12027 length, accent, labels ←

chunk 8: 13012 bendy roots, nadI

→ A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee

13012 After some roots there's bent only. anudAttaGitaAtmanepadam
13013 that agrees with object or agrees with nothing . bhAvakarmaNoH
13014 to mean the doer of swapped action. kartarikarmavyatihAre
13028 After AG, yam han . AGoyamahanaH
13029 After sam, roots gam Rcch pracch svar R zru vid dRz . samogamyRcchipracchisvaratyartizruvidibhyaH
13044 after jJA when meaning 'denying'. apahnavejJaH
13057 jJA zru smR dRz plus san . jJAzrusmRdRzAMsanaH
13062 san-ender is like previous pUrvavatsanaH
13063 After auxiliary bhU as, replace bent with flat. AmpratyayavatkRJonuprayogasya
13064 pra yuj and upa yuj . propAbhyAMyujerayajJapAtreSu
13072 Verbs with falling or J label when the doer gets the benefit or harm of the action. svaritaJitaHkartrabhiprAyekriyAphale
13078 After the others, use flat to mean the doer. zeSAtkartariparasmaipadam


anudAtta;Gita:: Atmanepadam ONPANINI 13012
After some roots there's bent only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 99

The TRUE translation of this rule is: "roots that are marked in the dhAtupATha with a G label or a grave accent only take bent affixes". But that translation is mostly useless to us, as we have no easy way to know which roots carry a G label or a grave accent (modern Sanskrit-English dictionaries do not show that info).

Examples of G label. Roots sU zI plu appear in the dhAtupATha as SUG zIG pluG, so they only get bent affixes --




Examples of grave accent. Roots As vas labh have a grave vowel after them as a label --




The word Atmanepadam " bent" trickles down from here to the next sixty-something rules down to zeSAtkartariparasmaipadam "all others get flat to mean the doer". So those rules explain when we must use bent affixes. Some of them are --





Reader beware. Even though pANini took great care to explain when exactly we must or may use bent affixes, many Sanskrit works from all ages, including the epics, break those rules whenever they feel like. Particularly metri causa. So don't panic if you find some plavati or carate or even dRzyati in the MBH.

Most roots are marked with a P. and take flat affixes. These are the flatty roots. Examples: car, gam.

The roots marked with an A. only take bent affixes. These are the bendy roots. Example: pluG.

And those marked PA. or U. take both. . These are the flattybendy roots. Example: dviS.


bhAva;karmaNoH ONPANINI 13013
( tense) that agrees with object or agrees with nothing (to bent).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 100

The previous rule says that after most roots, tenses are replaced with flat affixes, and that after some of them, they are replaced with bent affixes. This rule clarifies: affixes that do not agree with the doer are always bent, after all roots.

Counterexamples. Here laT, after roots dRz and bhuj, is replaced with the affixes tip and ta, which agree with the doer. Root bhuj takes bent ta because anudAttaGita says so --

kadalIphalAni pazyati kapiH "monkey sees bananas"

kadalIphalAni bhuGkte kapiH "monkey eats bananas"

Now the examples. Rule laHkarmaNi says that we may replace the laT affixes here with an affix that agrees with object. The two tiG affixes that can agree with the bananas here are flat jhi and bent jha, the third person plural affixes. But, because of this rule, we can only use the bent one, jha. So we say --

kadalIphalAni dRzyante kapinA "monkey sees bananas"

kadalIphalAni bhujyante kapinA "monkey eats bananas"


kartari karma-vyatihAre ONPANINI 13014
(Use bent) to mean the doer of swapped action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 101

There are two kinds of swapped action, and both are expressed with the two preverbs vi + ati --

(A) Mutual action --

vyatipacete "both cook for each other"

(B) Doing someone else's duty --

vyatilunIte "he cuts wood, which is the proper duty of someone else"

Grammarians say that the root asti may take these two preverbs, and when it does, it means "to do the proper duty of someone else". This is the only situation in which asti takes bent affixes --

vi + ati + as + laT iT'vyatihe "I do the proper duty of someone else" (h from ha::eti)


AGo yamahanaH ONPANINI 13028
After AG, ( objectless) yam han (get bent).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 102

yam and han are usually flatty no matter the preverb --

hanti zatrUn "kills enemies"

nihanti zatrUn "kills enemies"

and even if the root is objectless --

adharmebhyaz ca yacchati "and it restrains from doing evil things"

But if the preverb is AG and the root is objectless, then Ayam and Ahan are bendy. Even if we add vi before the AG --

vyAyacchase kauravArthe "you are working for the kurus"

By the vArttika svAGgakarmakAc ca, the AG are bendy also when their object is the doer's own limb --

Ayacchate pANim "pulls in his hand"

Ayacchati pANim "pulls in someone else's hand"


samo gamy;Rcchi;pracchi;svaraty;arti;zru;vidibhyaH ONPANINI 13029
After sam, roots gam Rcch pracch svar R zru vid dRz (get bent if objectless).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 103

After sam, these roots get flat endings when a specific object is mentioned or thought of --

uktAni saMzRNoti "he listens attentively to the sayings"

saMzRNoti "he listens (to them) attentively"

