiDDhA, the feminine gets GI --

tAdRza- + GI yasyetica tAdRzI- "such a one"

tamM pazyati "sees that" → .. → tad-dRzaH "that sees that"

Here dRz got no kaJ, but some other a

affix. That's why tad did not change into tA like in tAdRza above.


bhajo NviH ONPANINI 32062
latter bhaj gets Nvimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 292

(N)v(i) is a rootnounmaker affix.

ardham bhajate "shares a half" → ardham + bhaj + Nvi ata::upa ardham + bhAj + v vera ardham + bhAj- supodhA ardhabhaj- "that shares a half"

As in

na kaz cid duKkhabhAg bhavet "may no one be in pain"

Listen to that one with some music --

sarveSAM svastir bhavatu


chandasi sahaH ONPANINI 32063
In the veda, ( latter) sah gets ( Nvi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 293

Example --

turAn sahate "he overpowers the strong" → tura- + sah → tura + sah + Nvi ata_upa tura + sAh anyeSAmapi turA + sAh sahessADassaH turASAh- "overpowerer of the strong"


vahazca ONPANINI 32064
vah (gets Nvi in the veda).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 294 vedic

This rule makes the rootnoun vAh-, which only appears compounded after its object.

vah + Nvi acoJNiti vAh + Nvi verapRktasya vAh-

This vAh- keeps its form vAh only when before strong.

It is Uh- when wimpy (by vAha::UTh).

It is vAD- when word (by hoDhaH ff).


kvip ca ONPANINI 32076
kvip too (appears randomly).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 295

Example --

ukhAt sraMsate "it falls from the pan" → ukha- + srans + kvip aniditA ukha + sras + kvip vasusraMsu ukha + srad + kvip vera ukhasrad- "what falls from the pan"


bahulam AbhIkSNye ONPANINI 32081
Sometimes ( Nini) means repetition.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 296

Example --

pA + Nini AtoyukciNkRtoH pA + yuk + Nini → .. → pAyin- "habitual drinker"

This pAyin- is only used in compounds --

kSIram pibantikSIra- + pA + Nini + jas → kSIrapAyin- jas prAtipadikAntanum kSIrapayiNas

kSIra-pAyiNa:: uzInArAH "the uzInaras are milk-drinkers"

The word "sometimes" means that sometimes there is Nini and sometimes not. So kulmASakhAdas "barley eater".

31067 verb classes ←

chunk 19: 31091 root affixes

→ 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh