11023 numerals ←

chunk 5: 11049 rule interpretation

→ 12001 automatic labels

11049 Sixth in a rule can mean "replace". SaSThIsthAneyogA
11050 Replace with the most-alike. sthAnentaratamaH
11051 Whenever aN'' replaces R RR, add r afterwards. uraNraparaH
11052 Replace only the last letter. alontyasya
11053 The Git . Gicca
11054 Replace the start of what comes afterwards. AdeHparasya
11055 But what has two or more letters, or is zit, replaces the whole. anekAlzitsarvasya
11056 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules. sthAnivadAdezonalvidhau
11057 Replacement of vowel when what is after it tries to change what is before it. acaHparasminpUrvavidhau
11060 lopa means invisibility. adarzanaMlopaH
11061 luk zlu lup replace a whole affix . pratyayasyalukzlulupaH
11062 When an affix dissapears, its affix-specific effects stay. pratyayalopepratyayalakSaNam
11063 Except stem-changes made by an affix replaced with lu. nalumatAGgasya
11064 Tail is what starts at last vowel. acontyAdiTi
11065 Letter before last is nexttolast. alontyAtpUrva::upadhA
11066 Seventh in a rule may mean "before". tasminnitinirdiSTepUrvasya
11067 Fifth in a rule may mean "after it". tasmAdityuttarasya
11068 Words in rules stand for themselves, unless they are terms. svaMrUpaMzabdasyAzabdasaJjJA
11069 aN'' and udit include similars. aNuditsavarNasyacApratyayaH
11070 Vowel with t means its own time. taparastatkAlasya
11071 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as label after it. AdirantyenasahetA
11072 Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders. yenavidhistadantasya

(SaSThIsthAne) (!SaSThIs)

SaSThI sthAne-yogA ONPANINI 11049
sixth in a rule can mean "replace".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 44

This is a talkaround. It says that sometimes the sixth ending in a rule means "replace this". Even though in ordinary Sanskrit the sixth ending means "of this".

Example. The first word ikas of rule iko yaN aci, is made from ik + Gas, and means "replace ik". And in rule Tita, the word Tes (made from Ti + Gas) means "replace the Ti".

Counterexample. In rule Tita, the word Titas (made from Tit + Gas), means "of a Tit".

In practice, most the sixth endings in rules mean "replace", because there are many many rules of the style "replace this with that when whatever happens".

More examples --

The es word in rule er uH is i + Gas and means "replace i with"

The vyos in lopo vyor vali has os, and means "replace v y with"

The TAGasiGasAm in TA-Gasi-GasAm inAtsyAH has Am, and means "replace TA Gasi Gas with"

I can't figure out the wording of the Sanskrit rule.

It translates literally into "the sixth has connection to the original" -- in other words, what has Gas os Am is what needs to be replaced.

Rule just says "sixth in a rule means replace", but you translate "sixth in a rule sometimes means replace". Why didn't pAnini bother to tell us that this rule only works sometimes?

There is no need. pANini trusted us to have some common sense. The bhavates in rule bhavateraH can only mean "of the root bhU", there is no way it could ever mean "replace the root bhU".

1041 letters. -- 11B.bse 564 -- popularity 6

363 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

686 /Ge to !ya (after !a).

690 /au to (/zI) after /Ap.

916 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.

1318 uses of cases in rules

(sthAnentara) (@mos)

sthAne 'ntaratamaH ONPANINI 11050
Replace with the most-alike.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 45

talkaround. When a rule says: "replace a letter with a list of letters", we must choose the replacement that resembles the original the most (in sound, tongue position, etc).

Example 1.

In sA + uvAca, rule AdguNaH says "delete A, and replace u with one of a e o". This means that we have to replace u with o, because o is the most u-like of the three in position.

More in detail, AdguNaH replaces --

i and I with e (because i I are palatal, like e)

sA + icchati AdguNaH secchati "she wants"

u uu with o (because u U are labial, like o)

sA + uvAca AdguNaH sovAca "she said"

R RR L with a (because none of the above applies and only a is left)

sA + Rcchati AdguNaH sacchati uraNra sarcchati "she goes"

Example 2.

Some rule says "replace S d D s with t T when this and that happens". Here, S will become T, not t, because S and T have the same position, and S and t don't.

Example 3.

Rule kuhozcu says that we have to replace h with the most alike of c ch j jh J. None of those has the same position as h, yet we must take jh, because jh is the most h-like of the five by sound. That's obvious to anyone that can say these six letters with a good accent.

If it ain't obvious to you, go get your accent fixed. You really shouldn't be studying grammar if you can't even chant the basics correctly.

This " most-alike" is weaker than the " respectively". Therefore we do not use most-alike to figure out the meaning of ikoyaNaci.