However, when used in a general sense, they get bent endings --

sa cchAtrasH saMzRNute "that student (always) listens attentively"


apahnave jJaH ONPANINI 13044
( Bent) after jJA when meaning 'denying'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 104

Whenever /jJA means "deny" or "deceive" (usually this only happens after apa), it gets bent affixes --

apajAnIte "he deceives"

zatam apajAnIte "he denies the (debt of a) hundred"

BTW, apajAnIte is built like this --

apa + /jJA + laT tajJA + znA + ta jJA;janorjA jA + nA + tajA + nA + te''' IhalyaghoH apajAnIte "he denies"

/jJA in its ordinary meaning of "knowing" gets flat --

na kiJMcid api jAnAti "he knows nothing at all"


jJA;zru; smR;dRzAM sanaH ONPANINI 13057
jJA zru smR dRz plus san (get bent).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 105

Exception in advance to pUrvavatsanaH. These four are flatty (janAti zRNoti smarati pazyati), but adding san to them we get bendy roots --

jJA + san + laT tajijJAsa + tajijJAsa + te'''jijJAsate "wants to know"

zru + san + laTzuzrUSa + te'''zuzrUSate "wants to listen; obeys, serves"

dRz + san + laTdidRkSa + ta → .. → didRkSate "wants to see"

smR + san + laT → .. → susmUrSate "wants to remember"

As in --

dharmaJM jijJAsate "wants to know good from evil"

guruM zuzrUSate "wants to serve a guru"

naSTaM susmUrSate "wants to remember what is no more"

nRpanM didRkSate "wants to see the king"


pUrvavat sanaH ONPANINI 13062
san-ender is like previousmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 106

In more words -- if a root is bendy, flatty, or flattybendy, then so is the root with san added --

yudh + laT tayudh + te''' divAdi yudhyate "fights"

yudh + san + laT tayuyutsa + te''' → .. → yuyutsate "wants to fight"

See also exception jJA;zru;smR;dRzA above.


Am-pratyayavat kRJo 'nuprayogasya ONPANINI 13063
After auxiliary bhU as, replace bent with flat.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 107 Am''


Root IkS is bendy. ta is bent. When we join IkS + liT ta, first IkS gets Am'', then ta becomes ez, then ez disappears --

IkS + liTIkS + taIkS + ez ijAdezca IkSAm + ez AmaH IkSAm

Now, rule kRJcA says that the disappeared ez must be added to one of the three auxiliary roots kR bhU as. If we choose kR nothing strange happens --

kR + ez liTidhA cakR + ez ikoyaNaci cakre

Yet, if we choose bhU or as, then this exception replaces the disappeared ez with the nearest flat, that is, with Nal --

bhU + ez → bhU + Nal → .. → babhUva

as + ez → as + Nal → .. → Asa

The resulting cakre, babhUva or Asa is then added after the IkSAm we made earlier --

IkS + liT ta → .. → IkSAm kRJcA IkSAJcakre "he saw"

IkS + liT ta → .. → IkSAm kRJcA IkSAmMbabhUva "he saw"

IkS + liT ta → .. → IkSAm kRJcA IkSAmAsa "he saw"

Similarly, the plural is IkSAJMcakrus, IkSAmMbabhUvus, IkSAmAsus "they saw".

Back to Am'' summary .


pr%opAbhyAM yujer ayajJa-pAtreSu ONPANINI 13064
pra yuj and upa yuj (get bent).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 108

The root yuj is ordinarily flatty, as in yunakti. Yet, after pra and upa, it's bendy --



A vArttika, svarAdyantopasRSTAd iti vaktavyam, says that yuj gets bent not just after pra and upa, but actually after all preverbs except sam nis dus --


pAtrANi prayunakti "he prepares the holy vessels"


svarita-JitaH kartr@-abhiprAye kriyA-phale ONPANINI 13072
Verbs with falling or J label (get bent) when the doer gets the benefit or harm of the action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 109

Example. The root yaj, a.k.a. yaja~ is marked with a falling on the a~ in the dhAtupATha. So we say --

yajate "he sacrifices for himself"

yajati "he sacrifices for others"

The roots kR (aka DukRJ) and UrNu have J in the dhAtupATha --

kumbhaGM kurute "he makes a pot for himself"

kumbhaGM karoti "he makes a pot for others"

UrNute "he covers (himself)"

UrNauti "he covers (others)"

and kaNDU(J) has a J in the kaNDvAdi list --

kaNDUyate "he scratches himself"

biDAlaGM kaNDUyati "he scratches the cat"

pANinIyadhAtupAThaH sasvaraH


zeSAt kartari parasmaipadam ONPANINI 13078
After the others, use flat to mean the doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 110

The preceding sixty-six rules, since anudAttaGita, have been teaching after which roots the kartari affixes must be bent. This clarifies that after all the other roots, they must be flat.

Example: yAti "goes" got tip because none of the preceding rules says it must get ta.

12027 length, accent, labels ←

chunk 8: 13012 bendy roots, nadI

→ A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee