11023 numerals ←

chunk 5: 11049 rule interpretation

→ 12001 automatic labels

11049 Sixth in a rule can mean "replace". SaSThIsthAneyogA
11050 Replace with the most-alike. sthAnentaratamaH
11051 Whenever aN'' replaces R RR, add r afterwards. uraNraparaH
11052 Replace only the last letter. alontyasya
11053 The Git . Gicca
11054 Replace the start of what comes afterwards. AdeHparasya
11055 But what has two or more letters, or is zit, replaces the whole. anekAlzitsarvasya
11056 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules. sthAnivadAdezonalvidhau
11057 Replacement of vowel when what is after it tries to change what is before it. acaHparasminpUrvavidhau
11060 lopa means invisibility. adarzanaMlopaH
11061 luk zlu lup replace a whole affix . pratyayasyalukzlulupaH
11062 When an affix is replaced with nothing, its affix-specific effects stay. pratyayalopepratyayalakSaNam
11063 But the stem-changes caused by lu affixes do not stay. nalumatAGgasya
11064 Tail is what starts at last vowel. acontyAdiTi
11065 Letter before last is nexttolast. alontyAtpUrva::upadhA
11066 Seventh in a rule may mean "before". tasminnitinirdiSTepUrvasya
11067 Fifth in a rule may mean "after it". tasmAdityuttarasya
11068 Words in rules stand for themselves, unless they are terms. svaMrUpaMzabdasyAzabdasaJjJA
11069 aN'' and udit include similars. aNuditsavarNasyacApratyayaH
11070 Vowel with t means its own time. taparastatkAlasya
11071 Grab from the start to the one that has the end as label after it. AdirantyenasahetA
11072 Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders. yenavidhistadantasya

(SaSThIsthAne) (!SaSThIs)

SaSThI sthAne-yogA ONPANINI 11049
sixth in a rule can mean "replace".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 45

This is a talkaround --

' the sixth ending in a rule means "replace this" '

Examples --

The first word ikas of rule iko yaN aci, is made from ik + Gas. So in ordinary Sanskrit, it would mean "of ik". But in a rule, it may mean "replace ik". So this rule translates as "replace ik with yaN".

In rule TeH, the word Tes is made from Ti + Gas, and means "replace the tail".

The es word in rule er uH is i + Gas and means "replace i with"

The vyos in lopo vyor vali has os, and means "replace v y with"

The TAGasiGasAm in TA-Gasi-GasAm inAtsyAH has Am, and means "replace TA Gasi Gas with"

This rule does not work always --

In rule Tita, the word Titas (made from Tit + Gas), means "of a Tit", not "replace Tit".

but in practice, most the sixth endings in rules do mean "replace".

KAZIKA paribhASA iyaM yoganiyamArthA. iha zAstre yA SaSThI aniyatayogA zrUyate, sA sthAneyogAiva bhavati, nAnyayogA. sthAneyogasya nimittabhUte sati sA pratipattavyA. sthAnazabdazca prasaGgavAcI. yathAdarbhANAM sthAne zaraiH prastaritavyam iti darbhANAM prasaGge iti gamyate. evam iha api asteH sthAne prasaGge bhUr bhavati. bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. bruvaH prasaGge vacirbhavati. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. prasaGge sambandhasya nimittabhUte bruva iti SasThI. bahavo hi SaSThyarthAH svasvAmyanantarasamIpasamUhavikArAvayavAdyAH. tatra yAvantaH zabde sambhavanti teSu sarveSu prapteSu niyamaH kriyate SaSThI sthAneyogA iti. sthAne yogo 'syAH iti vyadhikaraNo bahuvrIhiH. ata eva nipAtanAc ca saptamyA aluk.

The literal translation of this rule is " sixth has connection to original", which means that in rules that replace one thing with another, the nounbase that means the replaced thing gets sixth.

721 letters. -- 11B.bse 590 -- popularity 2

960 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.

1380 uses of cases in rules

(sthAnentara) (@mos)

sthAne 'ntaratamaH ONPANINI 11050
Replace with the most-alike.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 46

talkaround. When a rule says: "replace a letter with a list of letters", we must choose the replacement that resembles the original the most (in sound, tongue position, etc).

Example 1.

In sA + uvAca, rule AdguNaH says "delete A, and replace u with one of a e o". This means that we have to replace u with o, because o is the most u-like of the three in position.

More in detail, AdguNaH replaces --

i and I with e (because i I are palatal, like e)

sA + icchati AdguNaH secchati "she wants"

u uu with o (because u U are labial, like o)

sA + uvAca AdguNaH sovAca "she said"

R RR L with a (because none of the above applies and only a is left)

sA + Rcchati AdguNaH sacchati uraNra sarcchati "she goes"

Example 2.

Some rule says "replace S d D s with t T when this and that happens". Here, S will become T, not t, because S and T have the same position, and S and t don't.

Example 3.

Rule kuhozcu says that we have to replace h with the most alike of c ch j jh J. None of those has the same position as h, yet we must take jh, because jh is the most h-like of the five by sound. That's obvious to anyone that can say these six letters with a good accent.

If it ain't obvious to you, go get your accent fixed. You really shouldn't be studying grammar if you can't even chant the basics correctly.

This " most-alike" is weaker than the " respectively". Therefore we do not use most-alike to figure out the meaning of ikoyaNaci.

KAZIKA sthAne prApyamANAnAm antaratam Adezo bhavati sadRza-tamaH. kutaz ca zabdasya antaryam? sthAnArtha-guNa-pramANataH. sthAnataH akaH savarNe dIrghaH. daNDAgram. yUpAgram. dvayor akArayoH kaNThya eva dIrgha AkAro bhavati. arthataH vataNDI ca asau yuvatiz ca vAtaNDyayuvatiH. puMvad-bhAvena antaratamaH puM-zabdo 'tidizyate. guNataHpAkaH. tyAgaH. rAgaH. cajoH ku ghiN@-NyatoH iti cakArasya alpaprANasya aghoSasya tAdRza eva kakAro bhavati. jakArasya ghoSavato 'lpaprANasya tAdRza eva ga-kAraH. pramANataH anuSmai. amUbhyAm. adaso 'ser dAdu do ma iti hrasvasya hrasvaH, dIrghasya dIrghaH. sthAne iti vartamAne punaH@ sthAne grahaNaM kim? yatra anekam AntaryaM sambhavati tatra sthAnata eva AntaryaM balIyo yathA syAt. cetA, stotA. pramANato 'kAro guNaH prAptaH, tatra sthAnata AntaryAdekAraukArau bhavataH. tambgrahaNaM kim? vAg ghasati. triSTub bhasati. jhayo ho 'nyatarasyAm iti hakArasya pUrvasavarNe kriyamANe soSmaNaH soSmANaH iti dvitIyAH prasaktAH, nAdavato nAdavantaH iti tRtIyAH, tamab-grahaNAd ye soSmANo nAda-vantaz ca te bhavanti caturthAH.

1043 letters. -- 11B.bse 641 -- popularity 15

(uraNrapa) (!uraN)

ur aN ra-paraH ONPANINI 11051
Whenever aN'' replaces R RR, add r afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 47

This is a talkaround rule. Explained in more detail, it teaches --

" Rules that say ' replace R RR with A I U a i u ' actually replace them with Ar Ir Ur ar ir ur. "

Example 1. Suppose we join mahA + RSis. Rule AdguNaH says literally "trash the A and replace R with a", but that actually means "trash the A and replace R with ar". So we get --

mahA + RSis AdguNaH maharSis "great seer"

Example 2. When joining smR + zap, rule hardsoft teaches "replace R and RR with a", but that means "replace R and RR with ar". Therefore --

smR + laT tipsmR + zap + ti hardsoft smarati "remembers"

Example 3. Rule Rta::ut says "replace R with u", but that means "replace R with ur" (see Rta::ut for examples).

KAZIKA uH sthAne aN prasajyamAna eva raparo veditavyaH. kartA. hartA. kirati. girati. dvaimAturaH. traimAturaH. uH iti kim? kheyam. geyam. angrahaNaM kim? sudhAturakaG ca 41097 saudhAtakiH.

484 letters. -- 11B.bse 672 -- popularity 10

(alontyasya) (!alo)

alo 'ntyasya ONPANINI 11052
Replace only the last letter.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 48

talkaround rule --

"when a rule tells us to replace something, it means replace the last letter of that something"

Example. The vadhU in vadhU + calling, is a nadI. Therefore rule ambArtha says here "replace vadhU with short". But that means "replace the last letter of vadhU with short" --

vadhU- + @calling su ambArtha vadhu- + s eGhra vadhu "hi young lady"

Because of exception anekAlzit, this rule works only when the replacement has one letter. So if you want, you may remember this rule as --

"one-letter replacements replace only one letter"

See exception AdeHparasya.

See exception Gicca.

KAZIKA SaSThInirdiSTasya ya ucyate AdezaH, so 'ntyasya alaH sthAne veditavyaH. id goNyAH 1-2-50 paJcagoNiH. dazagoNiH.

450 letters. -- 11B.bse 838 -- popularity 7

88 @Shorten @neuter @nounbase

99 [@Label]s are invisible.

703 @Tail to (/lopa before /Dit).

709 !tR (to /lopa) before {iSTha(n)} {Iyas(un)}.

1652 Summary of replacing one letter or many.

(Gicca) (!Gic)

Gic ca ONPANINI 11053
The Git (replace only one letter).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 49

(Exception in advance to anekAlzit.)

The Git mentioned here are a few short replacements such as anaG AnaG avaG iyaG uvaG. The G labels in them mean that they replace only one letter. The a before that G is just padding.

Example. Rule Rduzana says: "replace R-enders and uzanas with an(aG) before su". Because of Gicca , this means that we replace only the last letter of the R-ender or of uzanas- and not the whole R-ender or the whole uzanas-. See --

pitR- + supit + an + supitanspitA "father" ( by the same three rules that make rAjA )

uzanas- + suuzana + an + su atoguNe uzanansuzanA "pn (of a sage)" ( by the same three rules that make rAjA )

See also exception anekAlzit.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA Git ca ya AdezaH so 'nekAlapi alo 'ntyasya sthAne bhavati. AnaGRto dvanve 6-3-25 hotApotArau. mAtApitarau. tAtaGi GitkaraNasya guNavRddhipratiSedhArthatvAt sarvA'dezaH tAtaG bhavati. jIvatAd bhavAn. jIvatAt tvam.

541 letters. -- 11B.bse 898 -- popularity 7

48 Replace only the last letter.

403 @Flat (/liG) gets {yAs(uT)} and !G @label.

745 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

772 /pums- to !pumas- (before @strong).

912 !R to {ri(G)} before /za, /yak, @flat (@soft) /liG.

(AdeHpara) (!AdeH)

AdeH parasya ONPANINI 11054
Replace the start of what comes afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 50

Exception to alontyasya.

