13012 bendy roots, nadI ←

chunk 9: A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee

→ 14000 stem, wimpy, roles

14001 Down to kaDArA, just ONE term. AkaDArAdekAsaJjJA
14002 In case of contradiction, higher number works first. vipratiSedheparaGkAryam
14003 I-U-enders that only mean women are nadI. yUstryAkhyaunadI
14004 iyaG uvaG nounbases aren't nadI, except strI-. neyaGuvaGsthAnAvastrI
14005 before Am optionally. vAmi
14006 Before Git, u-i-enders too . Gitihrasvazca
14007 u i enders are wee, except sakhi- . zeSoghyasakhi
14008 pati- only in a compound. patissamAsaeva
14010 Short is light. hrasvaMlaghu
14011 Before cluster is heavy. saMyogeguru
14012 Long . dIrghaJca


A kaDArAd ekA saJjJA ONPANINI 14001
Down to kaDArA, just ONE term.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 111

headline, valid down to 22038 kaDArA.

"Just one term" means --

" The rules that are in this section don't give two different terms to the same thing. "

Example --

Rule hrasvaMlaghu below says that the a of rakS is light, because it's short.

Next rule saMyogeguru says it's heavy, because it is before a cluster.

If these rules were anywhere else in the grammar, this a would be called both light and heavy at the same time.

But because they are in this section, this a gets ONE name not two, and is heavy.


vipratiSedhe paraM kAryam ONPANINI 14002
In case of contradiction, higher number works first.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 112

In other words --

" ceteris paribus, later rules are stronger than former rules".

Example 1.

When joining vRkSa + bhyas, rule 73102 supica says "a to A", but rule 73103 bahuvacanejhalyet says "a to e".

So higher number wins and 73103 gets to work --

vRkSa- + bhyas bahuvacanejhalyet vRkSebhyas

After this, 73102 can no longer work, because vrkSe no longer ends with a.

Example 2. When joining iS + Nal,

Rule 61008 liTidhA says "replace iS with i + iS",

Yet, rule 73086 puganta says "replace iS with eS".

So higher number 73086 puganta works first, and we get eS.

After that, 61008 liTidhA can still work, so it does ---

iS + Nal puganta eS + Nal liTidhA e + eS + a hrasvaH i + eS + a abhyAsasyA iyeSa "he wanted"

Careful. This "later before earlier" rule works most of the time, but not always. When a former rule overrides a later rule, commentaries warn us with the word pUrvavipratiSedha. That translates into "here lower number wins" or "exception in advance to".

Rishi Rajpopat's dissertation supports the view that grammatical tradition misinterpreted the word param to mean "the rule with the higher number", while pANini intended this rule to mean "when a rule applies to the right side and another rule to the right side, the right side rule works first".

Example of Rishi Rajpopat's interpretation "right hand side rule wins" --

In deva- + bhis, the left hand is deva and the right hand is bhis.

The left side rule 73103 bahuvacanejhalyet. It wants to change a to e before bh. Doing that would block atobhisa::ais.

The right side rule 71009 atobhisa::ais says bhis to ais after a. Doing that would block bahuvacanejhalyet.

Now, according to Rishi Rajpotat view, right hand side rule wins. So we must do 71009.

While according to the "higher number wins" view, 73103 should win.

As the correct form is the one given by 71009, traditional grammarians must find here some excuse to make the rule "higher number wins" not work in this case.


y;U stry;Akhyau nadI ONPANINI 14003
I-U-enders that only mean women are nadI.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 113

Examples. The feminine stems

siMhI- "lioness",

vadhU- "wife",

nadI- "river",

strI- "woman"

are all nadI stems, because they end in I or U.

Because of the exception neyaGuvaG below, stems that have only consonants before the I or U (like dhI- and bhU-) are usually not nadI. Only those that have another vowel are nadI (like siMhI-, vadhU-, and girivaravindhyazirodhinivAsini-).


strI- has one vowel, but is always nadI,

lakSmI- has two, but is optionally nadI.

grAmaNI- @f + Ge + strI- + GegrAmaNye striyai "to a female mayor"

grAmaNI- @m + Ge + puruSa + GegrAmaNye puruSAya "to a male mayor"

and never grAmaNyai striyai.


neyaG;uvaG-sthAnAv a-strI ONPANINI 14004
iyaG uvaG nounbases aren't nadI, except strI-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 114

The iyaG uvaG nounbases are those mentioned in aciznu.

This rule can be roughly reworded as --

"Feminine stems that end in I U and have no other vowel are not nadI."

"Yet strI- is always nadI."

Some such bases are zrI- dhI- bhU- bhrU-.

Example. Before calling, the nadI shorten their final by ambArtha, and the calling is then lost by eGhra --

he nadi "hey river goddess"

he stri "hey woman"

he vadhu "hey lady"

But the iyaG uvaG get neither shortening nor loss of s --

he zrIH "hey wealth goddess"

he bhUH "hey Earth goddess"

The iyaG uvaG may be nadI sometimes anyway. See vAmi and Gitihrasvazca.


vA ''mi ONPANINI 14005
( iyaG uvaG bases except strI- are nadI) before Am optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 115

Optional exception to neyaGuva. If we take this option, hrasvanadyA will work before Am --

zrI- + AmzrI + nAm Natvam zrINAm "of glories"

bhrUNAm "of eyebrows"

Alternatively, they are not nadI, and neyaGuva works normally --

zrI- + Amzriy + AmzriyAm "of glories"

bhruvAm "of eyebrows"

strI- is unaffected by this rule, and is always nadI. So we say strINAm compulsorily, never striyAm, for "women's" --

strI + Am hrasvanadyA strINAm "of women"


Giti hrasvaz ca ONPANINI 14006
Before Git, ( feminine) u-i-enders too (are optionally nadI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 116

So, before Ge Gasi Gas Gi, we may choose if we want feminine nounbases such as mati or dhenu- to be nadI or not.

If we choose nadI, then idudbhyAm, ANnadyAH will work --

mati- + Gi idudbhyAm mati + Am ikoyaNaci matyAm "in the opinion (of)"

Alternatively, the nounbase will be a wee and other rules will work, such as accagheH --

mati- + Gi accagheH matau "in the opinion (of)"


zeSo ghy a-sakhi ONPANINI 14007
u i enders are wee, except sakhi- (and the nadI).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 117

Translating together this rule and the next, we can say --

"a wee is an i-u-nounbase that is not sakhi- and not uncompounded pati-, and was not made nadI by Gitihrasvazca".

For instance, RSi- m is a wee nounbase.

The nounbases that end in short u i fall into three groups --

(A) sakhi-, and uncompounded pati (see patissa below), are neither nadI nor wee.

(B) the nadI -- that is the feminines in i u that have been optionally made nadI by Gitihrasvazca before a Git sup.

(C) the wee -- everything else that ends in u i. Including the feminines that were not nadI-fied.

Being wee triggers some rules, such as accagheH. For instance, when adding Ge after mati- f, rule ANnadyAH works if the mati- is nadI by Gitihrasvazca, but otherwise, mati- is wee and rule accagheH works. And as RSi- is always m, it is always wee and rule accagheH always works.

devI sukta

Yet, the nounbase RSi- is never f, because a female RSi is called a RSikA-, "seeress". Rhymes with "actress".


patiH samAsa:: eva ONPANINI 14008
pati- (is wee) only in a compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 118

So, lone pati- is not wee. That's why gherGiti did not work here --

pati + Gas khyatyAtparasya pati + us ikoyaNaci patyus "of husband"

But compounds of pati, like bhUpati-, vanaspati- and azvapati-, are wee, and get gherGiti just like RSi- does --

bhUpati + Gas gherGiti bhUpate + as GasiGasozca bhUpates "king's"


hrasvaM laghu ONPANINI 14010
Short is light.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 119

A short vowel is light (unless exception saMyogeguru below applies).

The short vowels are a i u R L.

As for instance, here all the vowels are light --

ajam apacam "I cooked a goat"

madhu na vasu "the honey is not sweet".

NOTE: in rule puganta, the word laghu is used to mean short. Which is sort of confusing.


saMyoge guru ONPANINI 14011
Before cluster is heavy.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 120

Exception to hrasvaMlaghu.

There are two sorts of heavy vowels. A short that is before a cluster is heavy by this rule. A long is always heavy, by next rule, dIrghaMca.

The shorts that I wrote between parens here --

kim(a)rtham abhis(a)nMty(a)jya par(i)vrajasi n(i)SkriyaH

are heavy because they are before clusters. If these were not heavy, the line would not sound like verse.


dIrghaM ca ONPANINI 14012
Long (is heavy).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 121

Long vowels (namely A I U RR e o ai au) are always heavy, NVM if a cluster follows or not.

Example. In this verse, and in fact everywhere else too, all A and e are long, and therefore all are heavy by this rule --

m(A)n(e)na bhraSTasH svargas t(e) n(A)rhas tvamM p(A)rthiv(A)tmaja

13012 bendy roots, nadI ←

chunk 9: A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee

→ 14000 stem, wimpy, roles