12001 automatic labels ←

chunk 7: 12027 length, accent, labels

→ 13012 bendy roots, nadI

12027 What has the duration of u U U3 is short long extralong. UkAlojjhrasvadIrghaplutaH
12028 But only if it's a vowel. acazca
12029 Acute means high tone. uccairudAttaH
12030 Grave means low tone nIcairanudAttaH
12031 Falling is mixed samAhArassvaritaH
12042 A tatpuruSa is a karmadhAraya if its two halves have the same referent as the whole. tatpuruSassamAnAdhikaraNaHkarmadhArayaH
12045 What has meaning, is not a root, and has no affix, is a nounbase. arthavadadhAturapratyayaHprAtipadikam
12046 kRt, taddhita, compound too . kRttaddhitasamAsAzca
12047 Shorten neuter nounbase hrasvonapuMsakeprAtipadikasya
12048 Shorten go- and GI-/Ap-enders when they are latter and subordinate. gostriyorupasarjanasya
12051 When there is lup, gender number are like original lupiyuktavadvyaktivacane
12053 need not be taught because usage is the authority tadaziSyaMsaJjJApramANatvAt
13001 roots are bhU etc. bhUvAdayodhAtavaH
13003 Final consonant . halantyam
13004 But the final tu s m of a vibhakti aren't . navibhaktautusmAH
13005 Ji Tu' Du at the start . AdirJiTuDavaH
13006 The initial S of an affix . SaHpratyayasya
13007 cu Tu of affixes . cuTU
13008 l z ku , but not in a taddhita lazakvataddhite
13009 Labels are invisible. tasyalopaH
13010 When a rule has two lists of the same length, understand "respectively". yathAsaGkhyamanudezassamAnAm

(UkAlojjhra) (!Uk)

U-kAlo 'j jhrasva;dIrgha;plutaH ONPANINI 12027
What has the duration of u U U3 is short long extralong.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 80

(The "U3" here means the extralong U sound. extralong vowels are so uncommon in writing that they don't have letters of their own; in the veda manuscripts they are written with the letter for the nearest long, followed by a figure 3.)

Example. In the word gurU "two teachers" the two vowels are said in exactly the same way EXCEPT that the second one lasts longer. The u is said to be a short and the U is said to be a long.

And, of course, an extralong is a vowel longer than a long .

Even though pANini just says that short, long and extralong have different durations, later grammarians came up with the idea that shorts last for a certain time, longs twice that, and extralongs thrice that. It is a good idea to try to follow that rule when chanting verse or the veda. See mAtrA.

See exception acazca below.

KAZIKA U iti trayANAm ayaM mAtrika-dvimAtrika-trimAtrikANAM prazliSTa-nirdezaH. hrasva-dIrgha-plutaH iti dvandvaikavad bhAve puMlliGga-nirdezaH. u U U3 ity evaM kAlo aj yathA-kramaM hrasva-dIrgha-plutaH ity evaM saMjJo bhavati. ukAlo hrasvaH dadhi. madhu. UkAlo dIrghaH kumArI. gaurI. U3kAlaH plutaH devadatta3 atra nvasi. kAla-grahaNaM parimANArtham. dIrgha-plutayoH hrasva-saMjJA mA bhUt. AlUya, pralUya, hrasvasya piti kRti tuk iti tuG na bhavati. ajgrahaNaM saMyogAcsamudAyanivRttyartham. pratakSya, prarakSya, hrasvAzrayas tuG mA bhUt. titaucchAtram, dIrghAt, padAntAd v eti vibhASA tuG mA bhUt. hrasvadIrghaplutapradezAH hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasya. akRtsArvadhAtukayor dIrghaH. vAkyasya TeH pluta udAttaH 82082.

633 letters. -- 12B.bse 2 -- popularity 4

22 What has same @position and @openness is @similar.

1058 After @stop, replace !h (with @similar) optionally.

(acazca) (!acaz)

acaz ca ONPANINI 12028
But only if it's a vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 81

In the rules, the terms " short", " long" and " extralong" mean vowels only.

Example. If any rule says "replace with a short", that rule will replace a long vowel with a short vowel, or will replace a long vowel with itself, but it will never replace a consonant.

KAZIKA U iti trayANAm ayaM mAtrika-dvimAtrika-trimAtrikANAM prazliSTa-nirdezaH. hrasva-dIrgha-plutaH iti dvandvaikavad bhAve puMlliGga-nirdezaH. u U U3 ityevaM kAlo aj yathAkramaM hrasva-dIrgha-plutaH ityevaM saMjJo bhavati. ukAlo hrasvaH dadhi. madhu. UkAlo dIrghaH kumArI. gaurI. U3kAlaH plutaH devadatta3 atra nvasi. kAlagrahaNaM parimANArtham. dIrghaplutayoH hrasvasaMjJA mA bhUt. AlUya, pralUya, hrasvasya piti kRti tuk iti tuG na bhavati. ajgrahaNaM saMyogAcsamudAyanivRttyartham. pratakSya, prarakSya, hrasvAzrayas tuG mA bhUt. tita::ucchAtram, dIrghAt, padAntAd vA iti vibhASA tuG mA bhUt. hrasva-dIrgha-pluta-pradezAH hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasya. a-kRt-sArvadhAtukayor dIrghaH. vAkyasya TeH pluta udAttaH 82082.

198 letters. -- 12B.bse 94 -- popularity 1

80 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

(uccairudA) (@acu)

uccair udAttaH ONPANINI 12029
acute means high tone.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 82 accent

The vowel that has the acute accent is pronounced with a pitch higher than the others.

Back to accent.

KAZIKA aj iti vartate. udAttAdizabdAH svare varNadharme loka-vedayoH prasiddhA eva. te iha tadguNe 'ci paribhASyante. uccair upalabhyamAno yo 'c sa udAtta-saMjJo bhavati. uccair iti ca zruti-prakarSo na gRhyate, uccair bhASate, ucaiH paThati iti. kiM tarhi? sthAnakRtam uccatvaM saMjJino vizeSaNam. tAlvAdiSu hi bhAgavatsu sthAneSu varNA niSpadyante. tatra yaH samAne sthAne Urdhva-bhaga-niSpanno 'c sa udAttasaMjJo bhavati. yasminn ucAryamANe gAtrANAmAyAmo nigraho bhavati, rUkSatA asnigdhatA svarasya, saMvRtatA kNThavivarasya. ye. te. ke. udAtta-pradezAH AdyudAttazcety evam AdayaH.

You can hear some examples of acute tone in this vedic recitation --

LISTENTO shri rudram

In the first verse, the vowels between parens have the acute --

gaN(A)nAnM tvA gaN(a)patiM havAmahe kav(i)GM kavIn(A)m upam(a)zravastamam

And, as usual, the vowel right after each acute vowel has the falling accent.

If you can't hear the difference, that's okay. Don't lose sleep about it. If you are not going to chant the veda, you don't have any need of noticing the difference.

477 letters. -- 12B.bse 115 -- popularity 14

(nIcairanu) (@grave)

nIcair anudAttaH ONPANINI 12030
grave means low tonemmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 83

A grave vowel is pronounced with the average, normal tone. Everything is grave except the acute and the falling.

Back to accent.

103 letters. -- 12B.bse 197 -- popularity 3

223 /pit and /sup are @grave.

636 Some roots lose final @nasal before @serious /kGit

(samAhAra) (@fal)

samAhAraH svaritaH ONPANINI 12031
falling is mixedmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 84

A vowel has a falling (svarita) accent when its tone is mixed of the previous two -- it starts acute and ends up grave. So it sounds like the fourth tone of Mandarin.

When a vowel has to be acute according to the rules, ands the next one has to be grave, the grave is automatically replaced with a svarita. So, most of the falling vowels you can hear come right after an acute vowel.

The exception to that is the so-called "independent svarita". In some cases we can hear a svarita right after a grave vowel. This happens, for instance, when an acute (vi) is followed by a grave a, and then they merge into vya. In such a case the resulting ya sound starts high and ends up low.

The dhAnya word in this recording has a grave A and a falling nya --


also here --


the word vyupta has a falling accent on the vyu, even though the ca of kapar(di)neca is grave.

Back to accent.

670 letters. -- 12B.bse 200 -- popularity 7

101 After some roots there's @bent only.

113 Verbs with @falling or !J @label (get @bent) when the @doer gets the benefit or harm of the action.

588 An affix with !t label has @falling on its first

984 When meaning impoliteness blessing command, last vowel of cliffhanger verb becomes @extralong and @falling.

1350 [@Label]s and @accent.

(tatpuruSa) (/karm)

tatpuruSaH samAnAdhikaraNaH karmadhArayaH ONPANINI 12042
A tatpuruSa is a karmadhAraya if its two halves have the same referent as the whole.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 85

A tatpuruSa is a compound that means the same thing as its latter.

For instance, a firefighter is a fighter, so the compound "firefighter" is a tatpuruSa.

And a blackbird is a bird, so the compound "blackbird" is a tatpuruSa.

If the first half of the tatpuruSa also means the same thing as the whole and as the second half, then it is a karmadhAraya, in addition to being a tatpuruSa.

A firefighter is a fighter, but he is not fire, so the compound "firefighter" is a tatpuruSa, but not a karmadhAraya.

And a blackbird is a black thing, so the compound "blackbird" is a karmadhAraya, and a tatpuruSa as well.

KAZIKA tatpuruSaH iti samAsavizeSasya saMjJAM vakSyati. sa tatpuruSaH samAnAdhikaraNapadaH karmadhArayasaMjJo bhavati. adhikaraNazabdo 'bhidheyavAci. samAnAdhikaraNaH samAnAbhidheyaH. paramarAjyam. uttamarAjyam. akarmadhAraye rAjyam 6-2-130 ityuttarapadA'dyudAttaM na bhavati. pAcakavRndArikA. tatpuruSaH iti kim? pAcikAbhAryaH. samAnAdhikaraNaH iti kim? brAhmaNarAjyam. karmadhArayapradezAH karmadhAraye 'niSThA 6-2-46 ityevam AdayaH.

474 letters. -- 12B.bse 254 -- popularity 2

180 Optionally swap /karmadhAraya compounds of kaDAra- etc.

598 !mahat- to !A before @samereferent or !jAtIya.

(arthavada) (@nounb)

artha-vad a-dhAtur a-pratyayaH prAtipadikam ONPANINI 12045
What has meaning, is not a root, and has no affix, is a nounbase.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 86

definition of " nounbase".

Many words in Sanskrit are made by adding a sup affix after a nounbase. For instance, the nouns azvas "horse", azvam "horse", azvena "by horse" and are build this way by the grammar rules --

azva + suazvas

azva + am amipUrvaH azvam

azva + TA TAGasi azva + ina AdguNaH azvena

In the examples above --

azva is a nounbase, and su am TA are affixes,

and azva is not a noun, because it has no sup affix.

azvas and azvam and azvena are nouns,

but they are not nounbases, because they have an affix.

All nounbases have a gender. After most feminine nounbases, a feminine affix must be added to the nounbase before the sup is added. For instance, the nounbase kukkuTa means "chicken", but if the chicken is female, we must add GI after it, this way --

kukkuTa @f + jas jAtera kukkuTa + GI + jas yasyetica kukkuT + I + as ikoyaNaci kukkuTyas "hens"

If the chicken is male, there is no GI --

kukkuTa @m + sukukkuTas "rooster"

See also kRttaddhita below.

KAZIKA abhidheya-vacano 'rtha-zabdaH. arthavac-chabda-rUpaM prAtipadika-saMjJaM bhavati dhAtu-pratyayau varjayitvA. DitthaH. kapitthaH. kuNDam. pITham. arthavad iti kim? vanam, dhanam iti na antasya avadher mA bhUt. nalopo hi syAt. adhAtuH iti kim? hanter laG. ahan. alopaH syat. apratyayaH iti kim? kANDe. kuDye. hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasyeti hrasvaH syAt. anarthakasya api nipAtasya prAtipadika-saMjJA iSyate. adhyAgacchati. pralambate. prAtipadikapradezAH hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasyety evam AdyaH.

687 letters. -- 12B.bse 349 -- popularity 82

(kRttaddhita) (!kRt)

kRt;taddhita-samAsAz ca ONPANINI 12046
kRt, taddhita, compound too (are nounbases).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 87

The definition of nounbase in the previous rule is very limited. According to it, dRSta, gomat and nadItaTa would not be nounbases, because they have affixes inside. So this rule tells us three new things --

(1) kRt-enders are nounbases. For instance, dRSTa "was seen".

(2) taddhita-enders are nounbases. Example gomat "cattleowner".

(3) compounds, after their final sup is stripped off, are nounbases. Example: yudhiSThira-.

An example of each --

(1) dRSTa "seen" would not be a nounbase according to arthavad rule, because dRSTa comes from dRz + kta, so it has an affix inside. Yet, kta is a kRt affix, and, according to this rule, anything that ends in a kRt affix is a nounbase.

(2) gomat "cattleowner" is made from go + jas + matup, so it has two affixes inside. Yet, matup is a taddhita affix, and this rule says anything that has a taddhita at the end is a nounbase.

(3) yudhiSThira is made from yudhi sthiras "he is firm in battle" so it has a Gi affix inside, because yudhi is yudh + Gi. So, according to arthavad, yudhiSThira could not be a nounbase. Yet, this rule clarifies that all compounds (after we luk off their final sup) are nounbases, even if they have a Gi or other affixes in the middle.

Notice that these rules apply recursively. For instance, the last word of the verse --

UcuH prAJjalayasH sarve yudhiSThirapurogamAH

can be considered to be one nounbase, yudhiSThirapurogama, with jas added. That nounbase is in turn a compound of yudhiSThira, and purogama, which themselves are compounds and nounbases.

Important warning. Grammarians will often talk of "the nounbase azvas", assuming that you will understand that the nounbase proper is just azva, and the s is an affix, so azvas is NOT a nounbase but azva is. Maybe they do this because it sounds more natural, or maybe to show that they are talking about the masculine nounbase azva, not about the feminine nounbase azva.

In this website I will often add a hyphen after azva- to show that I am talking about a nounbase azva- that has not gotten any sup affix added to it yet. So I will write --

azva- + suazvas

KAZIKA kRtas taddhitAH samAsAzca prAtipadikasaMjJA bhavanti. apratyayaH iti pUrvatra paryudAsat kRdantasya taddhitAntasya ca anena prAtipadikasaMjJA vidhIyate. arthavatsamudayAnAM samAsagrahaNaM niyamArtham. kRt kArakaH. hArakaH. kartA. harta. taddhitaH aupagavaH. kApaTavaH. samAsaH rAjapuruSaH. brAhmaNakambalaH. samAsagrahaNasya niyamArthatvAd vAkyasya arthavataH saMjJA na bhavati.

1615 letters. -- 12B.bse 442 -- popularity 4

52 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

(hrasvonapu) (!hrasvo)

hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasya ONPANINI 12047
shorten neuter nounbasemmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 88

When a nounbase is neuter and ends in a long, shorten the long.

Actually, very few nounbases end in a long. Some such are --

rai- "(item of) wealth"

nau- "ship"

nI (a rootnoun).

These three are not neuter, but the compound adjectives --

atirai- "very wealthy",

atinau- "that just disembarked",

bahugrAmaNI- "that hasd many mayors"

will be neuter when they describe a neuter noun such as kula- "family".

So this rule says that we must replace the long finals of those adjectives with a short. This will turn I into i, and because of eca::igghra, will turn ai au into i u --

atirai- + su + kulam → * atiri- + s + kulam svamorna atiri kulam "super-rich family"

atinau- + su + kulam → * atinu + s + kulam svamorna atinu kulam "disembarked family, the family that just came out of the ship"

bahu- + grAmaNI- + su + kulam → .. → bahugrAmaNi kulam "family that has many mayors"

atirai- + au + kule → * atiri + au + kuleatiri + zI + kule ikocivibhaktau atirinI kule Natvam atiriNI kule "two super-rich families"

KAZIKA napuMsakaliGge 'rthe yat prAtipadikaM vartate tasya hrasvo bhavati AdezaH alo 'ntyasya acaH. atiri kulam. atinu kulam. napuMsake iti kim? grAmaNIH. senAnIH. prAtipadikasya iti kim? kANDe tiSThataH. kuDye tiSThataH. prAtipadikagrahaNasAmarthyatekA'dezaH pUrvasya antavanna bhavati.

693 letters. -- 12B.bse 670 -- popularity 5

80 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

81 But only if it's a @vowel.

168 (@numeral and @direction may @compound) with the meaning of a /taddhita, when @former, and when meaning a group.

(gostriyoru) (!gos)

go;striyor upasarjanasya ONPANINI 12048
Shorten go- and GI- Ap-enders when they are latter and subordinate.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 89

Examples --

citra- + go- → * citragu- "Mr Spotty Cows"

nis + kauzambI- → * niSkauzambi- "that left kauzambI"

ati + khaTvA- → * atikhaTva- "that no longer needs a bed"

The su added after these shortened GI Ap will not be deleted by halGyAbbhyodIrghA --

atikhaTva + suatikhaTvas "he no longer needs a bed, he's an ascetic"

KAZIKA prAtipadikasya iti vartate. go iti svarUpagrahaNaM strI iti pratyayagrahaNaM svaritatvAt. upasarjanagrahaNaM tayor vizeSaNam. gorupasarjanasya strIpratyayAntasya upasarjanasya iti. tAbhyAM prAtipadikasya tadantavidhiH. upasarjanagozabdAntasya upasarjanastrIpratyayAntasya ca prAtipadikasya hrasvo bhavati. citraguH. zabalaguH. striyAH niSkauzAmbiH. nirvArANasiH. atikhaTvaH. atimAlaH. upasarjanasya iti kim? rAjakumArI. svaritatvaM kim? atitantrIH. atilakSmIH. atizrIH. Iyaso bahuvrIheH pratiSedho vaktavayaH. bahuzreyasI. vidyamAnazreyaseI.

232 letters. -- 12B.bse 703 -- popularity 5

2 next pages for chris

44 /ec shorten into !i !u.

175 Two or more [@noun]s ([@compound]ed) to mean something else (make a @longhorn).

755 (@Strong is) /Nit after /go-.

(lupiyukta) (/lup)

lupi yuktavad vyakti;vacane ONPANINI 12051
When there is lup, gender number are like originalmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 90



Making a long story short, this rule allows sentences like "I'm going to the Aussies" to mean "I'm going to the country where the Aussies live" and still be grammatical.

An example. The kurus are a people, descendants of a certain kuru. The country where the kurus live is called "the kurus", used like this --

kurUn gacchAmi "I'm going to the kurus"

This kurUn word here means a certain country so called, it does not mean its inhabitants. When used in this sense, the word is breaking the ordinary rules of grammar. For instance, rule dvyeka says that a noun that means ONE country must be singular, and some other rule says that when we name a country after its inhabitants, we must add some suffix after the inhabitants' name, such as, for instance, aN.

To bring this kurUn word, which is masculine and singular, into the shed with the other country names, grammarians say that it is formed like this: starting at kurUNAM rAjyam "the kingdom of the kurus", we first replace it with kurUNAm + aN, then replace the aN with lup. This makes the nounbase kuru-, which (like the original word kuruNAm) is masculine and takes plural affixes, but means one country anyway. If we had used luk instead of lup to delete the aN, other rules would have made this nounbase into a neuter singular.

.. add the KAZIKA and more examples of masc. pl country names

KAZIKA lupi iti lupsanMjJayA luptasya pratyayasya artha ucyate. tatra lupi yuktavadvyaktivacane bhavataH. yuktavatiti niSThApratyayena ktavatunA prakRtyartha ucyate. sa hi pratyayArtham AtmanA yunakti. tasya yuktavato vyaktivacane lubarthe vidhIyete. atha vA yuktaH prakRtyarthaH pratyayArthena sambaddhaH, tasminniva vyaktivacane lubarthe bhavataH. saptamyarthe vatiH. vyaktivacane iti ca liGgasaGkhyayoH pUrvAcaryanirdezaH, tadIyam eva idaM sUtram. tathA ca asya pratyAkhyAnaM bhaviSyate, tadaziSyaM saMjJApramANatvAt 12053 iti. vyaktiH strIpumnapuMsakAni. vacanam ekatvadvitvabahutvAni. paJcalAH kSatriyAH puMliGgA bahuvacanavizayAH. teSAM nivAso janapadaH. yathA teSu kSatriyeSu vyaktivacane tadvajjanapade bhavataH. paJcAlAH. kuravaH. magadhAH. matsyAH. aGgAH. vaGgAH. sugmAH. puNDrAH. lupi iti kim? luki mA bhUt. lavaNaH sUpaH. lavaNA yavAgUH. lavaNaM zAkam. vyaktivacane iti kim? zirISANAm adUrabhavo grAmaH zirISAH, tasya vanaM zirISavanam. vibhASauSadhi-vanaspatibhyaH 84006 iti NatvaM na bhavati. haritakyAdiSu vyaktiH. harItakyAH phalAni harItakyaH phalAni. khalatikAdiSu vacanam. khalatikasya parvatasya adUrabhavAni vanAni khalatikaM vanAni.

1059 letters. -- 12B.bse 737 -- popularity 5

57 But the [@stem]-changes caused by !lu affixes do not stay.

445 Sometimes /lup means a country.

566 And then /zas to !n if @masculine.

1425 Different kinds of nothing.

(tadaziSya) (!tadaz)

tad aziSyaM saMjJA- pramANatvAt ONPANINI 12053
( gender and number) need not be taught because usage is the authoritymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 91


... too long ...

This rule means --

(A) people use some words with odd genders and numbers and that's fine.

(B) grammarians should not make rules that explain odd genders and numbers.

Some words that have strange number or gender in English --

"The trousers are black " (when meaning ONE piece of clothing)

"The evidence is overwhelming " (meaning many pieces of evidence)

"She was seaworthy in the shallow waters off the southern coasts " (meaning a ship)

These words break several grammar rules of English like " 'she' is for living beings only" and "words that mean one thing go with a singular verb"

Sanskrit too has some words that do strange things like these. For instance the word gRhANi can be used to mean one house and even then have a plural affix and go woth a plural verb Conversely jana- "people" when singular masculine may mean one two or many people even if they are all female So when a king adresses his daughters, sisters, wives, we may say --

dRzyantAJM ca gRhANIti rAjA svajanam abravIt "And the king said to his relatives 'look at the house' "

KAZIKA tad iti prakRtaM yuktavad-bhAvalakSaNaM nirdizyate. tad aziSyaM na vaktavyam. kasmAt? saMjJA-pramANatvAt. saMjJA-zabdA hi nAnAliGgasaGkhyAH pramANam. paJcAlAH, varaNA iti ca, na ete yoga-zabdAH. kiM tarhi? janapad'-AdInAM saMjJA etAH. tatra liGgaM vacanaM ca svabhAva-saMsiddham eva na yatna-pratipAdyam, yathA ApaH, dArAH, gRhAH, sikatAH, varSAH iti.

831 letters. -- 12B.bse 793 -- popularity none

(bhUvAdayo) (@root)

bhUvAdayo dhAtavaH ONPANINI 13001
roots are bhU etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 92

roots are things invented by grammarians that appear in a list called the dhAtupATha. Such as




Roots cannot be used alone. Before use, we must add to them either a tense (to make a verb), or a kRt affix (to make a nounbase).

The tense will always be replaced with a tiG, by lasya --

kSip ( a root ) + laT ( a tense ) lasya kSip + tipksip + za + tikSipati "throws" ( verb )

The nounbase will always be affected by GyApprA --

kSip + tRc ( another kRt affix ) + su puganta kSeptR- ( nounbase ) + su Rduzana kSeptA "thrower" ( noun )

kSip ( root ) + kta ( a kRt affix ) + aukSipta- ( nounbase ) + au ( a sup affix ) → kSiptau ( noun ) "both were thrown"

In some rules, the word dhAtu " root" means rootnoun. One such rule is atvasa.

KAZIKA bhU ityevam AdayaH zabdAH kriyAvacanA dhAtusaMjJA bhavanti. bhU bhavati. edha edhate. spardha spardhate. dhAtuzabdaH pUrvAcAryasaMjJA. te ca kriyAvacanAnAM saMjJAM kRtavantaH. tadiha api pUrvAcaryasaMjJAzrayaNAt kriyAvAcinAm eva bhUvAdInAM dhAtusaMjJA vidhIyate. bhUvAdInAM vakAro 'yaM maGgalArthaH prayujyate. bhUvo vArthaM vadanti iti bhvarthA vA vAdayaH smaRtAH. dhAtupradezAH dhAtoH 3-1-91 ityevam AdayaH.

Notice that kSiptau is a noun because it has a sup affix at the end. The fact that it often translates as "both were thrown", which is an English verb, does not make it a verb. It is the affix at the end that counts, not the English translastion.

693 letters. -- 13.bse 1 -- popularity 75

(halantyam) (!halan)

hal antyam ONPANINI 13003
Final consonant (in grammar list is label).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 93


In the zivasUtra list, a i uN R Lk e oG ai auc etc,

the N k G c are labels, because they are added at the end of u, L, etc.

In the list tiptas (tip tas jhi sip thas tha... )

The p of tip sip mip, and the T of iT', are labels. The real affixes are ti si mi, i.

Yet, the s of tas thas.. are not labels, because of the exception navibha.

In the dhAtupATha (list of roots), (bhU edha spardha... pluG... )

the G of pluG is a label, the real root is plu.

and the edh root had an a label added just so that this rule does not make dh into a label

In the list svaujas (su au jas am auT zas TA bhyAm bhiS...)

The T of auT is a label, the real affix is just au

This rule does not say that the T of TA is a label, because it is not added at the end. Yet that T it is a label anyway, because cuTU says so.

577 letters. -- 13.bse 259 -- popularity 4

2 next pages for chris

261 Some roots get /zyan (before @hard @doer).

489 {astAt(i)} comes after @direction with @seventh @fifth @first that mean direction, place or time, (without change of sense).

(navibhaktau) (!nav)

na vibhaktau tu;s;mAH ONPANINI 13004
But the final tu s m of a vibhakti aren't (labels).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 94


in the list tiptas (tip tas jhi... ta AtAm jha... ) the s of tas and the m of AtAm are real

in the list svaujas (su au jas... Gas os Am...) the s of jas Gas os are real, and so is the m of Am.

KAZIKA pUrveNa prAptAyamitsaMjJAyAM vibhAktau vartamAnAnAM tavargasakAramakArANAM pratiSedha ucyate. tavargaH, TAGasiGasAm inA'tsyAH vRkSAt, plakSAt. sakAraH, jas brAhmaNAH. tas pacataH. thas pacathaH. makAraH upacattAm, apacatam. bibhaktau iti kim? aco yat, UrNAyA yus 52123, rudhAdibhyaH znam. kimo 't 53012, iTo 't ityatra pratiSedho na bhavati , anityatvA'dasya pratiSedhasya. idamas thamuH 53024 ityukArAnubandhanirdezAdanityatvam upalakSyate.

136 letters. -- 13.bse 280 -- popularity 2

93 Final @consonant (in grammar list is @label).

(AdirJiTu) (!AdirJ)

Adir Ji;Tu;DavaH ONPANINI 13005
Ji Tu' Du at the start (are labels).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 95

The Ji Tu' Du at the start of a root in the dhAtupATha is a label. Such roots are called JIt, Tvit, Dvit roots. For instance, the root kR "make" is listed in the dhAtupATha as (Du)kR(J), so it's a Dvit root.

See --

Ji for examples of JIt roots

Tu' for examples of Tvit roots

Du for examples of Dvit roots

KAZIKA ititi vartate. AdizabdaH pratekam abhisambadhyate. Ji;Tu;Du ity eteSAM samudayAnAm Adito vartamAnAnAm ity saMjJA bhavati. Ji, JimidA minnaH. JidhRSA dhRSTaH. JikSvidA kSviNNaH. JIndhI iddhaH. Tu, TuvepR vepathuH. Tuozvi zvayathauH. Du, DupacaS paktrimam. Duvap uptrimam. DukRJ kRtrimam. AdiH iti kim? pTUyati. kaNDUyati. upadeSe ity eva JikArIyati.

228 letters. -- 13.bse 290 -- popularity 3

(SaHpratyaya) (/Si)

SaH pratyayasya ONPANINI 13006
The initial S of an affix (is a label).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 96

So the S of Svun is a label. But not the non-initial S of the affix TiSac of mahiSa- "buffalo". And not the initial S of the non-affix SaS- "six".

Whatever has S label is a Sit.

129 letters. -- 13.bse 311 -- popularity 3

331 {dA(p)}{-nI-zasa yu-yuja-stu tudasi-}[/sic']{-miha pata-daza-naha} (get /tran) to mean tool.

346 The /Sit, roots, and {bhid} etc, get /aG' (to form feminine action nouns).

413 [/Sit] and {gaura}-class (get /GIS).

(cuTU) (!cu)

cu;TU ONPANINI 13007
cu Tu of affixes (are labels).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 97

Examples of cu labels --

c of Tac

j of jas

Examples of Tu labels --

T of Tac

N of Nya

60 letters. -- 13.bse 311 -- popularity 2

63 /aN'' and /udit include [@similar]s.

93 Final @consonant (in grammar list is @label).

(lazakvata) (!laz)

la;za;kv ataddhite ONPANINI 13008
l z ku (in affixes are labels), but not in a taddhitammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 98


G of Gas,

k of kta,

z of zas,

z of zap,

l of lyap,

kh of khac

are labels.

Therefore --

nI + kta → * nIta- "led"

vidyut- + zas → * vidyutas- "flashes of lightning"

This rule won't work on taddhita affixes such as kan kAmyac zas'. Their initial k z are not labels --

loman + zas' → .. → lomazas "along the hair"

KAZIKA taddhita-varjitasya pratyayasy' Adito vartamAnA lakAra-zakAra-kavargA it-saMjJA bhavanti. lakaraH, lyuT ca cayanam, jayanam. zakAraH, kartari zap bhavati, pacati. kavargaH, ktaktavatU niSThA bhuktaH, bhuktavat. priyavaze vadaH khac priyaMvadaH, vazaMvadaH. glAjisthazca ksnuH glAsnuH, jiSNuH, bhUSNuH. bhaJjabhAsamido ghurac bhaGguram. TAGasiGasAm in%At-syAH vRkSAt, vRkzasya. a-taddhite iti kim? cUDhAlaH. lomazaH. karNikA.

219 letters. -- 13.bse 333 -- popularity 3

63 /aN'' and /udit include [@similar]s.

261 Some roots get /zyan (before @hard @doer).

1136 /Git is what has @label !G.

(tasyalopaH) (@labe)

tasya lopaH ONPANINI 13009
Labels are invisible.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 99

talkaround. The label letters (a.k.a. "it letters"), namely, those described in the previous rules, "are invisible". This means that they must often be ignored (it does not mean that we must delete them).

( To teach you which letters are labels, I sometimes put them between parens. For instance, when you click kta, you get to a page that spells that kta affix as "(k)ta". The parens show that the k is a label, but the ta letters are real. See parens show labels for more examples. If you think you'll remember that that k is a label, you do not have to write the parens yourself. Writing "the affix kta" is fine. )

In particular --

(1) label letters are ignored when actually using a word


The grammar says that we may join these three pieces --

the root nRt(I) 04.0010

the affix (z)a(p) (from kartarizap)

the affix ti(p) (from tiptasjhi)

to make a word that means "is dancing". So that word is


But the letters I~, z, p are just label letters, not real letters, and they are silent. So the word is pronpounced and written nRtyati. As in the sentence --

devI nRtyati helAyAm "the queen is dancing in the moonlight"

(2) label letters are ignored when finding the first or last letter


Rule pacovaH says: "replace the first letter of kta with v".

But the "first letter of (k)ta" is the t; the k is a labl and must be ignored. So this rule replaces (k)ta with (k)va and makes pak(k)va, which is of course pronounced pakva, as in --

mRgo pakvo nRpeNa ca "and the king cooked a deer"

(3) When counting letters, labels don't count.


Rule vera tells us that when an affix with vi has one letter, we delete that letter.

The affix (k)v(ip) has one letter because the k i p are labels and do not count.

Therefore rule vera delets the v of kvip.

But the affix (k)vi(n) has two non- label letters, so vera does not work, and both the v and the i stay.

At this point you might be under the wrong impression that label letters are useless. Far from being so, they have many uses. See types of labels for examples.

You can find which consonants are labels and which aren't by using the previous rules, from hal antyam down.

KAZIKA tasya it-saMjJakasya lopo bhavati. tathA c%aiva udAhRtam. tasya grahaNaM sarva-lopArtham, alo 'ntyasya mA bhUt Adir JiTuDava iti.

A subtle point. My colleagues at ashtadhyayidotcom sometimes write things like --

kSip + (z)a + tas tasyalopaH kSipatas

I never write that, however, because tasyalopaH is just a talkaround, and it does not delete any labels at any point in time. In fact most labels are never deleted, they just become useless eventually.

For examples of labels that are actually deleted, see itvA, serhyapicca, and naGitolasya.

1938 letters. -- 13.bse 438 -- popularity 35

(yathAsaGkhya) (@res)

yathA-saGkhyam anudezaH samAnAm ONPANINI 13010
When a rule has two lists of the same length, understand " respectively".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 100

Exception to sthAnentaratamaH.


TAGasi rule replaces TA Gasi Gas with ina At sya' respectively.

ecoya rule replaces e oG ai auc with ay av Ay Av respectively.

tas;thas;tha;mipAM tAM;taM;t%AmaH replaces tas thas tha mip with tAm tam ta am respectively.

209 letters. -- 13.bse 879 -- popularity 6

34 The [@pronoun]s are /sarva- etc.

240 (@Root gets) /sya /tAs before !lR /luT.

1225 /diz- f. "point of the compass"

12001 automatic labels ←

chunk 7: 12027 length, accent, labels

→ 13012 bendy roots, nadI