Rule alontyasya says "replace only the last letter". For instance, when rule hardsoft teaches "replace nI with e before zap", only the I is replaced, and we get ne.

Yet, because of this exception, when a rule says "replace this with that AFTER that", then only the FIRST letter is replaced.

So we always replace the letter closest to the cause of the change.

Example. Rule mAdu says: "replace matup with v after saras-". Here only the FIRST letter of matup is replaced --

saras + matup mAdu saras + vatupsarasvat- "that has lakes"

See also exception anekAlzit.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA anekAl ya AdezaH zit ca, sa sarvasya SaSThInirdiSTasya sthAne bhavati. aster bhUH 24052 bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. zit khalvapi jazzasoH ziH 71020 kuNDAni tiSThanti. kuNDAni pasya.

489 letters. -- 11B.bse 927 -- popularity 4

739 /zas to !n (after /yuSmad- /asmad-).

(anekAlzi) (!ane)

anekAl;zit sarvasya ONPANINI 11055
But what has two or more letters, or is zit, replaces the whole.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 51

Rules alontyasya and AdeHparasya say that replacements replace only one letter of the original (the first or the last).

However, a replacement that has more that one letter will replace all of the original. Examples --

So when rule atobhisa says "replace bhis with ais", all of the bhis is replaced, not just the bh.

And when rule TAGasi replaces Gas with sya, all of Gas is replaced, not just the a.

Also, a zit replacement (such as zi, ez, zI) will replace all of the original. Examples --

So when rule jazzasozziH says "replace jas with zi", all of the jas is replaced, not just the a.

And when liTastajhayorezirec replaces ta with ez, all of ta is replaced, not just the t.

Back to summary of replacing one letter or many .

KAZIKA anekAl ya AdezaH zit ca, sa sarvasya SaSThInirdiSTasya sthAne bhavati. aster bhUH bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. zit khalvapi jazzasoH ziH kuNDAni tiSThanti. kuNDAni pasya.

562 letters. -- 11B.bse 963 -- popularity 7

49 The /Git (replace only one letter).

729 /jas to /zI (after masculine pronouns in !a).

(sthAnivadA) (@inh)

sthAnivad Adezo 'n-al-vidhau ONPANINI 11056
Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 52

talkaround. It means that a replacement inherits the labels and terms of its original.

Examples --

(1) mip is a tiG and has label p. So, replacements of mip are also tiG, and also have label p. This includes am''' and Ani'''. As am''' is pit, rule hard apit is Git did not stop the puganta in adveSam "I hated".

(2) ktvA is a kRt affix and has label k. So lyap, that always replaces ktvA, is a kRt and has k label. This k prevented puganta in pravizya "after entering".

(3) liT is a tense. When we replace liT with tip, then tip is a tense and a liT. And when we replace that tip with Nal, then Nal is a tense, a liT, a pit, a Nit and a lit. Because Nal is a liT, rule liTca makes Nal soft. That's why Nal does not make kartarizap work.

See also exception analvidhau.

See also exception naGitolasya.

BTW, inheritance is not the same thing as trickle.

KAZIKA sthAnyAdezayoH pRthaktvAt sthAnyAzrayaM kAryam Adeze na prApnoti ity ayam atideza Arabhyate. sthAninA tulyaM vartate iti sthAnivat. sthAnivad Adezo bhavati sthAnyAzrayeSu kAryeSvanalAzrayeSu, sthAnyalAzrayANi kAryANi varjayitvA. na alvidhiranalvidhiH ityarthaH. kim udAharaNam? dhAtvaGgakRttaddhitAvyayasuptiGpadA'dezAH. dhAtvAdezo dhAtuvad bhavati. aster bhUH. bruvo vaciH. ArdhadhAtukavizaye prAgevA'dezeSu kRteSu dhAtoH iti tavyA'dayo bhavanti. bhavitA. bhavitum. bhavitavyam. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. aGgA'dezo 'Ggavad bhavati kena. kAbhyAm. kaiH. kimaH kaH 72103 iti kA'deze kRte 'GgA'zrayA inadIrghatvAisbhAvAH bhavanti. kRdAdezaH kRdvad bhavati prakRtya. prahRtya. ktvo lyab-Adeze kRte hrasvasya piti kRti tuk iti tug bhavati. taddhitA'dezaH taddhitavad bhavati dAdhikam. adyatanam. kRt-taddhita-samAsAz ca iti prAtipadika-saMjJA bhavati. avyayA'dezo 'vyayavad bhavati prastutya. prahRtya. upahRtya. upastutya. avyayAdApsupaH 24082 iti sublug bhavati. subAdezaH subvad bhavati vRkSAya. plakSAya. supi ca iti dIrghatvaM bhavati. tiGAdezaH tiGvad bhavatiakurutAm. akurutam. suptiGantaM padam iti padasaMjJA bhavati. padA'dezaH padavad bhavati grAmo vaH svaM. janapado naH svam. padasya iti rutvaM bhavati. vatkaranaM kim? sthAnI Adezasya saMjJA mA vijJAyi iti. svA'zrayam api yathA syAt. AGo yamahanaH Ahata, AvadhiSTa iti Atmanepadam ubhayatra api bhavati. AdezagrahaNaM kim? AnumAnikasya apyAdezasya sthAnivadbhAvo yathA syAt. pacatu eruH. analvidhau iti kim? dyupathitadAdezA na sthAnivad bhavanti. dyauH, panthAH, saH iti. halGyAbbhyo dIrghAt sutisyapRktaM hal iti sulopo na bhavati.