KAZIKA sthAne prApyamANAnAm antaratam Adezo bhavati sadRza-tamaH. kutaz ca zabdasya antaryam? sthAnArtha-guNa-pramANataH. sthAnataH akaH savarNe dIrghaH. daNDAgram. yUpAgram. dvayor akArayoH kaNThya eva dIrgha AkAro bhavati. arthataH vataNDI ca asau yuvatiz ca vAtaNDyayuvatiH. puMvad-bhAvena antaratamaH puM-zabdo 'tidizyate. guNataHpAkaH. tyAgaH. rAgaH. cajoH ku ghiN@-NyatoH iti cakArasya alpaprANasya aghoSasya tAdRza eva kakAro bhavati. jakArasya ghoSavato 'lpaprANasya tAdRza eva ga-kAraH. pramANataH anuSmai. amUbhyAm. adaso 'ser dAdu do ma iti hrasvasya hrasvaH, dIrghasya dIrghaH. sthAne iti vartamAne punaH@ sthAne grahaNaM kim? yatra anekam AntaryaM sambhavati tatra sthAnata eva AntaryaM balIyo yathA syAt. cetA, stotA. pramANato 'kAro guNaH prAptaH, tatra sthAnata AntaryAdekAraukArau bhavataH. tambgrahaNaM kim? vAg ghasati. triSTub bhasati. jhayo ho 'nyatarasyAm iti hakArasya pUrvasavarNe kriyamANe soSmaNaH soSmANaH iti dvitIyAH prasaktAH, nAdavato nAdavantaH iti tRtIyAH, tamab-grahaNAd ye soSmANo nAda-vantaz ca te bhavanti caturthAH.

1043 letters. -- 11B.bse 610 -- popularity 18

(uraNrapa) (!uraN)

ur aN ra-paraH ONPANINI 11051
Whenever aN'' replaces R RR, add r afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 46

This is a talkaround rule. Explained in more detail, it teaches --

" Rules that say ' replace R RR with A I U a i u ' actually replace them with Ar Ir Ur ar ir ur. "

Example 1. Suppose we join mahA + RSis. Rule AdguNaH says literally "trash the A and replace R with a", but that actually means "trash the A and replace R with ar". So we get --

mahA + RSis AdguNaH maharSis

Example 2. When joining smR + zap, rule hardsoft teaches "replace R and RR with a", but that means "replace R and RR with ar". Therefore --

smR + laT tipsmR + zap + ti hardsoft smarati "remembers"

Example 3. Rule Rta::ut says "replace R with u", but that means "replace R with ur" (see Rta::ut for examples).

KAZIKA uH sthAne aN prasajyamAna eva raparo veditavyaH. kartA. hartA. kirati. girati. dvaimAturaH. traimAturaH. uH iti kim? kheyam. geyam. angrahaNaM kim? sudhAturakaG ca 41097 saudhAtakiH.

475 letters. -- 11B.bse 641 -- popularity 13

(alontyasya) (!alo)

alo 'ntyasya ONPANINI 11052
Replace only the last letter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 47

talkaround rule --

"when a rule tells us to replace something, it means replace the last letter of that something"

Example. The vadhU in vadhU + calling, is a nadI. Therefore rule ambArtha says here "replace vadhU with short". But that means "replace the last letter of vadhU with short" --

vadhU- + @calling su ambArtha vadhu- + s eGhra vadhu "hi young lady"

Because of exception anekAlzit, this rule works only when the replacement has one letter. So if you want, you may remember this rule as --

"one-letter replacements replace only one letter"

See exception AdeHparasya.

See exception Gicca.

KAZIKA SaSThInirdiSTasya ya ucyate AdezaH, so 'ntyasya alaH sthAne veditavyaH. id goNyAH 1-2-50 paJcagoNiH. dazagoNiH.

450 letters. -- 11B.bse 807 -- popularity 9

86 @Shorten @neuter @nounbase

96 [@Label]s are invisible.

663 @Tail to (/lopa before /Dit).

669 !tR (to /lopa) before {iSTha(n)} {Iyas(un)}.

700 @Fourth /bhyas to !bhyam (after /yuSmad- /asmad-).

826 !mid to /guNa (before /zit).

1588 Summary of replacing one letter or many.

(Gicca) (!Gic)

Gic ca ONPANINI 11053
The Git (replace only one letter).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 48

(Exception in advance to anekAlzit.)

The Git mentioned here are a few short replacements such as anaG AnaG avaG iyaG uvaG. The G labels in them mean that they replace only one letter. The a before that G is just padding.

Example. Rule Rduzana says: "replace R-enders and uzanas with an(aG) before su". Because of Gicca , this means that we replace only the last letter of the R-ender or of uzanas- and not the whole R-ender or the whole uzanas-. See --

pitR- + supit + an + supitanspitA "father" ( by the same three rules that make rAjA )

uzanas- + suuzana + an + su atoguNe uzanansuzanA "pn (of a sage)" ( by the same three rules that make rAjA )

See also exception anekAlzit.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA Git ca ya AdezaH so 'nekAlapi alo 'ntyasya sthAne bhavati. AnaGRto dvanve 6-3-25 hotApotArau. mAtApitarau. tAtaGi GitkaraNasya guNavRddhipratiSedhArthatvAt sarvA'dezaH tAtaG bhavati. jIvatAd bhavAn. jIvatAt tvam.

541 letters. -- 11B.bse 867 -- popularity 9

47 Replace only the last letter.

705 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

732 /pums- to {as(uG)} (before @strong).

