31067 verb classes ←

chunk 19: 31091 root affixes

→ 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh

31091 After root. dhAtoH
31093 The affixes below are kRt, except the tiG. kRdatiG
31094 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless feminine. vAsarUpostriyAm
31095 kRtya down to NvultRcau. kRtyAHprAGNvulaH
31096 tavyat, tavya, anIyar, kelimar. tavyattavyAnIyaraH
31097 yat comes after vowel. acoyat
31098 a-pu-enders . poradupadhAt
31099 zak sah . zakisahozca
31106 vad gets kyap or yat compounded after a noun. vadassupikyapca
31107 bhU, when meaning state, gets only. bhuvobhAve
31108 after han-, and replace han with t. hanastaca
31109 iN' stu zAs vR dR juS get ya to mean "should be". etistuzAsvRdRjuSaHkyap
31110 after nexttolast R, except kLp and cRt RdupadhAccAkLpicRteH
31120 kR vRS optionally. vibhASAkRvRSoH
31124 Nyat after R q hal. RhalorNyat
31125 after U u when meaning necessity. orAvazyake
31126 yu, vap, rap, lap, trap, cam, and AG plus su . Asuyuvapirapilapitrapicamazca
31133 Nvul and tRc . NvultRcau
31134 Add lyu Nini ac'' after the nandAdi grahAdi pacAdi. nandigrahipacAdibhyolyuNinyacaH
31135 jJA, prI, kRR and nexttolast ik get a . igupadhajJAprIkiraHkaH
31138 Preverbless limpa, vinda, dhAri, pAri, vedi, udeji, ceti, sAti, sAhi get za. anupasargAllimpavindadhAripArivedyudejicetisAtisAhibhyazca
31140 The roots from jval to kas, when preverbless, get a optionally. jvalitikasantebhyoNaH
31141 zyA A-enders vyadh, Asr saMsr atIN, avasA avahR liha, zliSa zvas zyAdvyadhAsrusaMsrvatINavasAvahRlihazliSazvasazca
31143 Na is optional after grah. vibhASAgraheH
31144 But add a to mean home. gehekaH
31145 Svun means a pro. zilpiniSvun
32001 aN' when object. karmaNyaN
32002 hveJ veJ mAG' hvAvAmazca
32003 preverb-less A root gets a AtonupasargekaH
32004 sthA when latter supisthaH
32016 car gets a. careSTaH
32028 Add a after eji . ejeHkhaz
32038 vad gets khac after priya or vaza priyavazevadaHkhac
32058 spRz gets kvin unless after udaka. spRzonudakekvin
32059 Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc- . RtvigdadhRksragdiguSNigaJcuyujikruJcAJca
32060 kaJ and come after tyadAdi plus dRz, unless meaning seeing. tyadAdiSudRzonAlocanekaJca
32062 latter bhaj gets Nvi bhajoNviH
32063 In the veda, sah gets . chandasisahaH
32064 vah . vahazca
32076 kvip too . kvipca
32081 Sometimes means repetition. bahulamAbhIkSNye

(dhAtoH) (@roota)

dhAtoH ONPANINI 31091
After root.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 268

headline. "The affixes described next, down to the end of book three, come after roots."

These are called root affixes. They can be hard or soft.

They include, among others --

sanAdi affixes

Described at 31005 guptij ff.

vikaraNa affixes ("changer affixes")

described at 31043 cliluGi ff

kRt affixes

described from 31093 kRdatiG on

tense affixes

tenses -- described at 32110 luG ff

tiG affixes

listed at 34078 tiptas

305 letters. -- 31D.bse 3 -- popularity 10

(kRdatiG) (/kRt)

kRd atiG ONPANINI 31093
The affixes below are kRt, except the tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 269

headline. The affixes described from here down to 34078 tiptas, exclusive, are called kRt affixes.

These kRt affixes are added to roots and make nounbases. Example --

nI is a root meaning "lead"

tRc is a kRt affix and means "-er" (more precisely: "a nounbase built by adding tRc after a root means the doer of that root")

nI + tRc makes netR-, which is a nounbase and means "leader"

As netR- is a nounbase, some sup must always be added after it. For instance, here we add su --

netR- m + sunetA "leader" ( same rules as pitA )

netR- f + su Rnne netR + GI + su ikoyaNaci netrI + s halGyA netrI "leaderess"

These are the kRt affixes kta "that was done", ktavatu "that did", tavya "that should be", tral "instrument of" after the root nI "lead" --

nI + ktanIta- "(that) was led"

nI + ktavatunItavat- "(that) led"

nI + tavya hardsoft netavya- "(that) should be led"

nI + tran hardsoft netra- "instrument of leading, eye"

After some kRt affixes, such as ktvA and tumun, no sup is ever seen --

nI + ktvAnItvA "after leading"

nI + tumun hardsoft netum "to lead"

These are called unchanging kRt affixes. Grammarians say that a sup was added to these and then removed. That's just a way of saying that nItvA, netum, etc. are words, even though rule suptiG doesn't teach so. inria paints nItvA netum... pink, because they have no sup and no tiG.

Back to types of affixes .

KAZIKA asmin dhAtvadhikAre tiGvarjitaH pratyayaH kRtsajJako bhavati. kartavyam. karaNIyam. atiGa iti kim? cIyAt. stUyAt. kRtpradezAH kRttaddhitasamAsAzca 12046 ityevam AdayaH.

961 letters. -- 31D.bse 136 -- popularity 37

(vAsarUpo) (!vAs)

vA 'sa-rUpo 'striyAm ONPANINI 31094
In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless feminine.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 270

headline, valid for all replacements of root affixes down to chapter 3.3 below.


Rule NvultRcau below says that all roots can take tRc to mean the doer.

The exception igupadha a bit below it says that after kSip, tRc is replacd with (k)a, making vikSipa-.

Because of this rule, however, the exception is optional, and kSip can still take tRc, and we can in fact say either vikSipa- or vikSeptR-.

The replacements that look the same are excepted. Example --

Rule karmaNy aN adds a(N).

Its exception Ato 'nupasarge kaH replaces a(N) with (k)a.

Stripping the labels off the affix and replacement, both are a. So here there is no option and (k)a is compulsory.

Also the feminine replacements are excepted. Example --

Rule striyAGktin says that (k)ti(n) makes feminine action nouns.

Its exception apratyayAt says that, after sanAdyanta roots, we get feminine a instead.

So, replacing ktin with a is compulsory.