640 letters. -- 11B.bse 1023 -- popularity 12

(acaHpara) (!acaHp)

acaH parasmin pUrva-vidhau ONPANINI 11057
Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 53

( Please don't waste much time thinking about this rule. It just plugs a few small holes that some other rules left. )

This rule makes deleted vowels reappear in certain uncommon circumstances.

Example. In dA + us, the A must disappear BEFORE liTidhA works --

dA + liT jhidA + us usyapadAntAt d + lopa + us ( so far )

At this point, rule liTidhA should reduplicate the root. But the root has now changed into d + lopa, so what vowel should it reduplicate with?

Here rule acaHparasmin saves the day. The liT after the lopa is trying to make a stammer before the lopa, and therefore, this lopa, which is an invisible ghostly A (see adarzanaMlopaH), becomes just A-like enough to fool ekAcodve, which will make a dA stammer --

d + lopa + us → * d + ( A-like lopa ) + us liTidhA dA + d + us hrasvaH dadus "they gave"

I explained avadhIt, which is another example of acaHparasmin , under luGica.

The kAzikA shows many other uses for this rule. Read it whenever you feel like getting a headache.

KAZIKA pUrvaNAnalvidhau sthAnivadbhAva uktaH. al-vidhy-artham idam Arabhyate. AdezaH sthAnivad iti vartate. acaH iti sthAni-nirdezaH. parasminn iti nimitta-saptamI. pUrva-vidhau iti viSaya-saptamI. aj-AdezaH paranimittakaH pUrvavidhau kartavye sthAnivad bhavati. paTayati. avadhIt. bahu-khaTvakaH. paTum AcaSTe iti NiciTilope kRte tasya sthAnivad-bhAvAd ata upadhAyAH iti vRddhir na bhavati. avadhIt ato lopasya sthAnivad-bhAvad ato halAder laghoH iti halanta-lakSaNA vRddhir na bhavati. bahu-khaTvakaH iti Apo 'nyatarasyAm 74015 iti hrasvasya sthAnivad-bhAvAd hrasvAnte 'ntyAt pUrvam 62174 iti svaro na bhavati. acaH iti kim? praznaH. AkrASTAm. Agatya. praznaH iti praccheH naG-pratyaye cchvoH zUD anunAsike ca iti chakArasya zakAraH paranimittakas tuki kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. AkrASTAm iti jhalo jhali iti sico lopaH para-nimittakaH kRSeH Sa-kArasya SaDhoH kaH si iti ka-kAre kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. Agatya iti vA lyapi ity anunAsika-lopaH para-nimittakaH tuki kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. parasminn iti kim? yuvajAniH vadhUTIjAniH. vaiyAghrapadyaH. AdIdhye. yuvajAniH iti jAyAyAH niG 54134 na paranimittakaH, tena ya-lope na sthAnivad bhavati. vaiyAghrapadyaH iti na paranimittakaH pAdasya antalopaH padbhAvaM na pratibadhnAti. AdIdhye iti dIdhIGa uttama-puruSaikavacane TeretvasyAparanimittakatvAd yIvarNayor dIdhIvevyoH 74053 iti lopo na bhavati. pUrvavidhau iti kim? he gauH. bAbhravIyAH. naidheyaH. he gauH iti vRddhir aj-AdezaH sambuddhi-lope kartavye na sthAnivad bhavati. bAbhravIyAH iti bAbravyasya amI cchAtrAH iti vRddhAc chaH 42114 iti chaH. halas taddhitasya 64150 iti yakAra-lope kartavye avAdezo na sthAnivad bhavati. naidheyaH Ato lopa iTi ca ityAkAralopaH, itazca aniJaH 41122 iti dvy-aj-lakSaNe pratyaya-vidhau na sthAnivad bhavati.

725 letters. -- 11B.bse 1376 -- popularity 3

671 {i I} of {an}-/ekAc root to !y (before @vowel), unless it follows a cluster.

935 Lengthen (the @stammer) of /iN' before /kit /liT.

(adarzana) (/lop)

a-darzanaM lopaH ONPANINI 11060
lopa means invisibility.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 54

talkaround rule. It can be rephrased as --

" When any rule says ' replace this with lopa ', understand ' make this invisible '. "

Or more simply, but not as accurately --

" 'Replace this with lopa' means 'delete this' "


Rule atolopaH teaches that when yuyutsa is before u', we must "replace a with lopa".

Therefore, when yuyutsa is before u', we must delete the a --

yuyutsa + u'yuyutsu-

KAZIKA adarzanam, azravaNam, anuccAranam, anupalabdhiH, abhAvo, varNavinAzaH ityanarthAntaram. etaiH zabdairyo 'rtho 'bhidhIyate, tasya lopaH iti iyaM saMjJA bhavati. arthasyaiyaM saMjJA, na zabdasya. prasaktasya adarzanaM lopasaMjJaM bhavati. godhAyA Dhrak 41129 gaudheraH. paceran. jIve radAnuk jIradAnuH. strivermaninAsremANam. yakAravakArayoradarzanam iha udAharaNam. aparasya anubandhAdeH prasaktasya. lopapradezAH lopo vyor vali ityevam AdayaH.

Why does this rule say "invisibility", when it could have said "disappearance" or "destruction"?

The reason is that in some uncommon situations, the deleted thing does not completely disappear, but instead turns into a sort of " ghost thing" that retains some of the properties of the deleted thing.


Rule gamahana says that, when gam is before us, the a of gam must be "replaced with lopa". However, in this case, the lopa will not be a complete and utter nothing, but instead it will be an "invisible a", a sort of ghost that has an "a spirit" --

gam + liT jhigam + usg + ( ghost a ) + m + us

This ghost a is invisible to all rules, EXCEPT to rule liTidhA, that can see it and will reduplicate gm as if it were still gam --

gam + liT jhigam + usg + (ghost a ) + m + us liTidhA ga + g + (ghost a) + m + usgagmus kuhozcuH jagmus "they went"

Fortunately this trick of "reading from a ghost" is seldom used. When it is, I'll warn you.

978 letters. -- 11B.bse 1429 -- popularity 27

(pratyayasya) (/luk)

pratyayasya luk;zlu;lupaH ONPANINI 11061
luk zlu lup replace a whole affix (and are invisible).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 55

talkaround. When a rule says "replace with luk", it replaces a whole affix with something invisible (with a "ghost" that cannot be pronounced).

Example 1.

Rule svamorna teaches that when the affix su is after madhu-, we have to "replace su with luk". This means, among other things, that we replace su with a "ghost" affix luk that has no letters --

madhu- + su svamorna madhu + ( ghost affix ) → madhu "honey"

This "ghostly affix" luk does not exists for pronunciation purposes, so we say --

madhuramM madhu "honey is sweet"

however, this luk does exist for the purposes of rule suptiG, and it is a sup affix, therefore this madhu is a word.

Example 2.

Rule supodhA says that in certain situations, we have to replace the sup affix of the word devAnAm "of gods" with luk.

Now, because devAnAm was made this way --

deva + Amdeva + nAm nAmi devA + nAm

we know that rule supodhA means that we must delete the nAm --

devAnAGM gurus supodhA devA + gurus naluma devagurus

For more examples, see other rules thatreplace with luk, such as tyadAdInAmaH, atoheH.

See also different kinds of nothing .

KAZIKA adarzanam iti vartate. pratyayAdarzanasya luk, zlu, lupityetAH saMjJA bhavanti. anekasaMjJAvidhanAcca tadbhAvitagrahaNam iha vijJAyate. luksaMjJAbhAvitaM pratyayAdarzanaM luksaMjJam bhavati, zlusaMjJAbhAvitaM zlusaMjJaM bhavati, lupsaMjJA bhAvitaM lupsaMjJaM bhavati. tena saMjJAnAM saGkaro na bhavati. vidhipradezeSu ca bhAvinI saMjJA vijJAyate. atti. juhoti. varaNAH. pratyayagrahaNam kim? agastayaH. kuNDinAH. lukzluluppradezAH luktaddhitaluki 12049, juhotyAdibhyaH zluH, janapade lub ityevam AdayaH.

805 letters. -- 11B.bse 1560 -- popularity 37

(pratyayalo) (!pratyayal)

pratyaya-lope pratyaya-lakSaNam ONPANINI 11062
When an affix is replaced with nothing, its affix-specific effects stay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 56


When we add the calling after azva-, azva turns into azvas, and, as a side effect, this azvas turns into a word (because rule suptiG says so).

After that, rule eGhra will trigger and replace the s with lopa, which is a kind of nothing. Like this get --

azva- + @callingazvas eGhra azva

Now, this rule says that, when eGhra replaces the su of azvas with nothing, the effect of su of turning azvas into a word is not reversed. So, this azva is still a word, even though the s is no longer there.

.. explain here which effects are affix-specific and which ain't

KAZIKA pratyayanimittaM kAryam asatyapi pratyaye kathaM nu nAma syAtit sUtram idam Arabhyate. pratyayalope kRte pratyayalakSaNaM pratyayahetukaM karyaM bhavati. agnicit, somasut, adhok, ityatra suptiGoH luptayoH [sup-tiG-antaM padam] 14014 iti padasaMjJA bhavati. adhokiti duheH laGi tipi zabluki tilope ghatvabhaSbhAvajaztvacartveSu kRteSu rUpam. pratyaya iti vartamAne punaH pratyayagrahaNaM kim? kRtsnapratyayalope yathA syAt. iha mA bhUt AghnIya. saGgmIya. hanigamyor liGAtmanepade liGaH salopo 'nantyasya 72079 iti sIyuTsakAralopaH pratyayaikadezalopaH, tatra pratyayalakSaNena jhali ity anunAsikalopo na bhavati 64037. pratyayalakSaNam iti kim? rAyaH kulaM raikulam. gave hitam gohitam. AyavAdezau na bhavataH varN'-Azraya-tvAt.

429 letters. -- 11B.bse 1636 -- popularity 2

57 But the [@stem]-changes caused by !lu affixes do not stay.

(nalumatA) (!nalu)

na lumatA 'Ggasya ONPANINI 11063
But the stem-changes caused by lu affixes do not stay.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 57

Exception to pratyayalo. When adding an affix changes its stem, and the affix is replaced with luk, zlu or lup, those changes are rolled back. Only the other changes stay.


When we add Gas after rAjan-, we first get rAjanas, and then the rAjan part turns into rAjJ because of alloponaH and STunA. This rAjJas is also a word, because rule suptiG says so.

Now, when we compound rAjJas and puruSas, rule supodhA replaces the Gas with luk. This deletes the as of rajJas, and rolls back rAjJ to rAjan.

But rule suptiG made rAjJas into a word, and as this was not a change of the stem, it cannot be rolled back. So this rAjan is now a word.

As now rAjan is a word, as well as a nounbase, rule nalopaHprA will chop off the n.

KAZIKA pUrveNa atiprasaktaM pratyaya-lakSaNam iti vizeSe pratiSedhaH ucyate. lumatA zabdena lupte pratyaye yadaGgaM, tasya pratyaya-lakSaNaM kAryaM na bhavati. gargAH. mRSTaH. juhutaH. yaJ-zapor lumatA luptayoraGgasya vRddhi-guNau na bhavataH. lumatA iti kim? kAryate. hAryate. aGgasya iti kim? paJca. sapta payaH. sAma.

563 letters. -- 11B.bse 1672 -- popularity 8

457 Sometimes /lup means a country.

467 (/Thak after a [@third]-ender means) "well made".

709 !tR (to /lopa) before {iSTha(n)} {Iyas(un)}.

758 (@neuter) !i !u (gets /num) before @vowel /vibhakti.

830 /tyadAdi to !a (before /vibhakti).

1247 /kim- "what, who"

(acontyAdi) (@tai)

aco 'ntyAdi Ti ONPANINI 11064
tail is what starts at last vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 58

The tail (in grammar jargon, the Ti) of anything is the last vowel, plus whatever consonants are after it. Therefore the tail...

of AtAm is Am

of azvas is as

of pacatas is as

of pacati is i

of i is i

KAZIKA acaH iti nirdhAraNe SaSThI. jAtAvekavacanam. acAM sanniviSTAmAM, yo 'ntyo 'c tadAdi zabdarUpaM TisaMjJaM bhavati. agniciticchabdaH. somasutucchabdaH. AtAm, AthAmAmzabdaH. pacete, pacethe. TipradezAH Tita AtmanepadAnAM Ter e ityevam AdayaH.

150 letters. -- 11B.bse 1727 -- popularity 7

45 @Sixth in a rule can mean "replace".

508 Add !akac before the @tail of @unchanging, (@verb,) @pronoun, in the /prAgivIya senses.

703 @Tail to (/lopa before /Dit).

704 (@Wimpy) {n}-enders (lose @tail) before /taddhita.

710 (Before /iSThan /iman /Iyasun,) @tail to /lopa.

771 @Tail of @wimpy (/pathin- !mathin- !RbhukSin-) to /lopa.

(alontyAtpU) (@ne)

alo 'ntyAt pUrva:: upadhA ONPANINI 11065
letter before last is nexttolast.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 59

So the nexttolast of zuc is u,

of rudh is u,

of nau- is n,

of uccais is ai.

Notice that the sounds ai and au are single letters, because they are in the list of letters.

KAZIKA dhAtvAdau varNasamudAye 'ntyAdalaH pUrvo yo varNaH so 'leva upadhAsaMjJo bhavati. pac, paTh akaraH. bhid, chid ikAraH. budh, yudh ukAraH. vRt, vRdh RkAraH. alaH iti kim? ziSTaH, ziSTavAn. samudAyAt pUrvasya mA bhUt. upadhApradezAH ata upadhAyA ity evam AdayaH.

126 letters. -- 11B.bse 1742 -- popularity 25

(tasminniti) (!tasmi)

tasminn iti nirdiSTe pUrvasya ONPANINI 11066
seventh in a rule may mean "before".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 60

talkaround. The seventh ending may mean "before" in a rule.

Examples with Gi --

aci of ikoyaNaci means "before a vowel"

vali of lopovyo means "before a val"

kGiti of kGitica means "before a kGit"

Examples with os --

The sArvadhAtuk'-ArdhadhAtukayoH of rule hardsoft means "before hard and soft".

am-zasos of vA'm;zasoH means "before am and zas"

Examples with sup' --

luG-laG-lRGkSu of luGlaG means "before luG laG lRG"

sici parasmaipadeSu of sicivRddhiH means "before a sic that is before the flat endings"

Back to uses of cases in rules .

KAZIKA tasminiti saptamyarthanirdeze pUrvasyaiva kAryaM bhavati, nauttarasya. iko yaN aci 61077 dadhyudakam. madhvidam. pacatyodanam. nirdiSTagrahaNam AnantaryArtham. agnicidatra iti vyavahitasya mA bhUt.

418 letters. -- 11B.bse 1751 -- popularity 2

960 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.

(tasmAdityu) (!tasmAd)

tasmAd ity uttarasya ONPANINI 11067
fifth in a rule may mean "after it".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 61

The fifth endings, GasibhyAmbhyas, in grammar rules, will almost always mean "after". Even though in the ordinary language the fifth can mean "from" or "because", but not "after". Ordinary Sanskrit for "after this" is ataH param or ata Urdhvam, not just ataH like in the rules.

Examples --

Rule dIrghAt literally says "from long", which would be utter nonsense were it not for this rule, that teaches us that it means dIrghAt param "after long".

Rule hal;Gy;A mentions "from hal, GI, Ap", meaning "after hal GI Ap".

Rule id;udbhyAm translates to "from i u", means "after i u".

In a few rules, a fifth is used in its ordinary meanings of "from, because, up to" etc. For instance, rule AkaDArA has an A kaDArAt that means "up to kaDAra" -- it does not mean "after A and kaDAra".

Back to uses of cases in rules .

605 letters. -- 11B.bse 1791 -- popularity 4

748 /Am to /sAm after (the !a !A of a) @pronoun.

797 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

960 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.

(svaMrUpaMza) (!svaM)

svaM rUpaM zabdasy/A-zabda-saMjJA ONPANINI 11068
Words in rules stand for themselves, unless they are terms.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 62

talkaround rule. A word in a rule stands for itself, not for other words.

Example. Rule spRzonudakekvin says "spRz gets kvin after udaka". This udaka means "the word udaka", and does not mean "any word that means water".

Counterexample. Rule vRddhireci says "with vRddhi before ec". Here vRddhi does not mean "the word vRddhi". It means "A ai au", because vRddhi is a term (there is some rule somewhere that explains " vRddhi means "A ai au").

This rule has exceptions. For instance, there is some rule in which vRkSa "tree" does not mean just 'the word vRkSa', but "all words that mean trees, such as pine, oak etc". We'll warn of these exceptions when we come to them.

KAZIKA zAstre svam eva rUpaM zabdasya grAhyaM bodhyaM pratyAyyaM bhavati, na bAhyo 'rthaH, zabdasaMjJAM varjayitvA. zabdena arthAvagaterarthe kAryasya asambhavAt tadvAcinAm zabdAnAm sampratyayo mA bhUtiti sUtram idam Arabhyate. agner Dhak 42033 Agneyam aSTAkapAlaM nirvapet. agnizabdo 'gnizabdasyaiva grAhako bhavati, na jvalanaH, pAvakaH, dhUmaketuH iti. na ataH pratyayo bhavati. udazvito 'nyatarasyAm 42019 audazvitkam. audazvitam. takram, ariSTaM, kAlazeyaM, daNDAhataM, mathitam, iti na ataH pratyayo bhavati. azabdasaMjJA iti kim? dAdhA ghv adAp 11020 tarap-tamapau ghaH 11022, ghugrahaNeSu ghagrahaneSu ca saMjJinAM grahanam, na saMjJAyAH. sit tadvizeSANAM vRkSAdyartham. sin nirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam tadvizeSANAM grahaNaM bhavati iti. kiM prayojanam? vRkSAdyartham. vibhASA vRkSamRgatRNadhAnyavyaJjanapazu. zakunyazvavaDavapUrvAparAdharottarANAm 24012 iti plakSanyagrodham, plakSanyagrodhAH. pit paryAyavacanasya ca svA'dyartham. pinnirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam paryAyavacanasya grahaNaM bhavati, cakArAt svasya rUpasya tadvizeSANAM ca iti. kiM prayojanam? svA'dyartham. sve puzaH 3-4-40. svapoSaM puSTaH. raipozam. dhanapozam. azvapoSam. gopozam. jit paryAyavacanasyaiva rAjA'dyartham. jinnirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam paryAyavacanasyaiva grahanaM bhavati iti, na svarUpasya, na api tadvizeSANAm. kiM prayojanam? rAjA'dyartham. sabhA rAjA amanuSyapUrvA 24023 inasabham. Izvarasabham. tasyaiva na bhavatirAjasabhA. tadvizeSANAM ca na bhavati puSyamitrasabhA. candraguptasabhA. jhait tadvizeSANAM ca matsyA'dyartham. jhin-nirdezaH kartavyaH. tato vaktavyam tasya ca grahaNaM bhavati tadvizaSANAM ca iti. kiM prayojanam? matsyA'dyartham. pakSimatsyamRgAn hanti 44035 iti Thak pAkSikaH. mAtsiyakaH. tadvizeSANAm zAkunikaH. paryAyANAM na bhavati ajihmAn hanti, animiSAn hanti iti. athaikasyaizyate, mInAn, hanti iti mainikaH.

512 letters. -- 11B.bse 1863 -- popularity 1

512 /zas' may be added to a @role that means much or little.

(aNuditsa) (!aNu)

aN;udit savarNasya cApratyayaH ONPANINI 11069
aN'' and udit include similars.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 63

This rule says two things --

(1) aN'' includes similars. That is, when a rule mentions "a", it means "a or A". And also the nasalized versions of these (a~ and A~). Examples --

The sUtra a i uN in the zivasUtra only mentions a i and u (the N is a label), but it actually means a A i I u U.

The "At" in rule AdguNaH says "merge a with", but actually means "merge a or A with".

(2) the word udit in this rule means just ku cu Tu tu pu. Each of these five is made of a consonant plus an u label, and means that consonant plus those consonants that are similar to it. For instance, ku means k kh g gh G (see varga for the other four). Example --

When rule coHkuH teaches "replace cu with ku", this means that we have to replace c ch j jh J with k kh g gh G, respectively.

This rule does not apply to affixes. The rules that add the affixes u and u' add only u, never U. So we say yuyutsu- only, not yuyutsU-. Also, a'' is never A.

KAZIKA pareNa NakAreNa pratyAhAragrahaNam. aN gRhyamANa udic ca savarNAnAM grAhako bhavati, svasya ca rUpasya, pratyayaM varjayitvA. Ad guNaH, asya cvau, yasyeti ca. svarAnunAsikyakAlabhinnasya grahanaM bhavati. udit khalvapi. cuTU, lazakvataddhite. cavargaTavargayoH kavargasya ca grahanam bhavati. apratyayaH iti kim? sanAzaMsabhikSa uH, a sAmpratike 43009, dIrgho na bhavati.

673 letters. -- 11B.bse 1881 -- popularity 9

64 @Vowel with !t means its own time.

624 !a !A of !sah !vah to !o (before disappeared !Dh).

1534 The /iN letters are /ic, !h, /yaN.

1546 The /ac are the [@vowel]s, namely {a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc}, plus their [@similar]s {A I U RR}.

1549 /ik are {i uN R Lk} and their [@similar]s {I U RR}.

1552 /ic are all [@vowel]s but {A a}.

(taparasta) (!tap)

ta-paras tat-kAlasya ONPANINI 11070
vowel with t means its own time.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 64

talkaround rule. This is an exception to aNuditsa, that makes a vowel in a rule mean all times -- a vowel only means its own time when it is followed by t. Examples --

The At- in vRddhirAdaic means long A only, not "a A"

The at- in adeGguNaH means short a only.

The atas in atoheH means "after short a", not "after a or A".

KAZIKA taH paro yasmAt so 'yaM taparaH, tAdapi paraH taparaH. tapro varNas tatkAlasya, AtmanA tulyakAlasya guNAntarayuktasya savarNasya grAhako bhavati, svasya ca rUpasya. vidHyartham idam. aNiti na anuvartate. aNAmanyeSAM ca taparANAm idam eva grahaNakazAstram. ato bhisa air ityevam AdiSu pUrvagrahaNakazAstraM na pravartata eva. ataparA aNastasya avakAzaH. kim udAharaNam? ato bhisa ais 7-1-9 vRkSaiH. plakSaiH. viDvanoranunAsikasya At 64041 abjAh, gojAH. tatkAlasya iti kim? khaTvAbhiH. mAlAbhiH.

239 letters. -- 11B.bse 1936 -- popularity 5

767 /div- to !au (before /su).

797 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

1147 {it}-enders

1149 /Idit is what has label !I

1150 /odit is what has label !o

(Adirantye) (!Adira)

Adir antyena sahetA ONPANINI 11071
Grab from the start to the one that has the end as label after it.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 65

This explains how to use the zivasUtra.


Rule kharava mentions " khar letters".

To know which letters are khar letters, you split khar into kha (the start) plus r (the end).

Then you chant aloud from the zivasUtra, starting at kha, and stopping at the one that has label r after it, which is sar.

So you sing --

kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav

ka pay

za Sa sar

Now remove the label letters -- those at the end of sUtras, namely v, y, r, and also the thirteen a.

What is left are the thirteen khar letters, namely, --

kh ph ch Th th c T t,

k p,

z S s.

This "AB means from A to B both included" principle also applies in a few cases to the tiptas list --

tiG means start at tip stop at "mahiG" -- all eighteen affixes fronm tip to mahi.

taG means start at ta stop at "mahiG" -- from ta to mahi.

and also to the svaujas list --

suT means start at su stop at "auT" -- su au jas am au

sup means start at su stop at sup'. -- all twenty-one affixes from su to sup'.

KAZIKA Adirantyena itsaMjJakena saha gRhyamANas tanmadyapatitAnAM varNAnAM grAhako bhavati, svasya ca rUpasya. aN. ak. ac. hal. sup. tiG. antyena iti kim? suTiti tRtIyaikavacanena TA ityanena grahaNaM mA bhUt.

In some places in that website I write things like --

"the jaz letters are ja ba ga Da daz"

you have to remove the hay from thatand understand that the five jaz letters are j b g D and d.

Why don't I write "are j b g D d" instead? Because when I do that, my students read it aloud as "are jay bee jee dee thee", and that is sort of ugly, nvm confusing.

967 letters. -- 11B.bse 1959 -- popularity 12

(yenavidhi) (/tada)

yena vidhis tad-antasya ONPANINI 11072
Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 66

talkaround. Rephrasing it roughly --

"whatever" in a rule might mean "what ends in whatever".

As for instance --

"after n" in a rule might mean "after what ends in n"

Example 1 --

Rule supaAt uses teh word supas, meaning "after a sup"

but that means "after what ends in a sup"

which happens to be roughly the same thing as "after a noun"

Example 2 --

Rule kartarica says

" sixth won't compound with an aka that means a doer".

But that means

"a sixth-ender won't compound with an aka-ender that means a doer".

Example 3 --

Rule ugidacA teaches, among other things --

" ugit gets num before zi "

But that means

" nounbases that end in an ugit get num before zi "

Grammarians refer to this yena vidhis tad-antasya rule by the nickname " tadantavidhi ".

KAZIKA yena vizeSaNena vidhirvidhIyate sa tadantasya AtmAn tasya samudAyasay grAhako bhavati , svasya ca rUpasya. erac 33056, ivarNAntAdacpratyayo bhavaticayaH. jayaH. ayaH. orAvazyake 31125, uvarNAntAd Nyad bhavati avazyalAvyam. avazyapAvyam. samAsapratyayavidhau tadantavidheH pratiSedho vaktavyaH. dvitIyAntaM zritAdibhiH saha samasyate kaSTazritaH. iha mA bhUt kaSTaM paramazrita iti. pratyayavidhau naD'-AdibhyaH phak, naDasya apatyaM nADAyanaH. iha mA bhUt sUtranaDasya apatyaM sautranADiH. kim avizeSeNa? na ityAha. ugidvarNagrahaNavarjam iti vAcyam. ugitazca iti GIppratyayaH tadantAdapi bhavati bhavatI, atibhavatI. varNa-grahanam ata iJ. dAkSiH. plAkSiH. yasmin vidhis tadAdAvalgrahaNe. algrahaNeSu yasmin vidhistadAdau iti vaktavyam. aci znudhAtubhruvAM yvoriyaGuvaGau iti zriyaH. bhruvaH.

559 letters. -- 11B.bse 2010 -- popularity 6

31 @Numeral that ends in !S !n is @sixlike.

419 {a}-enders, and {aja}-class, get {(T)A(p)} (when meaning @women).

639 Non-@rootnoun {atu}-{as}-enders (lengthen their @nexttolast before non-@calling @strong /su).

747 /ktvA to {(l)ya(p)} in a [/naJ]-less @compound.

797 (Lengthen /iT) optionally after {q}-enders, !vRG and !vRJ (unless in a /liT).

11023 numerals ←

chunk 5: 11049 rule interpretation

→ 12001 automatic labels