869 !R to {ri(G)} before /za, /yak, (@flat @soft) /liG.

1036 /Git [@tense]s do not pass !G on.

(AdeHpara) (!AdeH)

AdeH parasya ONPANINI 11054
Replace the start of what comes afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 49

Exception to alontyasya.

Rule alontyasya says "replace only the last letter". For instance, when rule hardsoft teaches "replace nI with e before zap", only the I is replaced, and we get ne.

Yet, because of this exception, when a rule says "replace this with that AFTER that", then only the FIRST letter is replaced.

So we always replace the letter closest to the cause of the change.

Example. Rule mAdu says: "replace matup with v after saras-". Here only the FIRST letter of matup is replaced --

saras + matup mAdu saras + vatupsarasvat- "that has lakes"

See also exception anekAlzit.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA anekAl ya AdezaH zit ca, sa sarvasya SaSThInirdiSTasya sthAne bhavati. aster bhUH 24052 bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. zit khalvapi jazzasoH ziH 71020 kuNDAni tiSThanti. kuNDAni pasya.

489 letters. -- 11B.bse 896 -- popularity 4

699 /zas to !n (after /yuSmad- /asmad-).

(anekAlzi) (!ane)

anekAl;zit sarvasya ONPANINI 11055
But what has two or more letters, or is zit, replaces the whole.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 50

Rules alontyasya and AdeHparasya say that replacements replace only one letter of the original (the first or the last).

However, a replacement that has more that one letter will replace all of the original. Examples --

So when rule atobhisa says "replace bhis with ais", all of the bhis is replaced, not just the bh.

And when rule TAGasi replaces Gas with sya, all of Gas is replaced, not just the a.

Also, a zit replacement (such as zi, ez, zI) will replace all of the original. Examples --

So when rule jazzasozziH says "replace jas with zi", all of the jas is replaced, not just the a.

And when liTastajhayorezirec replaces ta with ez, all of ta is replaced, not just the t.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA anekAl ya AdezaH zit ca, sa sarvasya SaSThInirdiSTasya sthAne bhavati. aster bhUH bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. zit khalvapi jazzasoH ziH kuNDAni tiSThanti. kuNDAni pasya.

562 letters. -- 11B.bse 932 -- popularity 7

48 The /Git (replace only one letter).

689 /jas to /zI (after masculine pronouns in !a).

(sthAnivadA) (@inh)

sthAnivad Adezo 'n-al-vidhau ONPANINI 11056
Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 51

talkaround. A replacement inherits the labels and terms of its original.

Examples --

(1) mip is a tiG and has label p. So, replacements of mip are also tiG, and also have label p. This includes am''' and Ani'''. As am''' is pit, rule hard apit is Git did not stop the puganta in adveSam "I hated".

(2) ktvA is a kRt affix and has label k. So lyap, that always replaces ktvA, is a kRt and has k label. This k prevented puganta in pravizya "after entering".

(3) liT is a tense. When we replace liT with tip, then tip is a tense and a liT. And when we replace that tip with Nal, then Nal is a tense, a liT, a pit, a Nit and a lit. Because Nal is a liT, rule liTca makes Nal soft. That's why Nal does not make kartarizap work.

See also exception naGitolasya.

You translated the word analvidhau as "except for letter-rules". What's a letter-rule?

An al-vidhi (letter-rule) is a rule that depends on particular letters. So analvidhau means "except in a letter rule". This means that such rules only "see" the letters of the replacement, not the letters of the original.

For instance, rule atodIrghoyaJi is a letter-rule, because it only works before affixes that start with v or m.

That rule works before affixes, such as mas, that actually start with v m. It does not work before affixes like this am''' here, that starts with a, even though it replaces an affix mip that used to start with m before the replacing made by tasthastha --

paca + laG lasya paca + mip luGlaG apaca + mip tasthas apaca + am''' atoguNe apacam "I cooked"

In contrast, liTidhA is not a letter-rule, as it works before all liT affix regardless of which letter they start with.

KAZIKA sthAnyAdezayoH pRthaktvAt sthAnyAzrayaM kAryam Adeze na prApnoti ity ayam atideza Arabhyate. sthAninA tulyaM vartate iti sthAnivat. sthAnivad Adezo bhavati sthAnyAzrayeSu kAryeSvanalAzrayeSu, sthAnyalAzrayANi kAryANi varjayitvA. na alvidhiranalvidhiH ityarthaH. kim udAharaNam? dhAtvaGgakRttaddhitAvyayasuptiGpadA'dezAH. dhAtvAdezo dhAtuvad bhavati. aster bhUH. bruvo vaciH. ArdhadhAtukavizaye prAgevA'dezeSu kRteSu dhAtoH iti tavyA'dayo bhavanti. bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. aGgA'dezo 'Ggavad bhavati kena. kAbhyAm. kaiH. kimaH kaH 72103 iti kA'deze kRte 'GgA'zrayA inadIrghatvAisbhAvAH bhavanti. kRdAdezaH kRdvad bhavati prakRtya. prahRtya. ktvo lyab-Adeze kRte hrasvasya piti kRti tuk iti tug bhavati. taddhitA'dezaH taddhitavad bhavati dAdhikam. adyatanam. kRt-taddhita-samAsAz ca iti prAtipadika-saMjJA bhavati. avyayA'dezo 'vyayavad bhavati prastutya. prahRtya. upahRtya. upastutya. avyayAdApsupaH 24082 iti sublug bhavati. subAdezaH subvad bhavati vRkSAya. plakSAya. supi ca iti dIrghatvaM bhavati. tiGAdezaH tiGvad bhavatiakurutAm. akurutam. suptiGantaM padam iti padasaMjJA bhavati. padA'dezaH padavad bhavati grAmo vaH svaM. janapado naH svam. padasya iti rutvaM bhavati. vatkaranaM kim? sthAnI Adezasya saMjJA mA vijJAyi iti. svA'zrayam api yathA syAt. AGo yamahanaH Ahata, AvadhiSTa iti Atmanepadam ubhayatra api bhavati. AdezagrahaNaM kim? AnumAnikasya apyAdezasya sthAnivadbhAvo yathA syAt. pacatu eruH. analvidhau iti kim? dyupathitadAdezA na sthAnivad bhavanti. dyauH, panthAH, saH iti. halGyAbbhyo dIrghAt sutisyapRktaM hal iti sulopo na bhavati.

1234 letters. -- 11B.bse 992 -- popularity 14

(acaHpara) (!acaHp)

acaH parasmin pUrva-vidhau ONPANINI 11057
Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 52

( Please don't waste much time thinking about this rule. It just plugs a few small holes that some other rules left. )

This rule makes deleted vowels reappear in certain uncommon circumstances.

Example. In dA + us, the A must disappear BEFORE liTidhA works --

dA + liT jhidA + us usyapadAntAt d + lopa + us ( so far )

At this point, rule liTidhA should reduplicate the root. But the root has now changed into d + lopa, so what vowel should it reduplicate with?

Here rule acaHparasmin saves the day. The liT after the lopa is trying to make a stammer before the lopa, and therefore, this lopa, which is an invisible ghostly A (see adarzanaMlopaH), becomes just A-like enough to fool ekAcodve, which will make a dA stammer --

d + lopa + us → * d + ( A-like lopa ) + us liTidhA dA + d + us hrasvaH dadus "they gave"

Wouldn't it be easier to reduplicate the dA first and do the usya afterwards?

You don't get to choose rule order. Because of reasons that I don't explain, grammarians are very sure that the usya must be done first.

Is this the only use of this acaHparasmin rule?

No. The kAzikA shows the other uses, read it whenever you feel like getting a headache.

KAZIKA pUrvaNAnalvidhau sthAnivadbhAva uktaH. al-vidhy-artham idam Arabhyate. AdezaH sthAnivad iti vartate. acaH iti sthAni-nirdezaH. parasminn iti nimitta-saptamI. pUrva-vidhau iti viSaya-saptamI. aj-AdezaH paranimittakaH pUrvavidhau kartavye sthAnivad bhavati. paTayati. avadhIt. bahu-khaTvakaH. paTum AcaSTe iti NiciTilope kRte tasya sthAnivad-bhAvAd ata upadhAyAH iti vRddhir na bhavati. avadhIt ato lopasya sthAnivad-bhAvad ato halAder laghoH iti halanta-lakSaNA vRddhir na bhavati. bahu-khaTvakaH iti Apo 'nyatarasyAm 7-4-15 iti hrasvasya sthAnivad-bhAvAd hrasvAnte 'ntyAt pUrvam 6-2-174 iti svaro na bhavati. acaH iti kim? praznaH. AkrASTAm. Agatya. praznaH iti praccheH naG-pratyaye cchvoH zUD anunAsike ca iti chakArasya zakAraH paranimittakas tuki kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. AkrASTAm iti jhalo jhali iti sico lopaH para-nimittakaH kRSeH Sa-kArasya SaDhoH kaH si iti ka-kAre kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. Agatya iti vA lyapi ity anunAsika-lopaH para-nimittakaH tuki kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. parasminn iti kim? yuvajAniH vadhUTIjAniH. vaiyAghrapadyaH. AdIdhye. yuvajAniH iti jAyAyAH niG 5-4-134 na paranimittakaH, tena ya-lope na sthAnivad bhavati. vaiyAghrapadyaH iti na paranimittakaH pAdasya antalopaH padbhAvaM na pratibadhnAti. AdIdhye iti dIdhIGa uttama-puruSaikavacane TeretvasyAparanimittakatvAd yIvarNayor dIdhIvevyoH 7-4-53 iti lopo na bhavati. pUrvavidhau iti kim? he gauH. bAbhravIyAH. naidheyaH. he gauH iti vRddhir aj-AdezaH sambuddhi-lope kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. bAbhravIyAH iti bAbravyasya amI cchAtrAH iti vRddhAc chaH 4-2-114 iti chaH. halas taddhitasya 6-4-150 iti yakAra-lope kartavye avAdezo na sthAnivad bhavati. naidheyaH Ato lopa iTi ca ityAkAralopaH, itazca aniJaH 4-1-122 iti dvy-aj-lakSaNe pratyaya-vidhau na sthAnivad bhavati.

862 letters. -- 11B.bse 1362 -- popularity 4

197 (Replace /han with /vadha) before /luG (and @soft /liG).

635 Final {i I} a [@cluster]-less an-/ekAc root to !y (before @vowel).

892 Lengthen (the @stammer) of /iN' before /kit /liT.

(adarzana) (/lop)

a-darzanaM lopaH ONPANINI 11060
lopa means invisibility.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 53

The word lopa, in ordinary Sanskrit, means "ignoring", "erasing", or "disappearing", and it is used in grammar in that sense -- when a rule says "replace a with lopa", that means "erase the a" (rule atolopaH "replace a with lopa" is an example of that).

So, this rule here translates to "erasing means invisibility". This explains that in some situations, whatever is "replaced with lopa" does not disappear completely, but instead is replaced with an invisible, ghostly version of itself.

Example. The affix (N)i(c) is made of one real letter, the i, and two label letters, N and c. label letters are invisible because rule tasyalopaH says so. Therefore when we add Nic after pac we first get paci -- the N and the c are invisible, they are never pronounced. However, even thought the ghost N is invisible, it has the effect of making rule ata::upa work. Therefore this paci turns into pAci because of that invisible N.

What is the effect of the invisible c of Nic?

It makes rule citaH work. So the accent goes to the i.

ru carries an invisible u. What is its effect?

That u makes ru trigger the rules atoro, hazica and others, that are never triggered by an u-less r.

su carries an invisible u. What is its effect?

None. That u is a tellaparter.

958 letters. -- 11B.bse 1409 -- popularity 31

(pratyayasya) (/luk)

pratyayasya luk;zlu;lupaH ONPANINI 11061
luk zlu lup replace a whole affix (and are invisible).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 54

This rule does nothing, it is just a talkaround that clarifies that when any other rule says "replace with luk", it replaces a whole affix, and replaces it with something invisible, that is, with a "ghost" that cannot be pronounced.

Example 1.

Rule svamorna teaches that when we add the affix su after madhu-, we have to "replace su with luk". This means that we replace su with an affix luk that is invisible, that is, mostly nonexistent --

madhu- + su svamorna madhu + ( ghost affix )

This ghostly affix is nonexistent for most intents and purposes and cannot be pronounced. So we say --

madhuramM madhu "honey is sweet"

Example 2.

Rule supodhA says that in certain situations, we have to replace the sup affix of the word devAnAm "of gods" with luk. That sup affix is nAm, because devAnAm was made this way --

deva + Amdeva + nAm nAmi devA + nAm

When rule supodhA works, this devAnAm turns into devA inmediately, because the whole affix nAm is ghostified --

devA + nAm supodhA devA + ( ghost )

And after that, rule naluma works, and makes devA turn back into deva, rolling back the changes that the affix nAm made --

devA + nAm supodhA devA + ( ghost ) nalumatA deva + ( ghost )

See also different kinds of nothing .

KAZIKA adarzanam iti vartate. pratyayAdarzanasya luk, zlu, lupityetAH saMjJA bhavanti. anekasaMjJAvidhanAcca tadbhAvitagrahaNam iha vijJAyate. luksaMjJAbhAvitaM pratyayAdarzanaM luksaMjJam bhavati, zlusaMjJAbhAvitaM zlusaMjJaM bhavati, lupsaMjJA bhAvitaM lupsaMjJaM bhavati. tena saMjJAnAM saGkaro na bhavati. vidhipradezeSu ca bhAvinI saMjJA vijJAyate. atti. juhoti. varaNAH. pratyayagrahaNam kim? agastayaH. kuNDinAH. lukzluluppradezAH luktaddhitaluki 12049, juhotyAdibhyaH zluH 24075, janapade lup 42071 ityevam AdayaH.

Now, this makes little sense. The question is. Why do we say that nAm was replaced with an invisible ghost affix instead of saying that nAm was deleted, stopped existing, kicked the bucket, became zero, zilch, nada?

More or less by the same reason that when you subtract three from three you write a zero figure, instead of not writing anything at all. Remember who invented the zero and in what century? that guy had likely studied the luk when he was a kid.

Why are there different kinds of zero affix in the grammar? Your example has luk, but you didn't say anything about zlu lup.

Or about lopa, either. Long story short, they have different side effects. Short story long, see different kinds of nothing for some lecturing on the subject.

Are there many rules that replace with luk? I'd like to see more examples of luking.

There are dozens. Start with svamorna, tyadAdInAmaH, atoheH.

What about zlu and lup?

See juhotyAdi, janapadelup.

1638 letters. -- 11B.bse 1500 -- popularity 31

(pratyayalo) (!pratyayal)

pratyaya-lope pratyaya-lakSaNam ONPANINI 11062
When an affix dissapears, its affix-specific effects stay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 55

Example. Adding su after rAjan- has two effects --

(A) rAjan turns into rAjAn before su (because of rule rAjAnam), and we get rAjAns.

(B) then this rAjAns thing becomes a noun (because su makes suptiG work, like all other sup).

At this point, rule halGyA replaces that s with lopa. This erases the letter s of rAjans, making rAjAn, but its effects (A) and (B) stay. They are not rolled back. So now we have rAjAn, which is a word.

Because this rAjAn is a word, rule nalopaHprA must work, and rAjAn turns into rAjA.

388 letters. -- 11B.bse 1574 -- popularity 2

56 Except stem-changes made by an affix replaced with !lu.

213 [@affix]es start here.

(nalumatA) (!nalu)

na lumatA 'Ggasya ONPANINI 11063
Except stem-changes made by an affix replaced with lu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 56

This lu thing means the three affixes that contain lu, namely luk, zlu, and lup.

Rule pratyayalo says that all changes caused by all affixes stay after the affix is deleted. This exception says that

" When lup luk zlu replace an affix, the changes that the affix made to its stem are rolled back. "


When we join rAjan- + Gas, the stem of Gas is rAjan-. alloponaH turns it into rAjn, then STunA changes it into rAjJ. Adding the Gas we get rAjJas, which is a word because of rule suptiG.

Now, if we compound rAjJas before puruSas, rule supodhA replaces the Gas of with luk, making rAjJ.

At this point, rule nalumatAGgasya says that we must roll back the alloponaH and STunA, and we are back to rAjan.

KAZIKA pUrveNa atiprasaktaM pratyaya-lakSaNam iti vizeSe pratiSedhaH ucyate. lumatA zabdena lupte pratyaye yadaGgaM, tasya pratyaya-lakSaNaM kAryaM na bhavati. gargAH. mRSTaH. juhutaH. yaJ-zapor lumatA luptayoraGgasya vRddhi-guNau na bhavataH. lumatA iti kim? kAryate. hAryate. aGgasya iti kim? paJca. sapta payaH. sAma.

Why do we say "only stem-changes are reversed"?

Adding Gas not only changed the stem rAjan into rAjJas, it also made rAjJas into a word. Replacing Gas with luk made the word rAjJas back into rAjan, but it did not reverse the wordification, so now this rAjan is a word.

What does it matter if rAjan is a word or not?

As this rAjan is now both a nounbase and a word, rule nalopaHprA will works on it, so that we get rAjapuruSas, with no n.

I just added loT after gam, replaced loT with sip, and replaced sip with hi''', getting gaccha + hi'''. Now, rule atoheH says that I must replace hi''' with luk. Shouldn't that make the gaccha revert to gam?

No. This rule only reverses the specific changes made by hi''', and not the changes made earlier by whatever hi''' replaced. So we say gaccha "go!", because the changes of gam into gach into gacch into gaccha were made by sip and must not be rolled back.

1250 letters. -- 11B.bse 1599 -- popularity 11

(acontyAdi) (@tai)

aco 'ntyAdi Ti ONPANINI 11064
tail is what starts at last vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 57

So the tail...

of AtAm is Am

of azvas is as

of pacatas is as

of pacati is i

of i is i

60 letters. -- 11B.bse 1645 -- popularity 6

357 @Tail of /Tit @bent to !e.

480 Add "akac" before the @tail of @unchanging, (@verb,) @pronoun, in the /prAgivIya senses.

663 @Tail to (/lopa before /Dit).

664 (@Wimpy) {n}-enders (lose @tail) before /taddhita.

670 (Before /iSThan /iman /Iyasun,) @tail to /lopa.

731 @Tail of @wimpy (/pathin- !mathin- !RbhukSin-) to /lopa.

(alontyAtpU) (@ne)

alo 'ntyAt pUrva:: upadhA ONPANINI 11065
letter before last is nexttolast.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 58

So the nexttolast of zuc is u,

of rudh is u,

of nau- is n,

of uccais is ai.

Notice that the sounds ai and au are single letters, because they are in the list of letters.

KAZIKA dhAtvAdau varNasamudAye 'ntyAdalaH pUrvo yo varNaH so 'leva upadhAsaMjJo bhavati. pac, paTh akaraH. bhid, chid ikAraH. budh, yudh ukAraH. vRt, vRdh RkAraH. alaH iti kim? ziSTaH, ziSTavAn. samudAyAt pUrvasya mA bhUt. upadhApradezAH ata upadhAyA ity evam AdayaH.

126 letters. -- 11B.bse 1660 -- popularity 26

(tasminniti) (!tasmi)

tasminn iti nirdiSTe pUrvasya ONPANINI 11066
seventh in a rule may mean "before".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 59

talkaround. The seventh ending may mean "before" in a rule.

Examples with Gi --

aci of ikoyaNaci means "before a vowel"

vali of lopovyo means "before a val"

kGiti of kGitica means "before a kGit"

Examples with os --

The sArvadhAtuk'-ArdhadhAtukayoH of rule hardsoft means "before hard and soft".

am-zasos of vA'm;zasoH means "before am and zas"

Examples with sup' --

luG-laG-lRGkSu of luGlaG means "before luG laG lRG"

sici parasmaipadeSu of sicivRddhiH means "before a sic that is before the flat endings"

Back to uses of cases in rules .

KAZIKA tasminiti saptamyarthanirdeze pUrvasyaiva kAryaM bhavati, nauttarasya. iko yaN aci 61077 dadhyudakam. madhvidam. pacatyodanam. nirdiSTagrahaNam AnantaryArtham. agnicidatra iti vyavahitasya mA bhUt.

418 letters. -- 11B.bse 1670 -- popularity 4

72 @Bent @soft /liG and /sic before @bent, (when [/iT]-less, are /kit after [/ik]-plus-[/hal] roots).

916 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.

(tasmAdityu) (!tasmAd)

tasmAd ity uttarasya ONPANINI 11067
fifth in a rule may mean "after it".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 60

The fifth endings, GasibhyAmbhyas, in grammar rules, will almost always mean "after". Even though in the ordinary language the fifth can mean "from" or "because", but not "after". Ordinary Sanskrit for "after this" is ataH param or ata Urdhvam, not just ataH like in the rules.

Examples --

Rule dIrghAt literally says "from long", which would be utter nonsense were it not for this rule, that teaches us that it means dIrghAt param "after long".

Rule hal;Gy;A mentions "from hal, GI, Ap", meaning "after hal GI Ap".

Rule id;udbhyAm translates to "from i u", means "after i u".

In a few rules, a fifth is used in its ordinary meanings of "from, because, up to" etc. For instance, rule AkaDArA has an A kaDArAt that means "up to kaDAra" -- it does not mean "after A and kaDAra".

Back to uses of cases in rules .

605 letters. -- 11B.bse 1709 -- popularity 4

708 /Am gets /suT after @pronoun that ends in {A a}.

756 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

(svaMrUpaMza) (!svaM)

svaM rUpaM zabdasy/A-zabda-saMjJA ONPANINI 11068
Words in rules stand for themselves, unless they are terms.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 61

talkaround rule. A word in a rule stands for itself, not for other words.

Example. Rule spRzonudakekvin says "spRz gets kvin after udaka". This udaka means "the word udaka", and does not mean "any word that means water".

Counterexample. Rule vRddhireci says "with vRddhi before ec". Here vRddhi does not mean "the word vRddhi". It means "A ai au", because vRddhi is a term (there is some rule somewhere that explains " vRddhi means "A ai au").

This rule has exceptions. For instance, there is some rule in which vRkSa "tree" does not mean just 'the word vRkSa', but "all words that mean trees, such as pine, oak etc". We'll warn of these exceptions when we come to them.

KAZIKA zAstre svam eva rUpaM zabdasya grAhyaM bodhyaM pratyAyyaM bhavati, na bAhyo 'rthaH, zabdasaMjJAM varjayitvA. zabdena arthAvagaterarthe kAryasya asambhavAt tadvAcinAm zabdAnAm sampratyayo mA bhUtiti sUtram idam Arabhyate. agner Dhak 42033 Agneyam aSTAkapAlaM nirvapet. agnizabdo 'gnizabdasyaiva grAhako bhavati, na jvalanaH, pAvakaH, dhUmaketuH iti. na ataH pratyayo bhavati. udazvito 'nyatarasyAm 42019 audazvitkam. audazvitam. takram, ariSTaM, kAlazeyaM, daNDAhataM, mathitam, iti na ataH pratyayo bhavati. azabdasaMjJA iti kim? dAdhA ghv adAp 11020 tarap-tamapau ghaH 11022, ghugrahaNeSu ghagrahaneSu ca saMjJinAM grahanam, na saMjJAyAH. sit tadvizeSANAM vRkSAdyartham. sin nirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam tadvizeSANAM grahaNaM bhavati iti. kiM prayojanam? vRkSAdyartham. vibhASA vRkSamRgatRNadhAnyavyaJjanapazu. zakunyazvavaDavapUrvAparAdharottarANAm 24012 iti plakSanyagrodham, plakSanyagrodhAH. pit paryAyavacanasya ca svA'dyartham. pinnirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam paryAyavacanasya grahaNaM bhavati, cakArAt svasya rUpasya tadvizeSANAM ca iti. kiM prayojanam? svA'dyartham. sve puzaH 3-4-40. svapoSaM puSTaH. raipozam. dhanapozam. azvapoSam. gopozam. jit paryAyavacanasyaiva rAjA'dyartham. jinnirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam paryAyavacanasyaiva grahanaM bhavati iti, na svarUpasya, na api tadvizeSANAm. kiM prayojanam? rAjA'dyartham. sabhA rAjA amanuSyapUrvA 24023 inasabham. Izvarasabham. tasyaiva na bhavatirAjasabhA. tadvizeSANAM ca na bhavati puSyamitrasabhA. candraguptasabhA. jhait tadvizeSANAM ca matsyA'dyartham. jhin-nirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam tasya ca grahaNaM bhavati tadvizaSANAM ca iti. kiM prayojanam? matsyA'dyartham. pakSimatsyamRgAn hanti 44035 iti Thak pAkSikaH. mAtsiyakaH. tadvizeSANAm zAkunikaH. paryAyANAM na bhavati ajihmAn hanti, animiSAn hanti iti. athaikasyaizyate, mInAn, hanti iti mainikaH.

512 letters. -- 11B.bse 1781 -- popularity 1

484 /zas' may be added to a @role that means much or little.

(aNuditsa) (!aNu)

aN;udit savarNasya cApratyayaH ONPANINI 11069
aN'' and udit include similars.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 62

This rule says two things --

(1) aN'' includes similars. That is, when a rule mentions "a", it means "a or A". And also the nasalized versions of these (a~ and A~). Examples --

The sUtra a i uN in the zivasUtra only mentions a i and u (the N is a label), but it actually means a A i I u U.

The "At" in rule AdguNaH says "merge a with", but actually means "merge a or A with".

(2) the word udit in this rule means just ku cu Tu tu pu. Each of these five is made of a consonant plus an u label, and means that consonant plus those consonants that are similar to it. For instance, ku means k kh g gh G (see varga for the other four). Example --

When rule coHkuH teaches "replace cu with ku", this means that we have to replace c ch j jh J with k kh g gh G, respectively.

Why does the rule say apratyayaH, specifying "that is not an affix"?

Were it not for this word, the rules that add the affixes u and u' would also add U.

673 letters. -- 11B.bse 1805 -- popularity 9

63 @Vowel with !t means its own time.

112 {I}-{U}-enders that only mean @women are /nadI.

1092 {it}-enders

1470 The /iN letters are /ic, !h, /yaN.

1482 The /ac are the [@vowel]s, namely {a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc}, plus their [@similar]s {A I U RR}.

1488 /ic are all [@vowel]s but {A a}.

(taparasta) (!tap)

ta-paras tat-kAlasya ONPANINI 11070
vowel with t means its own time.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 63

talkaround rule. This is an exception to aNuditsa, that makes a vowel in a rule mean all times -- a vowel only means its own time when it is followed by t. Examples --

At- in vRddhirAdaic means long A only.

at- in adeGguNaH means short a only.

atas in atoheH means "after short a", not "after a or A".

Wait... how come the At in AdguNaH means "a or A"? Doesn't it have a t?

No, you are confused. The t in that At is not a tapara. That At means "after a or A", and it is made from a + Gasi. The Gasi means "after" by tasmAdityu, and the a means "a or A" by aNuditsa. The At- of other rules, however, means "long A" -- for instance in the AtaH rule.

467 letters. -- 11B.bse 1851 -- popularity 8

546 (@Merge) !at of onomatopoeia with /iti.

648 /karu to /kuru before @hard (/kGit).

727 /div- to !au (before /su).

756 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

853 (Replace /Gi with !Am) after !i !u (-ender /nadI).

1092 {it}-enders

1094 /Idit is what has label !I

1095 /odit is what has label !o

(Adirantye) (!Adira)

Adir antyena sahetA ONPANINI 11071
Grab from the start to the one that has the end as label after it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 64

This explains how to use the zivasUtra.

Example. Rule kharava mentions " khar letters". To know which letters are khar letters, you split khar into kha (the start) plus r (the end). Then you chant aloud from the zivasUtra, starting at kha, and stopping at the one that has label r after it, which is sar. So you sing three sUtras:

kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav

ka pay

za Sa sar

Now remove the label letters -- those at the end of sUtras, namely v, y, r, and also the thirteen a. You are then left with the thirteen khar letters, namely, kh ph ch Th th c T t, k p, z S s.

This "AB means from A to B" principle also applies in a few cases to the tiptas list --

tiG means start at tip stop at "mahiG" -- all eighteen affixes fronm tip to mahi.

taG means start at ta stop at "mahiG" -- from ta to mahi.

and also to the svaujas list --

suT means start at su stop at "auT" -- su au jas am au

sup means start at su stop at sup'. -- all twenty-one from su to sup'.

I don't understand why you type "the jaz letters are ja ba ga Da daz" when you mean "the jaz letters are j b g D d".

See, my students use this website from the classroom. Back when I used the spelling you suggest, they would sometimes say "the jash letters are jey bee jee Dee dee". Which was no good. Now that's fixed.

945 letters. -- 11B.bse 1871 -- popularity 10

(yenavidhi) (/tada)

yena vidhis tad-antasya ONPANINI 11072
Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 65

talkaround. Rephrasing it --

When any rule says "whatever", it may also mean "what ends in whatever".

Rephrasing again, pANini is telling us --

' I removed the words "that ends in" from my rules, but I'm sure y'all are smart enough to know when to add them back '

Examples --

Rule kartarica says

" sixth won't compound with an aka meaning a doer, or a tRc".

But that means

" sixth-ender won't compound with an aka-ender meaning a doer, or a tRc-ender ".

Rule ugidacA teaches, among other things --

" ugit gets num before zi "

But that means

" nounbases that end in an ugit get num before zi "

For some reason, grammarians refer to this yena vidhis tad-antasya rule by the nickname " tadantavidhi ".

528 letters. -- 11B.bse 1910 -- popularity 3

391 {a}-enders, and {aja}-class, get {(T)A(p)} (when meaning @women).

604 Non-@rootnoun {atu}-{as}-enders (lengthen their @nexttolast before non-@calling @strong /su).

11023 numerals ←

chunk 5: 11049 rule interpretation

→ 12001 automatic labels