KAZIKA asmin dhAtv-adhikAre 'samAna-rUpaH pratyayo 'pavAdo vA bAdhako bhavati stry-adhikAra-vihita-pratyayaM varjayitvA. Nvul-tRcAv utsargau, ig-upadha-jJA-prI-kiraH kaH ity apavAdaH, tadviSaye Nvul-tRcAv api bhavataH. vikSepakaH, vikSeptA, vikSipaH. asarUpa iti kim? karmaNy aNN ity utsargaH, Ato 'nupasarge ka ity apavAdaH, sanityaM bAdhako bhavati. godaH. kambaladaH. na amubandhakRtam asArUpyam. astriyAm iti kim? striyAM ktin ity utsargaH, a pratyayAt ity apavadaH, sa bAdhaka eva bhavati. cikIrSA jihIrSA.

712 letters. -- 31D.bse 252 -- popularity 2

330 {bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu} get /kvip compulsorily.

361 Optionally use /ktvA with !alam !khalu to mean "stop doing".

(kRtyAHprAGNvu) (/kRty)

kRtyAH prAG@ NvulaH ONPANINI 31095
kRtya down to NvultRcau.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 271

The kRtya affixes are described in the following rules. They are --

tavya tavyat anIyar kelimar yat kyap Nyat

These are kRt afixes, which mean, they are added to roots to form nounbases. Example. kR + Nyat + su makes kArya-, a nounbase. When you type that nounbase (with su added!) into inria, as


Inria parser will tell you that it is a pfp (meaning that it has one of the kRtya affixes, that it comes from root kR, that it is masculine, and that it carries su.

The number after pfp shows which affix the root got. When we type into inria --

kartavyaH karaNIyaH kRtyaH kAryaH

the hovertext shows [3] [2] [1] [1]. That means that the affixes are

[3] tavya or tavya(t)

[2] anIya(r)

[1] ya(t) (k)ya(p) or (N)ya(t)

The kRtya affixes have meanings like "should be, must be, could be, ought to be, is fit to" (not all mean the same thing).

Example. han + tavya (or tavyat) makes hantavya-, a nounbase that describes whatever must be killed. It may be used as a normal adjective, as in --

hantavyo 'rir eSa rAvaNaH "this rAvaNa is an enemy that must be killed"

But in fact it will be used as a verblike more often than not, as in --

hantavyo rAvaNaH "rAvaNa must be killed"

Longer example --

4036012a ahobhir dazabhir ye ca n' Agacchanti mam' AjJayA4036012c hantavyAs te durAtmAno rAja-zAsana-dUSakAH

"the ones that don't come within ten days as I command must be killed as wicked transgressors of their king's orders"

In both of the examples above, hantavya- describes the object of root han. A kRtya never describes the doer (by tayoreva).

1156 letters. -- 31D.bse 282 -- popularity 12

(tavyattavyA) (/tavy)

tavyat;tavyAnIyaraH ONPANINI 31096
( kRtya are) tavyat, tavya, anIyar, kelimar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 272


... needs reread

These all mean things like "(that) should be, could be, might be, must be; suitable to". Example --

smR + anIya(r) guNorti smaraNIya- "(that) should be remembered"

smR + tavyasmartavya- "(that) must be remembered"

As in --

smaraNIyaM yuddham "the war should be remembered"

smartavyaM yuddham "the war must be remembered"

smartavyaM yuddhanM tvayA "you must remember the war"

bhekena bhavanIyamM mayA "I should turn into a frog"

The affix kelimar must be added to the original rule.

caNakA ime pacelimAH "these chickpeas cook easily"

bhidelimAni kASThAni "these logs split easily"

KAZIKA dhAtoH iti vartate. dhAtoH tavyat, tavya, anIyar ity ete pratyayA bhavanti. takAra-rephau svarArthau. kartavyam. kartavyam. karNIyam. vasestavyat kartari Nicca. vAstavyaH. kelimara upasaGkhyAnam. pacelimAH mASAH. bhidelimAni kASThAni. karmakartari ca ayam iSyate.

The most common way of saying "someone must" or "someone should" in Sanskrit is using one of the above affixes. As they never mean the doer, the someone will get third by kartRkaraNa --

smartavyaM yuddhanM tvayA "you must remember the war"

Translating this as "the war must be remembered by you" is nearly always bad English style and always grammatically correct.

Attempting to translate this by using a passive English verb --

bhekena bhavanIyamM mayA "I should turn into a frog"

will not work, as English does not allow passives of intransitives.

887 letters. -- 31D.bse 375 -- popularity 14

(acoyat) (/yat)

aco yat ONPANINI 31097
yat (is a kRtya and) comes after vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 273

The affix ya(t), being one of the kRtya, means "(that) should be (done)" or "(that) can be (done)", is added to vowel-ender roots.

Examples after i --

ji + yat hardsoft je + yatjeya- "defeatable, that should be conquered"

ci + yatceya- "(that) should be piled up"

After A, Idyati works --

gA + yat Idyati ge + yatgeya- "singable, that should be sung"

pA + yatpeya- "drinkable"

The exception RhalorNyat sas that this rule won't work after r RR.

KAZIKA ajantAd dhAtoH yat pratyayo bhavati. takAro yato 'nAva iti svarArthaH. geyam. peyam. ceyam. jeyam. ajgrahaNaM kiM yAvatA halantAN NyataM vakSyati? ajantabhUtapUrvAdapi yathA syAt, ditsyam, dhitsyam. takizasicatiyatijanInAm upasaGkhyAnam taki takyam. zasi zasyam. cati catyam. yati yatyam. jani janyam. hano vA vadha ca. vadhyam, ghAtyam.

302 letters. -- 31D.bse 430 -- popularity 20

(poradupa) (!po)

por ad-upadhAt ONPANINI 31098
a- pu-enders (get yat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 274

Exception in advance to RhalorNyat. Roots that end in a plus a pu get yat --

zap + yatzapya- "cursable; deserving of being cursed"

labh + yatlabhya- "attainable; to be gotten"

KAZIKA pavargAntAd dhAtoH akAropadhAt yat prayayo bhavati. Nyato 'pavAdaH. zap zapyam. labha labhyam. poH iti kim? pAkyam. vAkyam. adupadhAtiti kim? kopyam. gopyam. taparakaraNaM tatkAlArtham. Apyam.

132 letters. -- 31D.bse 509 -- popularity 1

(zakisaho) (!zak)

zaki;sahoz ca ONPANINI 31099
zak sah (get yat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 275

Another exception in advance to RhalorNyat.

zak + yatzakya- "possible"

sah + yatsahya- "endurable"

KAZIKA zakL zaktau, Saha marSaNe, anayor dhAtvoH yat prayayo bhavati. zakyam. sahyam.

76 letters. -- 31D.bse 525 -- popularity 1

(vadassupi) (/kyap)

vadaH supi kyap ca ONPANINI 31106
vad gets kyap or yat (when it is preverbless and) compounded after a noun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 276

This debars Nyat.

The kRtya affix (k)ya(p) means "(that) should be" or "(is) suitable for". kyap is used when this rule, or the following rules bhuvobhAve, hanastaca, etistuzA, RdupadhA, vibhASAkR say so. The p label makes hrasvasyapitikRtituk add t after short vowels. The k label makes it not cause puganta or hardsoft, of course, and also makes vacisvapi work.

So when we make a compound to mean "that should be said by the veda" in two words, the root vad gets either kyap or yat.

Example with yat --

brahman- + TA + vad + yat supodhA brahmavadya- "that should be said by brahma"

With kyap, the k label causes stretching --

brahman- + TA + vad + kyap supodhA brahma + vad + kyap vacisvapi brahma + ud + kyapbrahmodya- "that should be said by brahma"

If this rule can't work, we get Nyat. So, when not compounded --

vad + Nyat ata::upa vAdya- "that should be said"

And after a preverb --

pra + vad + NyatpravAdyam "rumor"

KAZIKA anupasarge iti vartate. vader dhAtoH subantoH upapade anupasarge kyap pratyayo bhavati, cakArAd yat ca. brahmodyam, brahmavadyam. satyodyam, satyavadyam. supi iti kim? vAdyam. anupasarge ityeva, pravAdyam.

658 letters. -- 31D.bse 563 -- popularity 7

(bhuvobhAve) (!bhuvob)

bhuvo bhAve ONPANINI 31107
( latter preverb-less) bhU, when meaning state, gets ( kyap) only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 277

The previous rule allowed either kyap or yat after vad. This is a niyama and allows kyap only after bhU.

So, to mean devatvam "the state of being a god", we can optionally use the compound devabhUyam, where bhUya- means "state" or "being, existence", and is made from bhU + kyap --

devatvaGM gataH → * devabhUyaGM gataH "he turned into a god"

If bhU has a preverb, or is not compounded, it gets yat --

bhU + yat hardsoft bho + yat vAntoyi bhavya- "about to be, future"

KAZIKA supyanupasarge ityanuvartate. bhavater dhAtoH subante upapade 'nupasarge bhAve kyap pratyayo bhavati. yat tu na anuvartate. brahmabhUyaM gataH brahmatvaM gataH. devabhUyaM, devatvaM gataH. bhAvagrahaNam uttarArtham. supi ityeva, bhavyam. anupasarge ityeva, prabhavyam.

332 letters. -- 31D.bse 597 -- popularity 1

(hanastaca) (!hanasta)

hanas ta ca ONPANINI 31108
(To mean a state, kyap comes) after han-, and replace han with t.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 278

This boils down to " hatyA- means a killing, and is only allowed as a latter ".

This works only in a compound and when there is no preverb --

brahman- + han + kyap + Ap → * brahma + hat + ya + ApbrahmahatyA- "brahmanicide"

The Ap is optional.

KAZIKA supyanupasarge iti vartate, bhAve iti ca. hanterdhAtoH subanta upapade 'nupasarge bhAve kyap pratyayo bhavati, takAraz c%AntĀ“AdezaH. brahmahatyA. azvahatyA. supi ityeva, ghAtaH. Nyat tu bhAve na bhavaty an-abhidhAnAt. anupasarge ityeva, praghAto vartate.

172 letters. -- 31D.bse 637 -- popularity 1

(etistuzA) (!eti)

eti;stu;zAs; vR;dR;juSaH kyap ONPANINI 31109
iN' stu zAs vR dR juS get (k)ya(p) to mean "should be".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 279

This debars yat.

All examples --

iN' + kyap hrasvasyapitikRtituk itya- "that should be gone to"

stu + kyap → .. → stutya- "worthy of praise"

zAs + kyapzASya zAsa::ida ziSyaziSya- "one that should be instructed, a student"

vRtya- "to be surrounded"

dRtya- "to be respected"

juSya- "to be delighted in, to be approved of"

KAZIKA supyanupasarge bhAve iti nivRttam. sAmAnyena vidhAname tat. eti stu zAs vR dR juSityetebhyaH kyap pratyayo bhavati. ityaH. stutyaH. ziSyaH. vRtyaH. AdRtyaH. juSyaH. kyapiti vartamAne punaH kyabgrahaNaM bAdhakabAdhanArtham. orAvazyake iti NyataM bAdhitvA kyabeva bhavati. avazy stutyaH. vRgrahaNe vRJo grahaNam iSyate, na vRGaH. vAryAH RtvijaH. zaMsiduhiguhibhyo veti vaktavyam. zasyam, zaMsyam. duhyam, dohyam , guhyam, gohyam. AGpUrvAdaJjeH saMjJAyAm upasaGkhyAnam. AjyaM ghRtam. katham upeyam? eH etad rUpaM, na iNaH.

206 letters. -- 31D.bse 670 -- popularity 1

(RdupadhA) (!Rdup)

Rd-upadhAc c' .A-kLpi-cRteH ONPANINI 31110
( kyap) after nexttolast R, except kLp and cRtmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 280

Exception to acoyat. Examples --

dRz + kyap → * dRzya- "it should be seen, it is worth seeing, it is visible"

vRdh + kyap → * vRdhya- "must grow"

Here the k in (k)ya(p) prevented puganta.

But kLp cRt get the usual yat from acoyat --

kalpya- "must become able"

cartya- "must be hurt"

KAZIKA RkAraupadhAc ca dhAtoH kyap pratyayo bhavati kLpicRtI varjayitvA. vRtu vRtyam. vRdhu vRdhyam akLpicRteH iti kim? kalpyam. cartyam. taparakaraNam kim? kRRta saMzabdane. Nyadeva bhavati kIrtyam. pANau sRjer Nyad vaktavyaH. pANisargyA rajjuH. samavapUrvAc ca. samavasargyA.

Notice that this rule mentions "all roots with nexttolast R except kLp and cRt". The fact that the rule is not worded as "all roots with nexttolast R except cRt" shows to us that pANini thought that, had he not mentioned kLp, students would have assumed kLp to work like kRp, getting kLpya-, a wrong form. So, this kLpi here is a jJApaka that allows us to infer the existence of the talkaround RdvadL.

513 letters. -- 31D.bse 707 -- popularity 4

2 next pages for chris

1536 /Rk are {R q L}

(vibhASAkR) (!vibhASAk)

vibhASA kR-vRSoH ONPANINI 31120
kR vRS (get kyap) optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 281

There are exactly two examples --

kR + kyap + am hrasvasyapitikRtituk kRtyam "it should be done"

vRS + kyap + amvRSyam "stimulating"

When we don't take the option, vRS gets yat (which is the default) --

vRS + yat + am puganta varSyam "stimulating"

and kR gets Nyat (by RhalorNyat below) --

kR + Nyat + am ata_upa kAryam "it should be done"

KAZIKA kRJo vRSazca vibhASA kyap pratyayo bhavati. karoter Nyati prApte varSateH RdupadhatvAt nitye kyapi prApte vibhASArbhyate. kRtyam, kAryam. vRSyam, varSyam.

215 letters. -- 31D.bse 737 -- popularity 1

(RhalorNyat) (/Nyat)

R;halor Nyat ONPANINI 31124
Nyat after R RR hal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 282

Nyat is a kRtya.

Exception to acoyat, that would make yat.

Examples after R --

kR + yat → * kR + Nyat hardsoft kar + Nyat ata::upa kArya- "(that) has to be done"

tRR + yattRR + NyattArya- "(that) has to be crossed"

After hal --

pac + yat → * pac + Nyat ata::upa pAc + Nyat cajoHku pAkya- "(that) has to be cooked"

vac + yat → * vac + Nyat ata::upa vAcya- "(that) has to be said"

There are other rules that add Nyat, such as orAvazyake and Asuyu.

See also exceptions zakisahozca, poradupadhAt...

KAZIKA paJcamyarthe SaSThI. RvarNAntAd dhAtor halantAc ca Nyat pratyayo bhavati. kAryam. hAryam. dhAryam vAkyam. pAkyam.

Notice that pac got the cajoHku change, but vac didn't, because of exception vacozabdasaMjJAyAm. Rule cajoHku only works on vac when vac + yat means "words" instead of "what has to be said". That's why we have vAkyam in bhg 2:1 --

viSIdantam idaM vAkyam uvAca madhusUdanaH "kRSNa said these words (to arjuna), that was depressed"

564 letters. -- 31D.bse 750 -- popularity 20

(orAvazya) (!orA)

or Avazyake ONPANINI 31125
( Nyat comes) after U u when meaning necessity.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 283

This debars yat.

The N in Nyat makes U u into au (see acoJNiti), and then dhAtostanni will work, so we get Avya-.

bhU → * bhU + Nyat acoJNiti bhau + Nyat dhAtostanni bhAv + yabhAvya- "must be"

As in --

bhAvyamM puruSair vIryavadbhiH "men must be courageous"

When the root is objectful, the translation can have "must be" --

lU → * lAvya- "must be cut"

pU → * pAvya- "must be cleaned"

zru → * zrAvya- "must be heard"

Yet, it is often a good idea to translate those using active English verbs --

asmabhisH sA kathA zrAvyA "that story must be heard by us"

asmabhisH sA kathA zrAvyA "we must hear that story"

When yat does not mean "must", this rule won't work, as in --

kaccit tasya vAkyaM zravyam "maybe we should listen to what he says"

Here zravya- comes from --

zru + yat hardsoft zro + ya dhAtostanni zravya- "should be heard"

KAZIKA avazyaM bhAvaH Avazyakam. uvarNAntAd dhAtoH Nyat prayayo bhavati Avazyake dyotye. yato 'pavAdaH. lAvyam. pAvyam. avazyake iti kim? lavyam. Avazyake dyotye iti vet, svarasamAsAnupapattiH, avazyalAvyam, avazyapAvyam iti? naiSa doSaH. mayUravyaM sakAditvAt samAsaH. uttarapadaprakRtisvare ca yatnaH kariSyate.

567 letters. -- 31D.bse 780 -- popularity 2

279 /iN' !stu !zAs !vR !dR !juS get {(k)ya(p)} to mean "should be".

(Asuyuva) (!Asu)

Asu;yu;vapi;rapi;lapi;trapi;camaz ca ONPANINI 31126
yu, vap, rap, lap, trap, cam, and AG plus su (get Nyat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 284

Exception to acoyat, that would have given yat.

All examples --

yu + Nyat acoJNiti yau + ya dhAtostanni yAvya- "should be joined or mixed"

vap + Nyat acoJNiti vApya- "should be sown"





AG + su + Nyat acoJNiti A + sau + ya vAntoyi AsAvyam "it should be distilled"

KAZIKA AG-pUrvAt sunoteH yu vapi rapi lapi trapi cama ity etebhyaz ca Nyat pratyayo bhavati. yato 'pavAdaH AsAvyam. yAvyam. vApyam. rApyam. lApyam. trApyam. AcAmyam. anuktasamuccayArthazcakAraH. dabhi dAbhyam.

172 letters. -- 31D.bse 829 -- popularity 3

(NvultRcau) (/Nvu)

Nvul;tRcau ONPANINI 31133
Nvul and tRc (may be added to all roots to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 285

In other words: these (N)vu(l) tR(c) affixes turn "go" into "goer", "make" into "maker", "run" into "runner" and so on.

Examples --

ji "conquer" + tRc hardsoft jetR- "conqueror"

nI "lead" + tRc hardsoft netR- "leader"

nI + tRc ( f) hardsoft netR- Rnne netR + GI ikoyaNaci netrI "leaderess"

nI + Nvul yuvora nI + (N)aka(l) acoJNiti nai + aka ecoya nAyaka- "leader"

ji + Nvul yuvora ji + (N)aka(l) acoJNiti jai + aka ecoya jAyaka- "conqueror"

These netR- nAyaka- nounbases " mean the doer", that is to say, they agree with the leader --

netA bhISmaH "bhISma is the leader"

netArau kumArau "the two princes are the leaders"

netrI durgA "the Goddess is the leaderess"

As these nounbases are not verblikes, the object of their root gets sixth, not second. In this example the object of the root ji of jetR- is devAnAm, not devAn --

devAnAm api jetAranM taM viduH pArthivA raNe "kings know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

We may replace ji + tRc (jetR-) with ji + Nvul (jAyaka-), as in --

pArthivAs taM vidur yuddhe devAnAm api jAyakam "kings know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

Careful. When the tRc nounbases have first ending and are masculine, they may look like the luT tense. The netA in these two examples are verbs built from nI + luT --

netA bhISmasH senAm "bhISma will lead the army"

netA durgA senAm "durgA will lead the army"

These netA netrI however are built from nI + tRc --

netA bhISmasH senAyAH "bhISma is the leader of the army"

netrI durgA senAyAH "durgA is the leaderess of the army"

( jAyaka- can mean jetR- by this rule, and can also mean jetum by tumun;Nvulau. )

The feminine of nAyaka- is nAyikA-, See --

nAyaka- f ajAdyataSTAp nAyakA- pratyayasthA nAyikA- "leaderess"

KAZIKA dhAtoH iti vartate. sarvadhAtubhyo NvultRcau pratyayau bhavataH. kArakaH. kartA. hArakaH. hartA. cakAraH sAmAnyagrahaNAvidhAtArthaH, tuz chandasi 53059, turiSThaiimeyassu 64154 iti.

Incidentally, the tRc enders are found much more often than the Nvul enders. But don't hesitate to make a Nvul-ender if you consider that it makes your verses sound better than the tRc --

devAnAm api jetAram taM sarve samare viduH "all know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

taM vidus samare sarve devAnAm api jAyakam "all know him to be the conqueror of even gods in battle"

1483 letters. -- 31D.bse 840 -- popularity 40

(nandigrahi) (/lyu)

nandi;grahi;pacAdibhyo lyu;Niny;acaH ONPANINI 31134
Add lyu Nini ac'' after the nandAdi grahAdi pacAdi.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 286

These (l)yu (N)in(i) a(c) are kRt affixes. They mean the doer, by kartarikRt.

Example of a nandAdi with lyu --

nand + lyu yuvoranA nand + (l)ananandana- "delighter, son"

Example of a grahAdi with Nini --

grah + Nini ata::upa grAh + ingrAhin- "grabber, taker, receiver"

( Nini may also mean habitual doer, by bahulamAbhIkSNye. )

Example of a pacAdi with ac'' --

zvan- + pac + ac''zvan + paca nalopaHprA zvapaca- "dog-cooker, one that eats dog, a pariah"

Those roots can also get the ordinary doer affixes tRc tRn, so you may say grahItR- instead of grAhin- for "grabber".

See also ac disambiguation .

416 letters. -- 31D.bse 918 -- popularity 11

(igupadha) (!ig)

ig-upadha-jJA-prI-kiraH kaH ONPANINI 31135
jJA, prI, kRR and nexttolast ik get (k)a (to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 287

Examples with jJA prI kRR --

jJA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica jJ + ajJa- "knower"

prI + ka aciznu priya- "that likes"

kRR + ka RRta::i kir + kakira- "scatterer"

Examples with roots that have nexttolast ik --

kRz + kakRza- "lean, emaciated"

budh + kabudha- "wise"

KAZIKA ig-upadhebhyaH jAnAteH prINAteH kiratezca kapratyayaH bhavati. vikSipaH. vilikhaH. budhaH. kRzaH. jAnAti iti jJaH. prINAti iti priyaH. kirati iti kiraH. devasevameSAdayaH pacĀ“Adau paThitavyAH.

153 letters. -- 31D.bse 950 -- popularity 2

270 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless @feminine.

1164 /jJA "know"

(preverblesslimpavindad) (!anupasargAl)

anupasargAl limpa;vinda; dhAri;pAri; vedy;udeji; ceti;sAti; sAhibhyaz ca ONPANINI 31138
Preverbless limpa, vinda, dhAri, pAri, vedi, udeji, ceti, sAti, sAhi get za.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 288

This (z)a affix is Git by hard apit is Git . So it triggers kGitica, but does not erase the nasal of limp vind.

Examples --

limp + zalimpa- "smearer"

vind + zavinda- "acquirer"

When there is a preverb, these do not get za, but other affixes. Like ka, that deletes the nasal --

pra + limp + (k)apralipa- "smearer, plasterer"

By a vArttika, this rule does apply after ni. So from ni + lip "anoint" we get --

ni + limp + jas → * ni + limp + za + jas

nilimpAs "the maruts"

By a vArttika, when words of the go- class are compounded before vind to make a tag, the vind gets za --

go- + vind → * govinda- "protector of cows, acquirer of the Earth"

ara + vind → * aravinda- "lotus" (because it has spokes, ie, its petals look like a wheel's spokes)

KAZIKA anupasargebhyo limp'-AdibhyaH za-pratyayo bhavati. limpati iti limpaH. vindatIti vindaH. dhArayati iti dhArayaH. pArayati iti pArayaH. vedayati iti vedayaH. udejAti iti udejayaH. cetayati iti cetayaH. sAtiH sautro dhAtuH. sAtayaH. sAhayaH. anupasargAtiti kim. pralipaH. nau limper iti vaktavyam. nilimpA nAma devAH. gavAdiSu vindeH saMjJAyAm. govindaH. aravindaH.

523 letters. -- 31D.bse 961 -- popularity 1

2 next pages for chris

(jvalitika) (/Na)

jval-iti-kas-antebhyo NaH ONPANINI 31140
The roots from jval to kas, when preverbless, get (N)a optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 289

So, we can say --

jval + ac'' → * jval + Na ata_upa jvAla- "flame"


jval + ac''jvala- "flame"

But with the preverb pra, no Na is allowed and prajvala- is compulsory.

See also zyAdvyadhA right below.

KAZIKA itizabdaH AdyarthaH. jvala dIptau ityevam Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH kasa gatau ityevam antebhyo vibhASA Napratyayo bhavati. aco 'pavAdaH. jvAlaH, jvalaH. cAlaH, calaH. anupasargAtityeva, prajvalaH. tanoter Nasya upasaMkhyAnaM kartavyam. avatanoti iti avatAnaH.

137 letters. -- 31D.bse 994 -- popularity 3

291 /Na is optional after /grah.

832 {A}-enders get {y(uk)} before /ciN and (/JNit) /kRt.

(zyAdvyadhAsru) (!zy)

zyA;''d;vyadh'; Asru-saMsrv-atIN avasA-'vahR-liha; zliSa-zvasaz ca ONPANINI 31141
zyA A-enders vyadh, Asr saMsr atIN, avasA avahR liha, zliSa zvas (get Na optionally)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 290

For instance, from the A-ender root dA,

dA + Na Atoyuk dAya- "inheritance"

There are more examples in the kAzikA.

KAZIKA anupasargAd iti, vibhASA iti ca nivRttam. zyaiGaH, AkArAntebhyazca dhAtubhyaH, vyadha Asrau saMsrau atINavasA avahR liha zliSa zvasa ityetebhyazca Na pratyayo bhavati. AkArAntatvAd eva zyAyateH pratyatye siddhe punar vacanaM bAdhakabAdhanArtham. upasarge kaM bAdhitvA 'yam eva bhavati. avazyAyaH. pratizyAyaH. dAyaH. dhAyaH. vyAdhaH. AsrAvaH. saMsrAvaH. atyAyaH. avasAyaH. avahAraH. lehaH. zleSaH. zvAsaH.

80 letters. -- 31D.bse 1028 -- popularity 1

(vibhASAgra) (!vibhASAg)

vibhASA graheH ONPANINI 31143
Na is optional after grah.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 291

Here adding Na or not changes the meaning --

grah + NagrAha- "shark, crocodile"

grah + ac''graha- "planet"

See gehekaH below.

KAZIKA vibhASA graheH dhAtoH Napratyayo bhavati. acaH apavAdaH. grAhaH, grahaH. vyavasthitavibhASA ca iyam. jalacare nityaM grAhaH. jyotiSi nesyate, tatra grahaH eva. bhavatezca iti vaktavyam. bhavati iti bhAvaH, bhavaH.

93 letters. -- 31D.bse 1040 -- popularity 1

(gehekaH) (!ge)

gehe kaH ONPANINI 31144
But add (k)a to mean home.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 292

Only example --

grah + (k)a grahijyA gRha-

The masculine plural gRhAs means "wife", as without a wife, you don't have a home.

When meaning the building, gRha- is a neuter, which is often used in the plural with singular meaning --

gRha- + jas → .. → gRhANi "house, houses"

KAZIKA graher dhAtoH ka-pratyayo bhavati gehe kartari. gRhaM vezma. tAtsthyAt dArAz ca. gRhNanti iti gRhAH dArAH. gRhANi vezmAni.

189 letters. -- 31D.bse 1052 -- popularity 1

291 /Na is optional after /grah.

(zilpiniSvun) (/Sv)

zilpini Svun ONPANINI 31145
Svun means a pro.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 293

This (S)vu(n) is (S)aka(n), by yuvoranAkau.

According to a vArttika, only nRt "dance", khan "dig", and raJj "dye" may get this affix. rAJj also loses its nasal. So the only examples are --

nartaka- "dancer"

khanaka- "miner"

rajaka- "dyer, washerman"

The feminines get GIS by Sid;gaurAdibhyaz ca -- nartakI, khanakI, rajakI.

According to the mahAbhASya, the root raJj gets /kvun instead. If that's right, the washerman is still rajaka-, but the washerwoman is rajikA-, not rajakI-.

KAZIKA dhAtoH Svun pratyayo bhavati zilpini kartari. nRti-khani-raJjibhyaH parigaNanaM kartavyam. nartakaH. khanakaH. rajakaH. nartakI. khanakI. rajakI. raJjer anunAsika-lopaz ca.

356 letters. -- 31D.bse 1065 -- popularity 2

96 The initial !S of an affix (is a @label).

(karmaNyaN) (/aN')

karmaNy aN ONPANINI 32001
(Roots take) aN' when (compounded after their) object.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 294

(See aN disambiguation .)

The following rules, down to 32058 or so, add a rootnounmaker affix to the root that is compounded with its object. This rule allows aN' after most roots, for instance kR.

Example --

kumbhaGM karotikumbha + kR → * kumbha + kR + aN' acoJNiti kumbhakAra- "potter"

There is another rule below that allows adding kvip to kR in the same situation, making kumbhakRt-.

KAZIKA trividhaM karma, nirvartyaM, vikAryaM, prApyaM ca iti. sarvatra karmaNi upapade dhAtoH aN pratyayo bhavati. nirvartyaM tAvat kumbhakAraH. nagarakAraH. vikAryam kANDalAvaH. zaralAvaH. prApyam vedAdhyAyaH. carcApAraH. grAmaM gacchati, AdityaM pazyati, himavantaM zRNoti ityatra na bhavati, anabhidhAnAt. zIlikAmibhakSyAcaribhyo NaH pUrvapadaprakRtisvaratvaM ca vaktavyam. mAMsazIlaH, mAMsazIlA. mAMsakAmaH, mAMsakAmA. mAMsabhakSaH, mAMsabhakSA. kalyANAcAraH, kalyANAcArA. IkSakSamibhyAM ca iti vaktavyam. sukhapratIkSaH, sukhapratIkSA. bahukSamaH, bahukSamA.

285 letters. -- 32.bse 1 -- popularity 4

270 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless @feminine.

295 /hveJ /veJ /mAG' (get /aN' when @latter after their @object)

301 !spRz (when @latter) gets /kvin unless after !udaka.

(hvAvAmazca) (!hv)

hvA;vA;maz ca ONPANINI 32002
hveJ veJ mAG' (get aN' when latter after their object)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 295

Exception to Atonu below, that would otherwise prescribe (k)a.

So, we can use hvAya- "caller", vAya- "weaver", mAya- "measurer" when in composition after an object.

In detail --

hveJ + aN' Adeca_u hvA + a AtoyukciNkRtoH hvAy + a

As in --

svargahvAya- "heavencaller"

veJ + aN' → .. → vAya-

tantuvAya- "threadweaver"

mAG' + aN' → .. → mAya-

dhAnyamAya- "grainmeasurer"

KAZIKA hveJ spardhAyAM zabde ca, veJ tantusantAne, mAG mAne ityetebhyazca karmaNyupapade aN pratyayo bhavati. kapratyayasya apavAdaH. svargahvAyaH. tantuvAyaH. dhAnyamAyaH.

239 letters. -- 32.bse 21 -- popularity 2

(Atonupa) (!Aton)

Ato 'nupasarge kaH ONPANINI 32003
preverb-less A root gets (k)a (when latter after its object)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 296

As (k)a is a kGit soft, it makes the A disappear, by Atolopa::iTica --

gAvo dadAtigAvas + dA supodhA go + dA → * go + dA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica go + d + (k)agoda- "cow-giver"

ajAdyataSTAp will work --

vara- + dA f → * vara + dA + (k)a Atolopa varada ajAdyataSTAp varadA- giveress of boons

KAZIKA AkArAntebhyaH anupasargebhyaH karmaNyupapade kapratyayo bhavati. aNo 'pavAdaH. godaH. kambaladaH. pArSNitram. aGgulitram. anupasarge iti kim? gosandAyaH. vaDavAsandAyaH.

155 letters. -- 32.bse 40 -- popularity 2

270 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless @feminine.

295 /hveJ /veJ /mAG' (get /aN' when @latter after their @object)

(supisthaH) (!supis)

supi sthaH ONPANINI 32004
sthA when latter (gets ka)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 297

So, when sthA is a rootnoun, it becomes stha.

sama- + sthA → * sama + sthA + (k)a Atolopa::iTica sama-stha- "that stays in a flat place"

KAZIKA subante upapade tiSThateH kapratyayo bhavati. samasthaH. viSamasthaH. atra yogavibhAgaH kartavyaH supi iti. supi AkArAntebhyaH kapratyayo bhavati. dvAbhyAm pibati iti dvipaH. pAdapaH. kacchapaH. tataH sthaH iti. sthazca supi kapratyayo bhavati. kimartham idam? kartari pUrvayogaH. anena bhAve 'pi yathA syAt. AkhUnAm utthAnam AkhUtthaH. zalabhotthaH. ita uttaraM karmaNIti ca supIti ca dvayamapyanuvartate. tatra sakarmakeSu dhAtuSu karmaNItyetadupatiSThate. anyatra supIti.

81 letters. -- 32.bse 50 -- popularity none

(careSTaH) (/Ta)

careS TaH ONPANINI 32016
car (when latter after its location) gets (T)a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 298

As in --

kuruSu carati → * kuru + car + Takurucara- mn "that goes among the kurus"

The T label makes TiDDhA work--

kurucara- f TiDDhA kurucara- + GI yasyetica kurucarI- "she that goes among the kurus"

KAZIKA adhikaraNe iti vartate. carer dhAtor adhikaraNe subanta upapade Ta-pratyayo bhavati. kuruSu carati kurucaraH. madracaraH. kurucarI. madracarI. pratyayAntarakaraNaM GIp-artham.

131 letters. -- 32.bse 60 -- popularity 1

(ejeHkhaz) (/khaz)

ejeH khaz ONPANINI 32028
Add (kh)a(z) after eji (when it is compounded after its object).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 299

This rule explains the formation of janamejayaH, the name of a king of old.

The causative root eji means "to cause to tremble". Adding khaz we get an anomalous nounbase ejaya- that means the doer, namely, it means "that causes to tremble". It can only be used compounded after its object (the object is whoever is made to tremble).

As khaz is hard by tiGzit, and means the doer of the making-to-tremble action by kartarikRt, rule kartarizap works --

eji- + khazeji + zap + khaz hardsoft eje + a + khaz ecoya ejaya + khaz atoguNe ejaya

Compounding this ejaya after jana- "people" we get "the one that makes people tremble" --

janam + ejaya- supodhA jana + ejaya- arurdviSa janam + ejaya-janamejaya- "he who makes people tremble"

520 letters. -- 32.bse 70 -- popularity 2

1132 /khit is what has @label !kh.

(priyavaze) (!priyav)

priyavaze vadaH khac ONPANINI 32038
vad gets khac after priya or vazammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 300

This rule explains the m in --

priyaMvada- "that speaks pleasantly"

vazaMvada- "that speaks submissively"

KAZIKA priya vaza ity etayoH karamNoH upapadayoH vadeH dhAtoH khac pratyayo bhavati. priyaM vadati iti priyaMvadaH. vazaMvadaH. cakAraH khaci hrasvaH 64094 iti vizeSaNArthaH. khakAro mumarthaH. pratyayAntarakaraNamuttarArtham. khacprakaraNe gameH supyupasaGkhyAnam. mitaGgamo hastI. mitaGgamA hastinI. vihAyaso viha ca. vihAyasA gacchati vihaGgamaH. khacca DidvA vaktavyaH. vihaGgaH, vihaGgamaH. De ca vihAyaso vihAdezo vaktavyaH. vihagaH.

83 letters. -- 32.bse 127 -- popularity 1

98 !l !z /ku (in affixes are [@label]s), but not in a /taddhita

(spRzonuda) (!sp)

spRzo 'n-udake kvin ONPANINI 32058
spRz (when latter) gets kvin unless after udaka.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 301

Examples --

jalena spRzati → * jala- + spRz + kvin + sujalaspRz- + su halGyA jalaspRz kvinpratyayasya jalaspRkh jhalAMjazonte jalaspRg "that touches with water"

ghRtaM spRzati → .. → ghRtaspRg "that touches ghee"

Counterexample --

udakena spRzatiudaka- + spRz + aN' + su puganta udakasparzas "that touches with water"

KAZIKA spRze rdhAtoranudake subanta upapade kvin pratyayo bhavati. nanu sakarmakatvAt spRzeH karmaivopapadaM prApnoti? na eSa doSaH. kartari iti pUrvasUtrAdanuvartate, tat kartRpracayArthaM vijJAyate. subantamAtre ca upapade kartRpacayo labhyate ghRtaM spRzati ghRtaspRk. mantreNa spRzati mantraspRk. jalena spRzati jalaspRk. anudake iti kim? udakasparzaH. nakAraH kvin-pratyayasya kur iti vizeSaNArthaH.

201 letters. -- 32.bse 130 -- popularity 1

62 Words in rules stand for themselves, unless they are [@term]s.

(RtvigdadhR) (/kvin)

Rtvig;dadhRk; srag;dig; uSNig;aJcu; yuji;kruJcAM ca ONPANINI 32059
Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc- (have kvin).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 302

(k)v(in) is a rootnounmaker affix. This rule just states that these eight rootnouns --

Rtvij- dadhRS- sraj- diz- uSNih- ac''' yuj- kruJc-

were formed by adding kvin after some roots.

The eight roots are --

yaj dhRS sRj diz snih aJcu yuj kruJc

For instance, the nounbase diz- "direction" is made from the root diz "point at", with kvin added --

diz ( root ) + kvindiz + v verapRktasya diz- ( nounbase )

KAZIKA RtvigAdayaH paJcazabdAH kvinpratyayAntAH nipAtyante, apare trayo dhAtvo nirdiSyante. Rtuzabda upapade yajer dhatoH kvin pratyayo nipAtyate. Rtau yajati, RtuM vA yajati, Rtuprayukto vA yajati Rtvik. rUDhireSA yathA kathaMcidanugantavyA. dhRSeH kvin pratyayaH, dvirvacanam, antodAttatvaM ca nipAtyate. dhRSNoti iti dadhRk. sRjeH karmaNi kvin, amAgamaH ca nipAtyate. sRjanti tam iti srak. diSeH karmaNi kvin nipAtyate. dizanti tAm iti dik. utpUrvAt sniheH kvin, upasargAntalopaH, SatvaM ca nipAtyate. uSNik. aJcu yuji kruJca ityeteSAM dhAtUnAM kvin pratyayo bhavati. nipAtanaiH saha nirdezAtatra api kiMcidalAkSaNikaM kAryam asti. aJcateH subnatamAtra upapade kvin pratyayo bhavati. prAG. pratyaG. udaG. yujeH kruJcezca kevalAdeva. yuG, yuJjau, yuJjaH. sopapadAt tu satsUdviSa 3-2-61 ityAdinA kvip bhavati. azvayuk, azvayujau, azvayujaH. kruG, kruJcau, kruJcaH. nalopaH kasmAn na bhavati? nipAtanasAhacaryAt.

What does it matter if diz- has kvin or some other affix? It matters because rule kvinpra works on kvin-enders only --

diz- f + su halGyA diz kvinpra dikh jhalAJjazonte dig beforepause dik

If diz- had not been a kvin-ender, rule vrazca would have turned diz into diD.

454 letters. -- 32.bse 150 -- popularity 20

(tyadAdiSu) (/kaJ)

tyad-AdiSu dRzo 'n-Alocane kaJ ca ONPANINI 32060
kaJ and ( kvin) come after tyadAdi plus dRz, unless meaning seeing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 303

The root dRz ordinarily means "see" or "look", but when it's a rootnoun it can mean also "such". In that case the dRz takes (k)a(J) or kvin.

Example with kaJ --

tad- + dRz + kaJ Asarva ta + A + dRza- → .. → tAdRza- "such a one"

This affix kaJ is listed in TiDDhA, therefore the feminine gets GI --

tAdRza- + GI yasyetica tAdRzI- "such a one"

Example with kvin --

tad- + dRz + kvintAdRz- "such a one"

When this z is wordfinal, kvinpra works --

tAdRz- + su halGyA tAdRz kvinpratyayasya tAdRkh jhalAJjazonte tAdRg beforepause tAdRk "such a one"

tAdRz- + bhis svAdiSva tAdR + @wordfinal z + bhis kvinpratyayasya tAdRkh + bhis jhalAJjazonte tAdRgbhis

When dRz has the odinary meaning of seeing, it gets some a affix that is not kaJ, and then, unlike in the kaJ examples above, rule Asarva does not work, and there is hardsoft --

tamM pazyati "sees that" → .. → tad-darzas "that sees that"

KAZIKA tyadAdiSu upapadeSu dRzer dhAtoranAlocane 'rthe vartamAnAt kaJ pratyayo bhavati, cakArAt kvin ca. tyAdRzaH, tyAdRk. tAdRzaH, tAdRk. yAdRzaH, yAdRk. kaJo JakAro vizeSaN%ArthaH, Thak ThaJ kaJ iti. anAlocane iti kim? taM pazyati taddarzaH. tAdRg Adayo hi rUDhi-zabda-prakArAH, na eva atra darzanakriyA vidyate. samAnAnyayozceti vaktavyam. sadRzaH, sadRk. anyAdRzaH, anyAdRk. dRzeH kSazca vaktavyaH. tAdRkSaH. yAdRkSaH. anyAdRkSaH. kIdRkSaH.

548 letters. -- 32.bse 276 -- popularity 2

(bhajoNviH) (/Nvi)

bhajo NviH ONPANINI 32062
latter bhaj gets Nvimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 304

(N)v(i) is a rootnounmaker affix.

ardham bhajate "shares a half" → * ardham + bhaj + Nvi ata::upa ardham + bhAj + v vera ardham + bhAj- supodhA ardhabhaj- "that shares a half"

As in

na kaz cid duKkhabhAg bhavet "may no one be in pain"

Listen to that one with some music --

sarveSAM svastir bhavatu

178 letters. -- 32.bse 317 -- popularity 3

305 In the /veda, (@latter) !sah gets (/Nvi).

306 /vah (gets /Nvi in the /veda).

(chandasisa) (!cha)

chandasi sahaH ONPANINI 32063
In the veda, ( latter) sah gets ( Nvi).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 305

Example --

turAn sahate "he overpowers the strong" → tura- + sah → * tura + sah + Nvi ata_upa tura + sAh anyeSAmapi turA + sAh sahessADassaH turASAh- "overpowerer of the strong"

KAZIKA upasarge supi ityeva. chandasi viSaye saher dhAtoH subante upapade Nvipratyayo bhavati. turASAT. saheH sADaH saH 83056 iti Satvam, anyeSAm api dRzyate 63137 iti dIrghatvam.

99 letters. -- 32.bse 336 -- popularity none

(vahazca) (/vAh)

vahazca ONPANINI 32064
vah (gets Nvi in the veda).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 306 vedic

This rule makes the rootnoun vAh-, which only appears compounded after its object.

vah + Nvi acoJNiti vAh + Nvi verapRktasya vAh-

This vAh- keeps its form vAh only when before strong.

It is Uh- when wimpy (by vAha::UTh).

It is vAD- when word (by hoDhaH ff).

173 letters. -- 32.bse 340 -- popularity 2

557 (@Merge "!a !A") with !eti !edhati /Uh- (into /vRddhi).

(kvipca) (!kvip)

kvip ca ONPANINI 32076
kvip too (appears randomly).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 307

Example --

ukhAt sraMsate "it falls from the pan" → ukha- + srans + kvip aniditA ukha + sras + kvip vasusraMsu ukha + srad + kvip vera ukhasrad- "what falls from the pan"

KAZIKA sarvadhAtubhyaH sopapadebhyo nirupapadebhyazca chandasi bhASAyAM ca kvip pratyayo bhavati. ukhAyAH sraMsate ukhAsrat. parNadhvat. vAhAt bhrazyati, vAhAbhraT. anyeSAm api dRzyata iti dIrghaH.

101 letters. -- 32.bse 387 -- popularity 1

(bahulamA) (!bahulam)

bahulam AbhIkSNye ONPANINI 32081
Sometimes ( Nini) means repetition.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 308

Example --

pA + Nini AtoyukciNkRtoH pA + yuk + Nini → .. → pAyin- "habitual drinker"

This pAyin- is only used in compounds --

kSIram pibantikSIra- + pA + Nini + jas → * kSIrapAyin- jas prAtipadikAntanum kSIrapayiNas

kSIra-pAyiNa:: uzInArAH "the uzInaras are milk-drinkers"

The word "sometimes" means that sometimes there is Nini and sometimes not. So kulmASakhAdas "barley eater".

KAZIKA AbhIkSNye gamyamAne dhAtoH bahulaM NiniH pratyayo bhavati. abhIkSNyaM paunaHpunyam. tAtparyam Asevaiva, tAcchIlyAd anyat. kaSAya-pAyiNo gandhArAH. kSIra-pAyiNaH uzInarAH. sauvIra-pAyiNo bAhlIkAH. bahula-grahaNat kulmASakhAdaH ityatra na bhavati.

255 letters. -- 32.bse 400 -- popularity 1

31067 verb classes ←

chunk 19: 31091 root affixes

→ 32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh