31005 sanAdyanta roots ←

chunk 17: 31003 syA tAs cli

→ 31067 verb classes

31033 sya tAs before lR luT. syatAsIlRluToH
31035 kAs and the sanAdyanta get Am'' before liT. kAspratyayAdAmamantreliTi
31036 Roots that start with a heavy ic get Am'' , except Rcch and UrNu. ijAdezcagurumatonRcchaH
31037 day ay As too . dayAyAsazca
31038 uS vid jAgR optionally. uSavidajAgRbhyonyatarasyAm
31039 bhI hrI bhR hu get zlu-like . bhIhrIbhRhuvAMzluvacca
31040 add also an auxiliary with the liT. kRJcAnuprayujyateliTi
31043 Roots get cli before luG. cliluGi
31044 cli to s. clessic
31045 sa after ikzal-ender aniT. zala::igupadhAdaniTaHksaH
31047 But not dRz. nadRzaH
31048 cli to caG after Ni-enders, zri dru sru kam before kartari. NizridrusrubhyaHkartaricaG
31052 After asyati vac khyA. aG . asyativaktikhyAtibhyoG
31053 lip sic' hve lipisicihvazca
31054 optionally before bents. AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAmx
31055 puS-class dyut-class and the Ldit before flat puSAdidyutAdyLditaHparasmaipadeSu
31056 sR zAs R . sarttizAstyartibhyazca
31057 The irit optionally . iritovA
31066 Optionally ciN when ta does not mean the doer. ciNbhAvakarmaNoH




(syatAsIlR) (/sya)

sya;tAsI lR;luToH ONPANINI 31033
( root gets) sya tAs before lR luT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 240

By the respectively rule, thi smeans that roots get sya before lR and tAs before luT.

This " lR " is short for " lRT and lRG ". So, roots get sya before lRT lRG --

kR + lRT tip → * kR + sya + tip Rddhanossye kR + iSya + tip hardsoft kariSyati "he will make"

kR + lRGakR + lRG → * akR + sya + lRG → .. → akariSyat "he would have made"

and get tAs before luT --

kR + luT → * kR + tAs + luT → .. → kartA "he'll make"

When there is sya or tAs, rules sArvadhAtukeyak, kartarizap, tanAdikRJ, etc, cannot work, because the hard affix is no longer right after a root. So we got no u in the examples above, and we get no u and no yak in these --

kR + kartari lRT ta → .. → kariSyate "he will make"

kR + karmaNi lRT ta → .. → kariSyate "it will be made"

KAZIKA L-rUpam utsRST%AnubandhaM sAmAnyam ekam eva. tasmin luTi ca parato dhAtor yathA-saGkhyaM syatAsI pratyayau bhavataH. kariSyati. akariSyat. zvaH kartA. iditkaraNam anunAsikalopapratiSedhArtham. mantA. saGgantA.

488 letters. -- 31.bse 1810 -- popularity 36




(kAspratyayA) (/Am'')

kAs;pratyayAd Am amantre liTi ONPANINI 31035
kAs and the sanAdyanta get Am'' before liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 241

Exception to liTidhA, that would have reduplicated those roots. kAs and all sanAdyanta roots (such as cinti, pAci, lolUya, pipakSa), when they are before liT, get Am''.

Examples.

kAs + liT takAs + ez → * kAs + Am'' + ez AmaH kAs + Am'' → .. → kAsAJMcakre "he coughed"

cinti + liT tipcinti + Nal → * cinti + Am'' + Nal AmaH cinti + Am'' hardsoft cinte + Am → .. → cintayAJMcakAra "he thought"

pAci + liT jhipAci + us → * pAci + Am'' + us AmaH pAci + Am'' hardsoft pAce + Am → .. → pAcayAJMcakrus "he thought"

lU + yaG + Nal → .. → lolUya + Nal → * lolUya + Am'' + Nal → .. → lolUyAJMcakrus "he did lots of reaping"

pac + san + liT jhi → .. → pipakSAJMcakrus "they tried to cook"

Example withan anekAc root --

daridrA + Nal → .. → daridrAJMcakAra "he became poor"

Back to Which roots get Am'' .

KAZIKA kAsR zabdakutsAyAm, tataH pratyayAntebhyazca dhAtubhyaH Am pratyayo bhavati liTi parato 'mantraviSaye. kAsAJcakre. pratyayAntebhyaH lolUyAJ cakre. amantre iti kim? kRSNo nonAva. kAsyanekAcaH iti vaktavyam culumpAdyartham. cakAsAJcakAra. daridrAJcakAra. culumpAjcakAra. Amo 'mitvam adantatvAdaguNatvaM vides tathA. AskAsorAM vidhAnAc ca pararUpaM katantavat.

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... fix questions below

521 letters. -- 31B.bse 1 -- popularity 20




(ijAdezca) (!ij)

ijAdezca gurumato 'n-RcchaH ONPANINI 31036
Roots that start with a heavy ic get Am'' (before liT), except Rcch and UrNu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 242

Examples. The roots Ih Uh IkS start with heavy ik vowels, so they get Am'' --

IkS + liT taIkS + ez → * IkS + Am'' + ez AmaH IkS + Am'' → .. → IkSAJMcakre "he saw"

Counterexamples. The roots iS iN' zIG don't start with a heavy ic, so they get liTidhA normally --

iyeSa "he wanted"

iyAya "he went"

zizye "he lay down"

Two exceptions. The roots Rcch and UrNu start with a heavy ic, but this rule doesn't work on them --

Rcch + Nal RcchatyRRtAm arcch + a liTidhA a + arcch + a ata_AdeH A + arcch + a !!tasmAnnu An + arcch + aAnarccha "he went"

pra + UrNu + Nal → .. → prorNunAva "he covered"

Back to Which roots get Am'' .

KAZIKA ij-Adir yo dhAtur gurumAn Rcchati-varjitaH, tasmAc ca liTi parata Am pratyayo bhavati. Iha ceSTAyAm. Uha vitarke. IhAJcakre. UhAJcakre. ij-AdeH iti kim? tatakSa. rarakSa. gurumataH iti kim? iyaja. uvapa. anRcchaH iti kim? Anarccha, AnarcchatuH, AnarcchauH. UrNotez ca pratiSedho vaktavyaH. prorNunAva. atha vA vAcya UrNorNuvadbhAvo yaGprasiddhiH prayojanam. Amaz ca pratiSedhArtham ekAcaz ceD upagrahAt.

395 letters. -- 31B.bse 165 -- popularity 3

111 After @auxiliary /bhU /as, replace @bent with @flat.




(dayAyAsa) (!day)

day';.Ay';Asaz ca ONPANINI 31037
day ay As too (get Am'').mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 243 Am''

So we say --

day + liT ta → .. → dayAJMcakre "had pity on"

palAyAJMcakre "fleed"

AsAJMcakre "sat"

Back to which roots get Am'' .

KAZIKA daya dAna-gati-rakSaNeSu, aya gatau, Asa upaveSane, etebhyazca liTi parata Am pratyayo bhavati. dayaJcakre. palAyAJ cakre. AsAJ cakre.

86 letters. -- 31B.bse 201 -- popularity 1




(uSavida) (!uS)

uSa;vida;jAgRbhyo 'nyatarasyAm ONPANINI 31038
uS vid jAgR (get Am'') optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 244 Am''

So, with Am'', these make --

uS + Nal → * uS + Am'' + Nal → .. → oSAmAsa "burnt"

vidAmAsa "knew"

jAgarAmAsa "woke up"

alternatively, there is liTidhA as usual --

uS + Nal liTidhA u + uS + Nal → .. → uvoSa "burnt"

viveda "knew"

jajAgAra "woke up"

Notice that vid is special. It doesn't get puganta before Am'', but gets it before liT.

This rule only works on the vid root that means "know". Other vid roots make viveda only.

Back to Which roots get Am'' .

KAZIKA uSa dAhe, vida jJAne, jagR nidrAkSaye, etebhyo liTi parato 'nyatarasyAm Am pratyayo bhavati. oSAJcakAra, uvoSa. vidAJcakAra, viveda. jAgarAJcakAra, jajAgAra. vider ad-anta-tva-pratijJAnAd Ami guNo na bhavati.

313 letters. -- 31B.bse 211 -- popularity 1




(bhIhrIbhRhu) (!bhIh)

bhI;hrI;bhR;huvAM zlu-vac ca ONPANINI 31039
bhI hrI bhR hu get zlu-like ( Am'' optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 245

So, these four roots reduplicate before Am'' as if zlau had worked (and NOT as if liTidhA had worked) --

bhI + Am'' → * bibhI + Am hardsoft bibhe + Am ecoya bibhayAm

hrI + Am'' → * jihrI + Am hardsoft jihre + Am ecoya jihrayAm

bhR + Am'' → * bibhR + Am hardsoft bibharAm

hu + Am'' → * juhu + Am hardsoft juho + Am ecoya juhavAm

The difference between reduplicating zluvat (" zlu-wise") and reduplicating liT-wise is in the root bhR. Reduplicating bhR with zlau makes bibhR, with bi, while reduplicating it with liTidhA makes babhR, with ba. So we say bibharAmAsa, not baharAmAsa.

KAZIKA JibhI bhaye, hrI lajjAyAm, DubhRJ dhAraNapoSaNayoH, hu dAnAdAnayoH, etebhyo liTi parataH Am pratyayo bhavati anyatarasyAm, zlAv iva ca asmin kAryaM bhavati. kiM punas tat? dvitvam ittvaM ca. bibhayAJcakAra, vibhAya. jihrayAJcakAra, jihrAya. bibharAJcakAra, babhAra. juhavAJcakAra, juhAva.

386 letters. -- 31B.bse 244 -- popularity 1

1378 Which roots get /Am''




(kRJcAnupra) (!kRJ)

kRJ c/Anuprayujyate liTi ONPANINI 31040
(After Am''-ender,) add also an auxiliary with the liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 246

When we add a liT affix after one of the roots mentioned in kAspratyayA ff, this happens --

(1) the root gets Am'' added, by kAspratyayA

(2) the liT affix is removed, by AmaH

And now this rule teaches that we must

(3) stick an auxiliary verb right after that.

To make the auxiliary verb, we choose one of the three roots kR bhU as, and then add to it the liT that we removed in step (2).

Example. The root cinti means "think", and, being a Nijanta root, it is affected by kAspra. No we want to add after cinti the liT affix Nal, to mean "he thought". So we start with cinti + Nal, and then --

(1) by kAspra, we must first add Am'' to the root. That makes cinti + Am'' + Nal, that is, cintayAm + Nal.

(2) by AmaH, we must remove the Nal. So we have cintayAm.

We then put the Nal we removed after one of the three roots kR bhU as (choose whatever), and this will make one of the three auxiliary verbs cakAra, babhUva, Asa.

(3) then, by this rule, after cintayAm, we add the auxiliary verb we made. As if it were an affix.

So we say --

cintayAJMcakAra "he thought"

cintayAmMbabhUva "he thought"

cintayAmAsa "he thought"

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... so far so good ...

After AmaH removes a tiG, stick that tiG after any of kR bhU as, and attach the resulting verb after the Am'', as if it were an affix.

(These kR bhU as are called auxiliary roots.)

Example. To mean "he thougt", we join cint + liT tip. Several rules turn that into cintayAm + Nal, then AmaH removes the Nal --

cint + liTcint + tipcint + Nal satyApa cinti + Nal kAspra cinti + Am'' + Nal hardsoft cinte + Am + Nal ecoya cintayAm + Nal AmaH cintayAm

This rule says that first, we add the Nal we removed after kR. That makes a verb --

kR + NalcakR + Nal acoJNiti cakAra

And then, we add that cakAra to the cintayAm we got earlier as if it were an affix --

cintayAm → * cintayAm + cakAra monusvA cintayAM + cakAra anusvA cintayAJMcakAra "he thought"

This cintayAJMcakAra is a single word for all purposes. It is the liT of cint.

See also Am-pratyayavat.

Back to Am'' summary .

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... integrate questions below

KAZIKA Ampratyayasya pazcAt kRJanuprayujyate liTi parataH. kRJiti pratyAhAreNa kRbhvastayo gRhyante, tat sAmarthyAd aster bhUbhAvaH na bhavati. pAcayAJcakAra. pAcayAmbabhUva. pAcayAmAsa.

1458 letters. -- 31B.bse 260 -- popularity 4

1378 Which roots get /Am''




(cliluGi) (/cl)

cli luGi ONPANINI 31043
Roots get cli before luG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 247

All luG make the root take cli.

This cli prevents the root from getting yak, zap, zlu, za etc.

cli will always be replaced with one of the affixes mentioned in the list of aorist types -- usually with sic, sometimes with caG or aG or ksa. Sometimes sic is added, and then removed.

In inria and Western grammars, the different affixes that replace cli are represented with numbers. I'll show some examples. Typing into inria reader alAviSam abhUd adrAkSId adikSad apIpacad adudruvat, we get to this page --

abhUd adrAkSId apIpacad adudruvad alAviSam adikSat

The number that inria shows after " aor" tells us what affix replaced cli --

abhUt "he was" -- aor [1] -- got luk

adrAkSIt "he saw" -- aor [4] -- got sic

apIpacat "he made others cook" -- aor [3] -- got caG

adudruvat "he ran" -- aor [3] -- got caG

alAviSam "I reaped" -- aor [5] -- got iSic

adikSat "he pointed or appointed" -- aor [7] -- got ksa

Inria is a bit confused about apIpacat, because it says that it is an aorist of root pac, while actually it is the aorist of pAci, the causative of pac.

735 letters. -- 31B.bse 480 -- popularity 11




(clessic) (/sic)

cleH sic ONPANINI 31044
cli to s(ic).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 248

The cli made by the previous rule will be replaced with s(ic) unless an exception says otherwise.

Examples with an aniT root, kR "make". These are "aor [4]" or s-aorist --

kR + luG mipkR + cli + mip → * kR + sic + mipkR + s + am''' luGlaG akR + s + am sicivRddhiH akAr + s + am kric akArSam "I made"

kR + luG tipkR + cli + tip → * kR + sic + tip luGlaG akR + s + tipakR + s + t''' sicivRddhiH akArs + t asti;sico akArs + It kric akArSIt "he made"

Example with a seT root, lU "reap". These are "aor [5]" or is-aorist --

lU + luG miplU + cli + mip luGlaG alU + cli + mip → * alU + sic + mip ArdhadhAtukasyeD alU + iSic + mipalU + iS + am''' sicivRddhiH alau + iS + am ecoy alAviSam "I reaped"

Back to aorist types .

KAZIKA cleH sij-Adezo bhavati. ikAra uccAraN%ArthaH, cakAraH svarArthaH. akArSIt. ahArSIt. AgamAnudAttatvaM hi pratyayasvaram iva citsvaram api badheta iti sthAniny Adeze ca dvizcakAro 'nubadhyate. spRza-mRza-kRSa-tRpa-dRpAM sij vA vaktavyaH. asprAkSIt, aspArkSIt, aspRkSat. amrAkSIt, amArkSIt, amRkSat. akArSIt, akrAkSIt, akRkSat. atrApsIt, AtArpsIt, atRpat. adrApsIt, adArpsIt, adRpat.

388 letters. -- 31B.bse 526 -- popularity 44




(zala::igu) (/ksa)

zala:: ig-upadhAd aniTaH ksaH ONPANINI 31045
( cli to) (k)sa after ikzal-ender aniT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 249 luG

Exception to clessic.

An ikzal-ender is root that ends in ik plus zal. For instance, diz dih lih guh dviS viz duh are ikzal.

The ikzal that are aniT (like the seven above) get (k)sa instead of sic.

The label k of (k)sa prevents puganta. The zal of the root always combines with the sa to make kSa.

Example with z --

diz + luGdiz + tipdiz + cli + tip → * diz + ksa + tipdiz + sa + t''' luGlaG adiz + sa + t vrazcabhrasja adiS + sat SaDhoHkassi adikSat "he pointed out, he directed, he commanded"

Example with S --

dviS + luG tip → .. → a + dviS + sa + t''' SaDhoHkassi advikSat "he hated"

Example with h --

lih + luG tip → .. → alih + sa + t hoDhaH aliDh + sat SaDhoHkassi alikSat "he licked"

If the root is a baz plus ik plus h, we get throwback --

dih + luG tip → .. → adih + sa + t hoDhaH adiDh + sa + t ekAcoba adhiDh + sa + t SaDhoHkassi adhikSat "he increased, accumulated"

duh + luG tip → .. → adhukSat "he milked"

guh + luG tip → .. → aghukSat "he covered, hid"

Inria labels the above verbs as "aor [7]". You may also call them ksa-aorist, because they have kSa inside, or ksa-aorist, because they got affix ksa.

Of course, if the final is not a zal, or the nexttolast is not an ik, or the root is seT, this rule won't work --

chid + luG → .. → acchaiSIt "he split"

dah + luG → .. → adhAkSIt "he burnt"

kuS + luG → .. → akoSIt "he pinched"

Back to aorist types .

KAZIKA zal-anto yo dhAtur ig-upadhas tasmAt parasya cleH aniTaH kSa Adezo bhavati. duha adhukSat. liha alikSat. zalaH iti kim? abhaitsIt. acchaitsIt. igupadhAd iti kim? adhAkSIt. aniTaH iti kim? akoSIt. amoSIt.

864 letters. -- 31B.bse 664 -- popularity 5

250 But not /dRz.

387 (@Chop /vas /mas) from /Git @tense.




(nadRzaH) (!nadR)

na dRzaH ONPANINI 31047
But not dRz.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 250

The root dRz is ikzal and aniT so it should be affected by zala::igu. By this exception, it isn't. It gets sic instead --

dRz + luG tipdRz + t''' luGlaG adRz + tadRz + sic + tadRz + s + It''' vrazcabhrasja adRS + sIt sRjidRzo adraS + sIt atohalA adrAS + sIt SaDhoHkassi adrAkSIt "he saw"

Besides sic, the root dRz may also get aG optionally, because it is listed as dRz(ir) in the dhAtupATha (see iritovA). So we can instead say --

dRz + luG tip iritovA dRz + aG + tip → .. → adRz + a + t''' RdRzoGiguNaH adarzat "he saw"

KAZIKA pUrveNa kSaH prAptaH pratiSidhyate. dRzeH dhAtoH parasya cleH kSA'dezo na bhavati. asmin pratiSiddhe irito veti aG-sicau bhavataH. adarzat, adrAkSIt.

312 letters. -- 31B.bse 796 -- popularity none




(Nizridrusru) (/caG)

Ni;zri;dru;srubhyaH kartari caG ONPANINI 31048
cli to caG after Ni-enders, zri dru sru kam before kartari.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 251 luG

This (c)a(G) affix is just an a. The G label triggers kGitica, the c label just tells this caG affix apart from the aG affix.

Inria flags the verbs that have caG with " aor [3] ", no matter their verb class. Some people call these verbs chang-aorist or reduplicated aorist.

Examples. rakSi is a Nic-ender root, and so is cinti. When we add luG after dru, rakSi, cinti, we get caG instead of sic --

dru + luG tip luGlaG adru + tipadru + t''' → * adru + caG + tadudru + a + t aciznu adudruvat

rakSi + luG tip luGlaG arakSi + tiparakSi + t''' → * arakSi + caG + t NeraniTi arakS + a + t caGi ararakSat

cinti + luG tip luGlaG acinti + tipacinti + t''' → * acinti + caG + t NeraniTi acint + a + t caGi acicintat

As you can see, adding the caG affix erased the Nic and reduplicated the root.

Because of several rules, that i will explain later, most of the caG verbs end up having a heavy root syllable after a light stammer --

pAci + luG tip → .. → apIpacat "he made (them) cook"

cori + luG tip → .. → acUcurat "he stole"

hR + Nic + luG tiphAri + luG tip → .. → ajIharat "he made them take"

You will notice that in these examples the i of pAci cori hAri disappeared, and there was reduplication, just like earlier. But then the vowel of pAc cor hAr was shortened into pac cur har (by NaucaGyupa). When reduplicating pac har, the papac hahar turned into pipac hijar (from sanyataH, which works here because sanvalla says so). Then the stammers of pipac cucur hihar lengthened their vowel by dIrgholaghoH. If any of this is unclear, do not worry. Tomorrow you may look at the examples in rules NaucaGyupa, sanyataH, sanvalla, dIrgholaghoH. Do not do that today, lest your brain explodes.

KAZIKA sij-apavAdaz caG vidhIyate. Ny-antebhyo dhAtubhyaH, zri dru sru ity etebhyaz ca parasya cleH caGAdezo bhavati kartavAcini luGi parataH. GakAro guNa-vRddhi-pratiSedh%ArthaH, cakAraH caGIti vizeSaNArthaH. acIkarat. ajIharat. azizriyat. adudruvat. asusruvat. kartari iti kim? akArayiSAtAM kaTau devadattena. kamer upasaGkhyAnam. AyAdaya:: ArdhadhAtuke vA iti yadA NiG nAsti tadA etad upasaGkhyAnam. acakamata. NiGpakSe sanvadbhAvaH. acIkamata. nAkamiSTasukhaM yAnti suyuktair vaDavArathaiH. atha patkaSiNo yAnti ye 'cIkamata bhASiNaH.

This rule won't work before the extremely uncommon non- kartari luG endings. For instance, in akArayiSAtAGM kaTau devadattena "John ordered two mats to be made", the kR + Nic got sic, not caG, because it is before an AtAm that means the object. I took that example from the kAzikA, as I never saw any in the wild.

1444 letters. -- 31B.bse 827 -- popularity 13




(asyativa) (/aG)

asyati;vakti;khyAtibhyo 'G ONPANINI 31052
After asyati vac khyA. ( cli to) aG (before kartari).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 252

Exception to cleHsic. The roots mentioned here, as well as those mentioned in the next four rules ( lipisicihvazca puSAdidyu sartti;zAsty;a iritovA), get a(G) instead of the usual sic. This a(G) affix is also called ang-aorist, a-aorist, or, in inria, " aor [2]" (see aorist types ).

Examples --

pari + as' + kartari luG ta → * pari + as + aG + ta AD-aj-AdInAm pari + AT + as + aG + ta asyatesthuk pari + Asth + aG + ta ikoyaNaci paryAsthata "he threw all around"

vac + kartari luG tip luGlaG avac + tipavac + t''' → * avac + aG + t''' vaca::um avoc + aG + t'''avocat "he said"

AG + khyA + aG + t''' Atolopa A + khy + a + tAkhyat "he said"

Before akartari, these get sic as usual --

paryAsiSAtAGM gAvau vatsena "the cows were separated by the calf"

( The akartari luG is found once in a blue moon. Except ciN, that is always akartari. )

KAZIKA asu kSepane, vaca paribhASaNe brUJ-Adezo vA, khyA prakathane cakSiG-Adezo vA, ebhyaH parasya cler aG-Adezo bhavati kartR-vAcini luGi parataH. asyateH puSAdi-pAThAdevAGi siddhe punar grahaNam AtmanepadArtham. paryAsthata, paryAsthetAm, paryAsthanta. vakti avocat, avocatAm, avocan. khyAti Akhyat, AkhyatAm, Akhyan. kartarIiti kim? paryAsiSAtAM gAvau vatsena.

542 letters. -- 31C.bse 1 -- popularity 20




(lipisici) (!lip)

lipi;sici;hvaz ca ONPANINI 31053
lip sic' hve (get aG)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 253

Examples --

lip + luG tip → * lip + aG + tip → .. → alipat "he smeared"

sic' + luG tip → * sic + aG + tip → .. → asicat "he sprinkled"

AG + hve + luG tip → .. → Ahvat "he called"

Next rule is an exception.

KAZIKA lipa upadehe Sica kSarane, hveJ spardhAyAm, etebhyazca parasya cleH aG-Adezo bhavati. alipat. asicat. Ahvat. pRthag-yoga uttarArthaH.

These three were not included in the previous rule so that only these three trickle down to the next rule.

206 letters. -- 31C.bse 20 -- popularity 1




(lipsichvegetaGoptional) (!AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAmx)

AtmanepadeSv anyatarasyAm x ONPANINI 31054
(lip sic' hve get aG) optionally before bents.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 254 luG

So, before luG, these three can get aG instead of the usual sic --

lip + luG ta → * lip + aG + ta luGlaG alipata "he smeared"

sic' + luG tasic + aG + ta luGlaG asicata "he sprinkled, consecrated with holy water"

alternatively, they get sic --

lip + luG ta → .. → a + lip + sic + ta jhalojhali alipta "he smeared"

Here lip got no puganta because liGsicAvAtmanepadeSu made sic be kit.

a + sic' + sic + ta jhalojhali asicta coHkuH asikta "he sprinkled"

KAZIKA AtmanepadeSv anyatarasyAm pUrveNa prApte vibhaSA Arabhyate. lipi-sici-hva:: AtmanepadeSu parataH cleH aG-Adezo bhavaty anyatarasyAm. svarita-JitaH kartr-abhiprAye kriyAphala ity Atmanepadam. alipata, alipta. asicata, asikta. ahvata, ahvAsta.

284 letters. -- 31C.bse 40 -- popularity 2

205 (/han to /vadha) optionally before @bent (/luG).

1672 about the letter !x in rules




(puSAdidyu) (!puS)

puSAdi;dyutAdy;LditaH parasmaipadeSu ONPANINI 31055
puS-class dyut-class and the Ldit (get aG) before flatmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 255

After puS --

puS + luG tip luGlaG apuS + tip → * apus + aG + tipapuS + aG + t'''apuSat

After gam zak, which are Ldit roots (because the dhAtupATha lists them as gam(L) zak(L) ) --

agamat

azakat

Won't work before bent --

vi + dyut + sic + tavyadyotiSTa

KAZIKA dyutAdibhyaz ca dhAtubhyaH parasya cleH parasmaipadeSu parataH aG-Adezo bhavati. puSAdir divAdy-antargaNo gRhyate, na bhvAdi-kryAdy-antargaNaH. puSa apuSat. dyutAdi adyutat. azvitat. LdidbhyaH gamL agamat. zakL azakat. parasmaipadesu iti kim? vyadyotiSTa. aloTiSTa.

169 letters. -- 31C.bse 86 -- popularity 5

10 Parens show labels.

201 /ad to /ghas before /luG and /san.

358 When there is /mAG, use /luG.

1155 /ghas "eat"




(sarttizAstya) (!sart)

sartti;zAsty;artibhyazca ONPANINI 31056
sR zAs R (get aG before bent and flat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 256 luG

Examples --

sR + luGsR + t''' luGlaG asR + tasarat

zAs + luG tipazAs + tipazAs + t''' → * azAs + aG + t zAsa::idaG;haloH azis + a + t zAsi;vasi;ghasInAMca aziSat

R + luGR + t''' AD-aj-AdInAm Ar + t → * Ar + aG + tArat "he went"

KAZIKA sR gatau, zAsu anuziSTau R gatau ity etebhyaH parasya cleH aGAdezo bhavati. asarat. aziSat. Arat. pRthag-yoga-karaNam AtmanepadArtham. samaranta. cakAraH parasmaipadeSu ityanukarSaNArthaH taccottaratropayogaM yAsyati.

99 letters. -- 31C.bse 100 -- popularity 4

105 After /sam, roots /gam /Rcch /pracch !svar !R !zru !vid /dRz (get @bent if @objectless).




(iritovA) (!ir)

ir-ito vA ONPANINI 31057
The irit optionally (get aG before flat).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 257 luG

Exception to clessic. Roots labelled with (ir) in the dhAtupATha may get aG instead of the usual sic. But only before flat.

For instance, ad 07.0002 bhid bhidi~r vidAraNe and ad 01.1143 dRz dRzi~r prekSaNe have label ir, so they may get aG --

bhid + luG tip → * bhid + aG + tip → .. → abhidat "he broke"

dRz + luG tip → * dRz + aG + tip RdRzoGi darz + aG + tip → .. → adarzat "he saw"

If we don't apply this rule, these get sic as usual --

bhid + luG tip → .. → bhid + sic + tip luGlaG abhid + s + tipabhid + s + t'''abhid + s + It''' vada;vraja abhaid + sIt kharica abhaitsIt "he broke"

dRz + luG tip → .. → dRz + sic + tip → .. → adrAkSIt "he saw"

KAZIKA irito dhAtoH parasya cleH aG-Adezo vA bhavati. bhidir abhidat, abhaitsIt. chidir acchidat, acchaitsIt. parasmaipadeSu ity eva, abhitta. acchitta.

391 letters. -- 31C.bse 110 -- popularity 3

250 But not /dRz.




(ciNbhAvaka) (/ciN)

ciN bhAva-karmaNoH ONPANINI 31066
Optionally (replace cli with ) ciN when ta does not mean the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 258

Exception to clessic.

This (c)i(N) can be added to all roots, but only before ta.

Some examples when ta means nothing --

azAyi kaTe "lying down happened on a mat"

azAyi kaTe tena "he lay down on a mat"

Some examples when ta means the object. The object must be singular and third person. --

akAri kaTaH "a mat was made"

akAri kaTo mayA "a mat was made by me, I made a mat"

See also aorist types .

KAZIKA dhAtoH parasya cleH ciNAdezo bhavati bhAve karmaNi tazabde parataH. bhAve tAvat azAyi bhavatA. karmaNi khalvapi akAri kaTo devadattena. ahAri bhAro yajJadattena. ciNgrahaNaM vispaSTArtham.

Some small details --

kR + akartari luG ta luGlaG akR + taakR + cli + ta → * akR + ciN + ta ciNoluk akR + ciN acoJNiti akAri "it was made"

367 letters. -- 31C.bse 131 -- popularity 10
















31005 sanAdyanta roots ←

chunk 17: 31003 syA tAs cli

→ 31067 verb classes