73101 some sup-changing rules ←

chunk 44: 74001 more replacements before soft

→ 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition

74001 Shorten the nexttolast before Ni before caG. NaucaGyupadhAyAhrasvaH
74007 R RR to R . urRt
74010 R of cluster-starter to guNa . RtazcasaMyogAderguNaH
74011 RR-enders, Rcch and R to . RcchatyRRtAm
74012 zRR dRR pRR to short optionally . zRRdRRprAMhrasvovA
74016 -enders and dRz to guNa before aG aG'. RdRzoGiguNaH
74017 asyati gets thuk . asyatesthuk
74020 vac to voc . vaca::um
74021 zIG to guNa before hard. zIGassArvadhAtukeguNaH
74022 zIG to zay before kGit y. ayaGyikGiti
74025 Lengthen before yak, kyaG, yaG, soft yAsuT. akRtsArvadhAtukayordIrghaH
74026 before cvi too. cvauca
74028 R to ri before za, yak, liG. riGzayagliGkSu
74029 Replace R of arti and cluster-starters with ar . guNortisaMyogAdyoH
74032 A a before cvi asyacvau
74033 before kyac. kyacica
74040 do so mA sthA to i before kit t. dyatisyatimAsthAmittikiti
74042 dhA to hi dadhAterhiH
74046 dA of ghu to dath . dodadghoH
74047 After a vowel preverb, with t . aca::upasargAttaH
74048 ap- to before bh. apobhi
74049 s to before soft s. sassyArdhadhAtuke
74050 Chop tAs and as . tAsastyorlopaH
74051 Chop tAs before r-affixes. rica
74052 h before e'''. haeti
74054 Before san, vowel of mI;mA;ghu; rabh;labh;zak; pat;pad to is. sanimImAghurabhalabhazakapatapadAmaca::is
74055 of Ap jJapi Rdh to I. ApjJapyRdhAmIt
74056 of dambh to i too dambha::icca
74057 of objectless muc to guNa optionally. mucokarmakasyaguNovA
74058 And delete the stammer. atralopobhyAsasya
74059 Shorten . hrasvaH
74060 Consonant at start stays. halAdizzeSaH
74061 But the stop after zar . zarpUrvAHkhayaH
74062 ku and h to cu. kuhozcuH
74066 R RR L to a. urat
74069 Lengthen of iN' before kit liT. dIrgha::iNaHkiti




(NaucaGyupa) (/acI)

Nau caGy upadhAyA$ hrasvaH ONPANINI 74001
Shorten the nexttolast before Ni before caG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 857

This special shortening makes Nijanta roots like nAyi kAri lAvi pAci get reduplicated into a heavy-light rythm in the luG --

kR + Nic + luG tip → .. → aT + kAri + caG + t''' → * a + kari + caG + t caGi a + ka + kari + caG + t sanyataH a + ki + kari + caG + t NeraniTi a + ki + kar + at kuhozcuH acikarat dIrgholaghoH acIkarat "he made (him) do"

nI + Nic + luG tip luGlaG aT + nI + Nic + tipa + nI + Nic + t''' ata::upa a + nai + Nic + ta + nai + Nic + caG + t ecoya a + nAy + Nic + a + t → * a + nay + Nic + a + t NeraniTi a + nay + a + t caGi ananayat sanyataH aninayat dIrgholaghoH anInayat "he made him lead"

Why did sanyataH work here? We are not before san.

Because rule sanvalla made the caG be san-like.

KAZIKA aGgasya iti vartate. caGpare Nau yad aGgam, tasya upadhAyA hrasvo bhavati. acIkarat. ajIharat. alIlavat. apIpavat. atra dvirvacanopadhA-hrasvatvayoH prAptayoH paratvAd upadhAhrasvatvam, tatra kRte dvirvacanam. iha tu mA bhavAnaTiTatiti nityatvAd dvitIyasya dvirvacanaM prApnoti, tathA sati hrasvabhAvino 'Ggasya akArasya upadhAtvaM vihitam iti hrasvo na syAt? naiSa doSaH. oNeH Rdit karaNaM jJApakaM nityam api dvirvacanam upadhA-hrasvatvena bAdhyate iti. Nau iti kim? caGy upadhAyA hrasvaH ity ucyamAne alIlavat ity atra vacana-sAmarthyAd antaraGgAm api vRddhim AdezaM ca bAdhitvA hrasvaH syAt. adIdapatityatra hrasvatvena puko bAdhaH syAt. apIpacad ity evam Adautu naiva syAt. caGi iti kim? kArayati. hArayati. upadhAyA iti kim? acakAGkSat. avavAJchat. tadedadupadhAgrahaNam uttarArtham avazyaM kartavyaM tad iha api hrasvatvaM nivartayati ityevam arthaM yena na avyavadhAnam ityetannAzrayitavyam iti. upadhA-hrasvatve NerNicyupasaGkhyAnam. vaditvantaM prayojitavAn avIvadat vINAM parivAdakena. yo 'sau Nau Nilopas tasya sthAnivadbhAvena aglopitvAt aGgasya hrasvo na prApnoti. NyAkRtinirdezAt siddham.

379 letters. -- 74.bse 6 -- popularity 4




(urRt) (!urR)

ur Rt ONPANINI 74007
(Optionally nexttolast) R RR to R (before Nic plus caG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 858

When we choose not to apply this optional rule, nexttolast R RR will become Ir ar Ar by other rules --

With the nichclass root kRRt (which is listed in the mmw as kIrt) we ordinarily get R turned into Ir --

kRRt + luG tip → .. → kRRt + Nic + caG + t''' upadhAyAzca kir + Nic + at halica kIr + Nic + at → .. → acikIrtat "he said, praised"

and the R of vRt + causative Nic becomes ar --

vRt + Nic + at puganta vart + Nic + at → .. → avavartat "he made it turn"

and the R of mRj becomes Ar --

mRj + Nic + at mRjervRddhiH mArj + Nic + at → .. → amamArjat "he rubbed"

However, this rule says that we may choose to not apply those other rules, and when we don't, we replace R RR with R instead --

kRRt + luG tip → .. → kRRt + Nic + caG + t''' → * kRt + Nic + caG + t → .. → acIkRtat "he said, praised"

vRt + Nic + caG + t''' → * vRt + Nic + caG + t → .. → avIvRtat "he made it turn"

mRj + Nic + caG + t''' → * mRj + Nic + caG + t → .. → amImRjat "he rubbed"

Small details --

kRRt + luG tip → .. → kRt + Nic + caG + t NeraniTi kRt + caG + t caGi kR + kRt + at urat ka + kRt + at sanyataH ki + kRt + at kuhozcuH ci + kRt + at luGlaG acikRtat dIrgholaghoH acIkRtat "he said, praised"

Notice that sanyataH worked here because sanvalla says that ka is san-like before kRtat, that has a light R.

KAZIKA Nau caGi upadhAyAH RvarNasya sthAne vA RkArAdezo bhavati. irarArAm apavAdaH. ir acikIrtat, acIkRtat. ar avavartat, avIvRtat. Ar amamArjat, amImRjat. vacanasAmarthyAdantaraGgA api irarAro bAdhyante. taprakaraNaM dIrghe 'pi sthAnini hrasva eva yathA syAt, acIkRtatiti. na ca ayaM bhAvyamAnaH, kintu AdezAntaranivRttyarthaM svarUpam eva etadabhyanujJAyate.

755 letters. -- 74.bse 136 -- popularity 1




(Rtazcasa) (!Rtaz)

Rtazca saMyogAderguNaH ONPANINI 74010
R of cluster-starter to guNa (before liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 859

As in --

smR + Nal → * smar + a ata::upa smAr + a liTidhA sasmAra "he remembered"

smR + atus → * smar + atus liTidhA sasmaratus "both remembered"

smR + ma → * smar + ma kRsRbhRvR smar + ima liTidhA sasmarima "we remembered"

Rule guNorti also makes R of clusterstarter into ar sometimes.

Why do we say "clusterstarter"?

This won't work on kR, that starts with k -- --

kR + atus liTidhA cakR + atus ikoyaNaci cakratus "both made"

kR + Nal acoJNiti kAr + a liTidhA cakAra "he made; I made"

281 letters. -- 74.bse 259 -- popularity 1

888 @Consonant at start (of @stammer) stays.




(RcchatyRRtAm) (!Rc)

Rcchaty RRtAm ONPANINI 74011
RR-enders, Rcch and R to ( guNa before liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 860

The Rcchati mentioned here is the root 06.0016 Rcch Rcha~ gatIndriyapralaya "go, go at, attack; faint".

Examples --

Rch + Nal checa Rcch + a → * arcch + a liTidhA a + arcch + a ata::AdeH A + arcch + a tasmAnnuDdvi An + arcch + aAnarccha

Rch + atus → .. → Anarcchatus

Rch + atus → .. → Anarcchus

tRR + us → * tar + us liTidhA tatarus pecus terus

A zloka from the epics --

sAtyakiH kRtavarmANaGM kRtavarmA ca sAtyakim | AnarchatuzH zarair ghorais takSamANau parasparam || "And sAtyaki went at kRtavarman, and kRtavarman at sAtyaki, hacking each other with dreadful arrows."

But that one has archa not arccha.

As far as I know, rch and rcch are just different spellings of the same rcch sound. See my notes on checa.

KAZIKA Rcchater aGgasya, R ity etasya, RRkArAntAnAM ca liTi parato guNo na bhavati. Rccha Anarccha, AnarcchatuH, AnarcchuH. R AratuH, AruH. RRkArAntAnAm nicakaratuH, nicakaruH. nijagaratuH, nijagaruH. Rccher alaghUpadhatvAd aprApto guNo vidhIyate, RRtAM tu pratiSiddhaH. vRddhi-viSaye tu pUrvavipratiSedhena vRddhir eva iSyate. nicakAra. nijagAra.

477 letters. -- 74.bse 321 -- popularity 3

235 Roots that start with a @heavy /ic get /Am'' (before /liT), except /Rcch.

861 !zRR !dRR !pRR to @short optionally (before a /kit /liT).




(zRRdRRprAMhrasvovA) (!zq)

zRR;dRR;prAM hrasvo vA ONPANINI 74012
zRR dRR pRR to short optionally (before a kit liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 861

Rule RcchatyRRtAm right above ordinarily replaces RR with ar before kit liT, as in --

pRR + atus RcchatyRRtAm par + atus → .. → paparatus "both protected"

But these three roots may optionally replace with R instead --

pRR + atus → * pR + atus → .. → papratus "both protected"

Why does this rule bother to say "to short"? Had it been worded as just zRR;dRR;prAM vA, it would have made RcchatyRRtAm optional after these roots.

Good thinking. Yet, that wouldn't have worked, as we don't want RRta:: id dhAtoH and hali ca to kick in.

KAZIKA zRR dRR pRR ityeteSAM aGgAnAM liTi parato vA hrasvo bhavati. zRR vizazratuH, vizazruH. vizazaratuH, vizazaruH. dRR vidadratuH, vidadruH. vidadaratuH, vidadaruH. pRR nipapratuH, nipapruH. nipaparatuH, nipaparuH. hrasvavacanam itvotvanivRttyartham. kecidetat sUtraM pratyAcakSate. zrA pAke, drA kutsAyAM gatau, prA pUraNe ityeteSAm anekArthA dhAtavaH iti zRRdRRprAmarthe vartamAnAnAM vizazratuH, vizazruH, vidadratuH, vidadruH, nipapratuH, nipapruH ityetAni rUpANi sAdhayanti. tathA ca sati kvasau vizazRvAnityetad rUpaM na syAt.

383 letters. -- 74.bse 538 -- popularity 2

531 /ik to /yaN before /ac.

552 /am to !m (after /ak).




(RdRzoGi) (!RdR)

R;dRzo 'Gi guNaH ONPANINI 74016
(R RR) -enders and dRz to guNa before aG aG'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 862

Exception to kGitica.

Ordinarily, aG and aG', because of kGitica, don't cause guNa replacement --

sic' + luG tip → .. → asic + aG + t'''asicat "he sprinkled"

bhid + aG' → .. → bhidA "a breaking"

This exception says that aG and aG' will still replace with guNa the R of dRz --

dRz + luG tip iritovA dRz + aG + tip → * darz + aG + tip → .. → adarzat "saw"

and also all rootfinal R RR --

kR + luG tip → .. → akR + aG + t''' → * akarat "made, did"

jRR + aG' + Ap ( allowed by Sidbhid ) → * jar + a + A akassa jarA- "old age"

KAZIKA RvarNAntAnAM dRzez ca aGi parato guNo bhavati. zakalAGguSThako 'karat. ahaM tebhyo 'karaM namaH. asarat. Arat. jarA. dRzeH adarzat, adarzatAm, adarzan.

323 letters. -- 74.bse 570 -- popularity 4

102 After /sam, roots /gam /Rcch /pracch !svar !R !zru !vid /dRz (get @bent if @objectless).

243 But not /dRz.




(asyatesthuk) (/thu)

asyates thuk ONPANINI 74017
asyati gets thuk (before aG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 863

th(uk) is a kitaugment.

Example --

as' + luG tipas + t''' AD-aj-AdInAm A + as + t akassa As + t asyati;vakti As + aG + t → * Asth + aG + tAsthat "he threw"

Similarly AsthatAm, Asthan.

KAZIKA asyater aGgasya thugAgamo bhavati aGi parataH. Asthat, AsthatAm, Asthan.

94 letters. -- 74.bse 600 -- popularity 3

462 {SaT kati katipaya catur} get /thuk (before /DaT).




(vaca::um) (!vaca)

vaca:: um ONPANINI 74020
vac to voc (before aG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 864 luG

The root vac gets aG before luG, by asyativaktikhyAtibhyoG.

This rule turns vac + aG into voc + aG.

Examples --

vac + luG tip luGlaG avac + tip asyativakti avac + aG + tip → * avoca + tipavoca + t'''avocat "he said"

vac + luG tas → .. → avoca + tAm'''avocatAm "both said"

vac + luG jhi → .. → avoca + ant''' saMyogAnta avocan "they said"

208 letters. -- 74.bse 611 -- popularity 3

1040 [/yaGluk]s are @lukclass.




(zIGassArva) (/ze)

zIGaH sArvadhAtuke guNaH ONPANINI 74021
zIG to guNa before hard.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 865

All my examples here have kGit affixes, as before non- kGit, hardsoft would have made ze anyway.

Examples --

zIG + te''' → * zete "sleeps"

zIG + laT Ate''' → * ze + Ate ecoya zayAte "both sleep"

zIG + laT ate''' zIGoruT zIG + rate → * zerate "they sleep"

azIG + laG ata''' zIGoruT azIG + rata → * azerata "they slept"

zIG + zAnac → * ze + Ana ecoya zayAna- "that sleeps"

This rule won't work before liT, because liTca makes liT soft --

zI + liT ta → .. → zizI + ez eranekA zizye "he slept"

zI + liT iT' → .. → zizI + e''' eranekA zizye "I slept"

Why didn't aciznu work on zizye above?

Exception eranekAco.

385 letters. -- 74.bse 639 -- popularity 4

772 ({a}-enders) get /muk before /zAnac /kAnac.

866 /zIG to !zay before /kGit !y.




(ayaGyikGi) (!ay)

ayaG yi kGiti ONPANINI 74022
zIG to zay before kGit y.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 866

This rule will work before soft only, because zIGassArvadhAtukeguNaH makes ze before all hards.

So before soft y kGit affixes, such as yak or lyap, we have --

zIG + bhAve laT tazI + yak + tazI + yak + te''' → * zayyate "sleep happens"

upa + zIG + lyap → * upazayya "after sleeping near"

209 letters. -- 74.bse 677 -- popularity 2

869 !R to {ri(G)} before /za, /yak, (@flat @soft) /liG.




(akRtsArva) (/zrU)

a-kRt;sArvadhAtukayor dIrghaH ONPANINI 74025
Lengthen before yak, kyaG, yaG, soft yAsuT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 867

Examples

before yak --

zru + before karmaNizru + yak → * zrUya

as in

zru + karmaNi laT tazrUya + tazrUya + te'''zrUyate "is being heard"

ci + yak + laT jhicIyante "they are being piled up"

before soft yAsuT --

zru + @soft liG mipzru + yAsam''' → * zrUyAsam "may I hear"

before yaG --

ci + yaG + laT ta → .. → ceci + ya + te''' → * cecIyate "piles up again and again, hoards"

before kyaG --

bhRzam + kyaG + laT ta supodhA bhRza + ya + ta → * bhRzA + ya + tabhRzAya + te'''bhRzAyate "becomes important"

But there is no lengthening before other y affixes, such as lyap or hard yAsuT --

pra + hR + ktvApra + hR + lyap hrasvasyapitikRtituk pra + hRt + lyapprahRtya "took away and"

su + @hard liG tipsu + znu + tipsunu + yAt'''sunuyAt "would squeeze"

KAZIKA akRdyakAre asArvadhAtukayakAre ca kGiti parato 'jantasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati. bhRzAyate. sukhAyate. duHkhAyate. cIyate. cecIyate. stUyate. toSTUyate. cIyAt. stUyAt. akRtiti kim? prakRtya. prahRtya. paratvAt dIrghatvena tuko bAdhaH syAt. asArvadhAtuke iti kim? cinuyAt. sunuyAt. kGiti ityeva, uruyA. dhRSNuyA.

What's the literal translation of this rule?

Including trickle and rewording a bit, it says -- "lengthen before non- kRt soft kGit affixes that start with y". Methinks, the only such affixes are the four listed above.

What about the yaGluk?

It doesn't start with y. Rule sthAnivad Adezo 'n-al-vidhau says so.

In your bhRzAyate example above, shouldn't kartarizap have worked?

Oopsie sorry. I forgot to mention that. In fact, it did work. I should have added this --

bhRzAya + te''' kartarizap bhRzAya + zap + te atoguNe bhRzAyate

891 letters. -- 74.bse 700 -- popularity 9

78 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

79 But only if it's a @vowel.

223 /kyaG after {sukha} etc means "feel one's own".

508 (@Stretch) /svap !syam /vyeJ before /yaG.

901 /ik of @stammer to /guNa before /yaG or /yaGluk

1137 {vye(J)} "cover, cover up"

1175 {ve(J)} "weave"




(cvauca) (!cv)

cvau ca ONPANINI 74026
( lengthen) before cvi too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 868

Examples --

zucy azuci karoti abhUtatadbhAve zuci + cvi + karoti → * zucI + v + karoti verapRktasya zucIkaroti "cleans"

paTv apaTu bhavati abhUtatadbhAve paTu + cvi + bhavati → * paTU + v + bhavati verapRktasya paTUbhavati "becomes sharp"

See also asyacvau.

KAZIKA cvi-pratyaye parato 'jantasya aGgasya dIrgho bhavati. zucIkaroti. zucIbhavati. zucIsyAt. paTUkaroti. paTUbhavati. paTUsyAt.

143 letters. -- 74.bse 788 -- popularity 2




(riGzayagli) (!riG)

riG za;yag;liGkSu ONPANINI 74028
R to ri(G) before za, yak, ( flat soft) liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 869

Roots made of one consonant plus R turn their R into ri before certain affixes.

Before za, this is an exception to ikoyaNaci --

mR + kartari te'''mR + za + te → * mri + a + te aciznu mriyate "dies"

yak --

mR + bhAve te'''mR + yak + te → * mriyate "there is death here, someone is dying"

kR + yak + te''' → * kri + ya + ta → .. → kriyate "it is being done"

liG --

kR + soft liG tipkR + yAt''' → * kri + yAt'''kriyAt "may he do"

This won't work when R follows cluster -- see guNortisa below.

KAZIKA RkArAntasya aGgasya za yak ityetayoH liGi ca yakArAdau asArvadhAtuke parato riG ityayam Adezo bhavati. za - Adriyate. Adhriyate. yak - kriyate. hriyate. liG - kriyAt. hriyAt. riGvacanaM dIrghanivRttyartham. asArvadhAtuke ityeva - bibhRyAt. yi ityeva - kRSISTa. hRSISTa.

What about other R-enders?

See next rule.

Why is the replacement called ri(G), with G label?

So that it does not replace the whole root. See Gicca.

Why do you translate " flat soft liG" when the original just says liG? This rule gets " soft" from the trickle, but not " flat".

We are getting the trickle word yi "before y" from ayaGyikGiti. This trickle is irrelevant with za, that never starts with y, and with yak, which always does. But a soft liG replacement only starts with y if it has yAsuT, that is to say, if it is flat. So, this rule won't affect those that got sIyuT.

765 letters. -- 74.bse 803 -- popularity 1




(guNortisa) (!guN)

guNo 'rti;saMyog'-AdyoH ONPANINI 74029
Replace R of arti and cluster-starters with ar (before yak and flat soft liG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 870

Previous rule replaces the R of roots made of one consonant plus R with ri. The other R ender roots replace R with ar.

Examples with arti --

R + yak + te''' → * aryate "it is reached"

R + yAt''' → * aryAt "may he reach"

Examples with smR, a cluster-plus-R root --

smR + yak + te''' → * smaryate "it is remembered"

smR + yAt''' → * smaryAt "may he remember"

Previous rule says za yak liG, but you only translated yak liG here. Shouldn't za be trickling too?

Actually it is. But that isn't worth translating, as none of the zaclass roots is made of a cluster plus R.

414 letters. -- 74.bse 892 -- popularity 3

859 !R of [@cluster]-starter to /guNa (before /liT).

869 !R to {ri(G)} before /za, /yak, (@flat @soft) /liG.




(asyacvau) (!asy)

asya cvau ONPANINI 74032
A a (to I) before cvimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 871

Examples --

bheka + cvi + karoti → * bhekI + v + karoti vera bhekIkaroti "turns (him) into a frog"

khaTvA + cvi + karoti → * khaTvI + v + karoti vera khaTvIkaroti "makes (it) into a bed"

See also cvauca.

KAZIKA I iti vartate. acarNAntasya aGgasya cvau parataH IkArAdezo bhavati. zuklIbhavati. zuklIsyAt. khaTvIkaroti. khaTvIsyAt.

130 letters. -- 74.bse 934 -- popularity 2




(kyacica) (/put)

kyaci ca ONPANINI 74033
(A a to I) before kyac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 872

Examples --

putram + kyac supodhA putra + kyac → * putrIya "want to have a son"

yAnam + kyac + laT tip → .. → yAnIyati "wants to have her own car"

KAZIKA asya iti vartate. kyaci parataH avarNAntasya aGgasya IkArAdezo bhavati. putrIyati. ghaTIyati. khaTvIyati. mAlIyati. akRtsArvadhAtukayor dIrghaH 7-4-24 ityasya apavAdaH. pRthagyogakaraNam uttarArtham.

91 letters. -- 74.bse 942 -- popularity 5

123 Before !kya, {n} (is @wordfinal).

329 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.

1367 types of affixes




(dyatisyati) (!dy)

dyati;syati;mA;sthAm it ti kiti ONPANINI 74040
do so mA sthA to i before kit t.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 873

Examples --

ava + so + kta → * ava + si + taavasita- "one that has settled"

mA + kta → * mita- "measured"

sthA + kta → * sthita- "staying"

sthA + ktavatu → * sthitavat- "stayed"

sthA + ktvA → * sthitvA "stayed and"

KAZIKA dyati syAti mA sthA ity eteSAm aGgAnAm ikAr'-Adezo bhavati takArAdau kiti pratyaye parataH. dyati tirditaH. nirditavAn. syati avasitaH. avasitavAn. mA mitaH. mitavAn. sthA sthitaH. sthitavAn. ti iti kim? avadAya. kiti iti kim? avadAtA.

134 letters. -- 74C.bse 1 -- popularity 1




(dadhAterhiH) (!dad)

dadhAter hiH ONPANINI 74042
dhA to hi (before kit t)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 874

Only examples --

dhA + ktahi + ktahita- "was put"

hitavat- "he put"

hitvA "put and"

KAZIKA dadhAter aGgasya hi ity ayam Adezo bhavati takAr┬┤Adau kiti pratyaye parataH. hitaH. hitavAn. hitvA.

56 letters. -- 74C.bse 24 -- popularity none




(dodadghoH) (/dat)

do dad ghoH ONPANINI 74046
dA of ghu to dath (before kit t).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 875

Replace the dA of a ghu with dath- before a kit affix that starts with t. As in --

dA + kta → * dath + ta kharica datta- "given"

dA + ktvA → * dath + tvA kharica dattvA "after giving"

Why do we say ghu roots?

The dA(p) that means "cut" is unaffected --

dAtamM barhiH "the barhis grass was reaped"

How do you know that the second nounbase in the original rule is dath-, and not dad- dat- or dadh-?

The kAzikA clears away that doubt. Read it carefully.

KAZIKA dA ityetasya ghu-saMjJakasya dad ity ayam Adezo bhavati takArAdau kiti pratyaya parataH. dattaH. dattavAn. dattiH. daH iti kim? dhItaH. dhItavAn. dheTaH etad rUpam. ghoH iti kim? dAp lavane dAtaM barhiH. daip zodhane avadAtam mukham. ayam AdezaH thAntaH iSyate. evaM hy uktam tAnte doSo dIrghatvaM syAd dAnte doSo niSThAnatvam. dhAnte doSo dhatva-prApti-sthAnte 'doSas tasmAt thAntam. yadi tu dasti iti takArAdau dIrghatvaM tadA tAnte 'pi adoSaH. dAntadhAntayor api sannipAtalakSaNo vidhiranimittaM tad-vighAtasya iti natva-dhatve na bhaviSyataH iti na doSaH. avadattaM vidattam ca pradattaM cAdikarmaNi. sudattam anudattaM ca nidattam iti ceSyate. aca upasargAt taH iti prApte nipAtyante. anupasargA vA ete avAdayaH kriyAntara-viSayA veditavyAH.

310 letters. -- 74C.bse 32 -- popularity 3

1151 /dA "give", /dhA "put"




(aca::upa) (!acau)

aca:: upasargAt taH ONPANINI 74047
After a vowel preverb, (replace dA of a ghu) with t (before kit t).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 876

Examples --

pra + dA + kta → * pra + t + ktapratta- "given"

AG + dA + kta doda Adatta- → * Atta- "taken"

This won't work after non- preverbs --

dadhi dattam "curds were given"

(Where datta- is dA + kta, with dodadghoH)

And won't work after a preverb that ends in a consonant --

/nis + datta-nirdatta- "given out"

And won't work after daip, that has dA but is not a ghu --

avadAttam mukhyam

KAZIKA ajantAdupasargAduttarasya dA ityetasya ghusaMjJakasya ta ityayamAdezo bhavati takArAdau kiti. prattam. avattam. nIttam. parIttam. acaH iti kim? nirdattam. durdattam. upasargAtiti kim? dadhi dattam. madhu dattam. ghoH ityeva, avadAtam mukham. upasargAtiti paccamInirdezAdAderalaH prApnoti? tatra samAdhimAhuH. acaH ityetad dvirAvartayitavyam, tatra ekaM paccamyantaM upasargavizeSaNArtham, aparamapi SaSThyantaM sthAninirdezartham ityAkArasya sthAne takAro bhavati. dvitakAro vA saMyogo'yamAdizyate, so'nekAltvAt sarvasya bhaviSyati. apo bhi 74048 ityatra paJcamyantamacaH ityanuvartate. tena pakAramAtrasya bhaviSyati. dyaterittvAdacasta ityetad bhavati vipratiSedhena. avattam. prattaM juhoti.

267 letters. -- 74C.bse 77 -- popularity 3

1033 (After consonant), optionally delete a /jhar before a @similar /jhar.




(apobhi) (!apo)

apo bhi ONPANINI 74048
ap- to (d) before bh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 877

Only examples --

ap- + bhis → * adbhis "with waters"

ap- + bhis → * adbhyas "from waters"

KAZIKA ab ity etasyAGgasya bhakArAdau pratyaye parataH ta ityayam Adezo bhavati. adbhiH. adbhyaH. bhi iti kim? apsu. svavaHsvatavasormAsa uSasazca takArAdeza iSyate chandasi bhakArAdau. svavadbhiH. svatavadbhiH. mAdbhiriSTvA indro vRtrahA. samuSadbhirajAyathAH.

Shouldn't this work before bhyAm too?

Yes, but ap- is only used before plural sup.

You mistranslated. Doesn't the original rule tell us to replace with t not with d?

It does. But jhalAMjazonte always turns that t into d.

230 letters. -- 74C.bse 108 -- popularity 1




(sassyArdhadhA) (/jig)

saH sy ArdhadhAtuke ONPANINI 74049
s to ( t ) before soft s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 878

Example before sya --

vas + lRT tipvas + sya + ti → * vatsyati "will reside"

before sic --

vas + luG tip luGlaG avas + tipavas + sic + tipavas + sic + t''' vadavraja avAs + sic + tavAs + s + It''' → * avAtsIt "he resided"

before san --

ghas + san → * ghat + sa sanyaGoH ghaghatsa sanyataH ghighatsa kuhozcuH jhighatsa abhyAsecarca jighatsa "want to eat"

What happens before hard s?

Nothing --

As + laT thAsAs + se'''Asse "you are sitting"

259 letters. -- 74C.bse 128 -- popularity 4

194 /ad to /ghas before /luG and /san.

882 Before ([/iT]-less) /san, vowel of {mI;mA;}/ghu; {rabh;labh;zak; pat;pad} to !is.

950 Optionally replace with !d the !s of a root that is before deleted /s'''.

1401 Doubled sibilants.




(tAsastyorlo) (!tAs)

tAs;astyor lopaH ONPANINI 74050
chop tAs and as (before s).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 879

Example with tAs --

kR + luT sipkR + tAs + si hardsoft kartAs + si → * kartAsi "you'll make"

Example with as --

as + laT sip → * asi "you are"

Why doesn't the word "before soft" trickle here from previous sutra?

That would make the rule useless, because no s-starter soft affix ever follows tAs or as. Common sense stops trickles.

234 letters. -- 74C.bse 176 -- popularity 2

1062 /luT terminations.




(rica) (!ric)

ri ca ONPANINI 74051
chop tAs before r-affixes.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 880

Only four examples --

tAs + tas luTaHpratha tAs + rau → * tArau

tAs + AtAmtAs + rau → * tArau

tAs + jhi luTaHpratha tAs + ras → * tAras

tAs + jhatAs + ras → * tAras

Some verbs made with these --

kR + luT taskR + tArau hardsoft kartArau "both'll make"

kR + luT jhikR + tAras hardsoft kartAras "they'll make"

175 letters. -- 74C.bse 190 -- popularity 2




(haeti) (!hae)

ha:: eti ONPANINI 74052
( tAs and as to) h before e'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 881

As in

kR + luT iT' syatAsI kR + tAs + i hardsoft kartAs + ikartAs + e''' → * kartAhe "i shall make"

as + laT iT'ase znasorallopaH se → * he

A verb "he"? Never heard of it. When does asti get bent endings?

As far as I know that only happens in vi + ati + as, allowed by kartarikarmavyatihAre. As in --

vyatihe "I do the duty of someone else"

214 letters. -- 74C.bse 200 -- popularity 3

1062 /luT terminations.




(sanimImA) (!sanim)

sani mI;mA;ghu; rabha;labha;zaka; pata;padAm aca is ONPANINI 74054
Before ( iT-less) san, vowel of mI;mA; ghu; rabh;labh;zak; pat;pad to is.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 882

This changes the root vowel into is. In mI mA ghu, the s is before san, so sassyA replaces it with t --

mI + san → * mis + sa sassyA mitsa "want to traverse"

dA + san → * dis + sa sassyA ditsa "want to give"

In the other roots, the s is before a cluster, so skossa deletes it --

zak + san → * zisk + sa skossa ziksa kric zikSa "want to be able"

There is no reduplication, because of atralopo.

So we say --

ditsati "wants to give"

Alipsate "wants to get"

zikSati "wants to be able or competent"

pitsati "wants to fly"

KAZIKA sani pratyaye sakArAdau parataH mI mA ghu rabha labha zaka pata pada ityeteSAm aGgAnAm acaH sthAne isityayam Adezo bhavati. mI iti mInAtiminotyoH dvayor api grahaNam iSyate. mitsati. pramitsati. mA iti gAmAdAgrahaNeSu avizeSaH. mitsate. apamitsate. ghu ditsati. dhitsati. rabha Aripsate. labha Alipsate. zaka zikSati. pat pitsati. pada prapitsate. sani iti kim? dAsyati. si ityeva, pipatiSati. tani-pati.daridrANAm upasaGkhyAnam iti pateH iD-Agama-vikalpaH. sani rAdho hiMsAyAm aca is vaktavyaH. pratiritsati. hiMsAyAm iti kim? ArirAtsati.

Why didn't sanyaGoH add a stammer, as usual before san?

It did, but exception atra lopo 'bhyAsasya below ate it.

435 letters. -- 74C.bse 232 -- popularity 2

883 (Vowel) of !Ap !jJapi !Rdh to !I.




(ApjJapyRdhA) (!Ap)

Ap;jJapy;RdhAm It ONPANINI 74055
(Vowel) of Ap jJapi Rdh to I.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 883

Exception to previous rule sanimImA, that would have replaced with is.

All examples --

Ap + san + laT tip → .. → Ipsati "wants to get (to)"

jJapi → .. → jJIpsati "wants to make (him) know"

Rdh → .. → Irtsati "wants to succeed"

There is no stammer, because of atra lopo 'bhyAsasya.

KAZIKA Ap jJapi Rdha ity eteSAm aGgAnAm aca IkArAdezo bhavati sani sakArAdau parataH. Ab Ipsati. jJapi jJIpsati. RdH Irtsati. jJapeH dvAvacau, tatra NeH pUrvavipratiSedhena lopaH, itarasya tu Itvam. sani ityeva, prApsyati. si ityeva, jijJapayiSati. ardidhiSati. sanIvantardha iti jJapeH Rdhezca iTo vikaopaH.

196 letters. -- 74C.bse 251 -- popularity 2

587 /ap- to !I after /dvi-, !antar, [@preverb]s.




(dambha::icca) (!dam)

dambha:: ic ca ONPANINI 74056
(Vowel) of dambh to i toommmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 884

The vowel of dambh "hurt, deceive" turns into I or i before iT-less san.

Only examples --

dambh + san → * dimbh + sa aniditA dibh + sa throwback dhibh + sa jhalAMjazjhazi dhibsa sanyaGoH didhibsa atralopo dhibsa kharica dhipsa "want to hurt"

dambh + san → * dImbh + sa → .. → dhIpsa "want to hurt" ( kharica (same steps)

The stammer disappeared by atra lopo 'bhyAsasya.

Because of sanIvantardhabhrasjadambhuzrisvRyUrNubharajJapisanAm, san becomes iSan optionally after dambh. In that case this rule does not work --

dambh + sandambh + iSan sanyaGoH dadambhiSa sanyataH didambhiSa "want to hurt"

Here an-iditA did not work because iSan is not kGit (see halantAcca).

KAZIKA dambheH aca ikArAdezo bhavati, cakArAtIt ca sani sakArAdau parataH. dhipsati, dhIpsati. si ityeva, didambhiSati.

If aniditA works on dimbh, then san must be a kGit here. What made it kGit?

halantAcca did.

513 letters. -- 74C.bse 280 -- popularity 3




(mucokarma) (!mu)

muco 'karmakasya guNo vA ONPANINI 74057
(Vowel) of objectless muc to guNa optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 885

san is kit after muc (by halantAcca), so ordinarily we'd have no puganta. This exception however makes guNa anyway. So we may say --

muc + san + laT ta → .. → mokSate "he wants to free himself"

There is no stammer, because of atra lopo 'bhyAsasya.

If we don't take this option --

muc + san + laT ta → .. → mumukSate "he wants to free himself"

KAZIKA muco 'karmakasya guNo vA bhavati sani sakArAdau parataH. halantAc ceti kittva-pratiSedho vikalpyate. mokSate vatsaH svayam eva, mumukSate vatsaH svayam eva. akarmakasya iti kim? mumukSati vatsaM devadattaH. karmakartari mucir akarmako bhavati, karma-vizeSasya avivakSitAd vA.

246 letters. -- 74C.bse 303 -- popularity 1




(atralopo) (!atra)

atra lopo 'bhyAsasya ONPANINI 74058
And delete the stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 886

The previous four rules, namely --

sanimImA

ApjJa

dambha_icca

mucokarma

delete the stammer. See examples under each rule.

KAZIKA yadetat prakrAntaM sani mImA ityAdi muco 'karmakasya iti yAvat, atra abhyAsalopo bhavati. tathaiva udAhRtam. abhyAsasya ityetac ca achikRtaM veditavyam A adhyAyaparisamApteH. ita uttaraM yad vakSyAmaH abhyAsasya ityevaM tad veditavyam. vakSyati, hrasvaH DuDhaukiSate. tutraukiSate. sani mImAdhurabhalabhazakapatapadAmaca is, abhyAsalopazca, ityevam siddhe yadatragrahanam iha akriyate, tad viSayAvadhAraNArtham, atraiva abhyAsalopo bhavati, sanvadbhAvaviSaye na bhavati. amImapat. adIdapat. sanvallaghuni caGpare 'naglope iti sanvadbhAvAt prApnoti. sarvasya abhyAsasya ayaM lopaH iSyate, tadartham eva kecitatragrahaNaM varNayanti. nAnarthake 'lo 'ntyavidhiH ityapare sarvasya kurvanti.

98 letters. -- 74C.bse 322 -- popularity 4




(hrasvaH) (!hrasvaH)

hrasvaH ONPANINI 74059
Shorten ( stammer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 887

Examples --

pU + us liTidhA pU + pU + us → * pupU + us aciznu pupuvus "they cleaned"

jIv + Nal liTidhA jI + jIv + Nal → * jijIva "was alive"

Because of eca::igghra, shortening an ec makes i u --

nI + liT tipnI + Nal acoJNiti nai + Nal liTidhA nai + nai + a → * ni + nai + a ecoya ni + nAy + NalninAya "he led"

iS + liT tip puganta eS + Nal liTidhA e + eS + Nal → * i + eS + Nal abhyAsasyA iy + eS + aiyeSa "he wanted"

kSip + NalkSe + kSep + Nal hrasvaH kSi + kSep halAdiHzeSaH ki + kSep + Nal kuhozcuH cikSepa "he threw"

KAZIKA hrasvo bhavati abhyAsasya. duDhaukiSate. tutraukiSate. DuDhauke. tutrauke. aDuDhaukat. atutraukat. abhyAsasya anaci. abhyAsasya yaducyate anaci tad bhavati iti vaktavyam. carAcaraH. calAcalaH. patApataH. vadAvadaH. halAdiH zeSo na bhavati.

250 letters. -- 74C.bse 331 -- popularity 34




(halAdizze) (!halA)

hal AdiH zeSaH ONPANINI 74060
consonant at start (of stammer) stays.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 888

In other words: " trash all the consonants of the stammer, except the one that is at the beginning, if any. "

Examples --

kSip + us liTidhA kSi + kSip + us → * ki + kSip + us kuhozcuH cikSipus "they threw"

kR + kR urat ka + kR uraNra kar + kR → * ka + kR kuhozcuH cakR

smR + Nal acoJNiti smAr + a liTidhA smA + smAr + a hrasvaH sma + smAra → * sasmAra "he remembered"

smR + us Rtazca smar + us liTidhA sma + smar + us → * sasmarus "they remembered"

See exception zarpUrvAH below.

KAZIKA abhyAsasya halAdiH ziSyate, anAdir lupyate. jaglau. mamlau. papAca. papATha. ATa, ATatuH, ATuH. AdizeSanimitto 'yam anAder lopo vidhIyate, tatra abhyAsajAteH AzrayaNAt kvacidapi vartamAno halAdiH anadeH sarvatra nivRttiM karoti. apare tu bruvate, zeSazabdo 'yaM nivRttyA viziSTam avasthAnam Aha. tadavasthAnam uktito yadyapi pradhAnam, avidheyatvAt tu tadapradhAnam. nivRttireva tu vidheyatvAt pradhAnam. tatra ayam artho 'sya jAyate, abhyAsasya anAder halo nivRttiH bhavati iti. sA kim iti AderavidheyAM satIm anivRttim apekSiSyate iti.

Why did hardsoft turn smR into smar before us? That us is kit, by asaMyogAlliTkit, so kGitica should have stopped hardsoft.

hardsoft did not work there. Click the arrow between smR + us and smar + us, okay?

425 letters. -- 74C.bse 350 -- popularity 11




(zarpUrvAHkha) (!zarpU)

zar-pUrvAH khayaH ONPANINI 74061
But the stop after zar (stays).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 889

Exception to halAdizzeSaH --

" If a stammer starts with zar plus stop, only the stop stays, and the other consonants are removed. "

For instance, the stammer spar keeps the p and loses the s and the r --

spRz + us liTidhA spR + spRz + us urat spa + spRz + us uraNra spar + spRz + us → * pa + sparz + uspasparzus "they touched"

And sthA keeps the th and loses the s --

sthA + us liTidhA sthA + sthA + us → * thA + sthA + us hrasvaH thasthA + us abhyAsecarca tasthA + us usya tasthus "they stayed"

This rule applies only to roots that startwith zar plus stop. The roots with a stop before a zar reduplicate normally --

kSip + us → .. → cikSipus "they threw"

and so do the ones that start with zar plus non- stop --

smRsasmAra "he remembered"

KAZIKA abhyAsasya zarpUrvAH khayaH ziSyante, anye halo lupyante. cuzcyotiSati. tiSThAsati. pispandiSate. zarpUrvAH iti kim? papAca. khayaH iti kim? sasnau. kharpUrvAH khaya iti vaktavyam. ucicchiSati ity atra uccheH antaraGgatvAt tuki kRte dvirvacanam, tatra halAdiH zeSe sati abhyAse takAraH zrUyeta.

487 letters. -- 74C.bse 405 -- popularity 4

995 /kric won't work on a [@Sa-root] before !San, except !stu and /Ni.

1582 Some /Nal made with uncommon rules




(kuhozcuH) (!kuh)

ku;hoz cuH ONPANINI 74062
ku and h (of stammer) to cu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 890

When a stammer has k kh g gh h we replace it with the most-alike cu, namely with c ch j jh jh. The ch and the jh will become c j by other rules.

Example with a k root --

kSi ( before liT ) liTidhA kSi + kSip halAdizze ki + kSip → * cikSip

As in --

kSip + uscikSip + uscikSipus "they threw"

kSip + Nal puganta kSep + Nal liTidhA kSe + kSep + a halAdizze kekSep + a hrasvaH kikSepa → * cikSepa "he threw"

With a h root --

hu + hu → * ju + hujuhu

As in --

hu + laT tipjuhu + ti hardsoft juhoti "he pours"

juhvati "they pour"

KAZIKA abhyAsasya kavargahakArayoH cavargAdezo bhavati. cakAra. cakhAna. jagAma. jaghAna. hakArasya jahAra. jihIrSati. jahau.

The rule teaches "replace h with cu", therefore rule most-alike says, we must take the one of c ch j jh J that is most h-like. Is j the most alike?

No. If you are pronouncing your h c ch j jh correctly, the most-alike to h is jh. So this rule turns h into jh. Then rule abhyAsecarca replaces that jh with j.

537 letters. -- 74C.bse 451 -- popularity 24




(urat) (!urat)

ur at ONPANINI 74066
R RR L (of stammer) to a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 891

Examples --

kR + liT maskR + ma liTidhA kR + kR + ma → * ka + kR + ma kuhozcuH cakRma "we did"

kLp + liT takLp + ez liTidhA kL + kLp + e → * kakLpe kuhozcuH cakLpe "it fitted"

(See also exceptions sanyataH sanvalla artipipartyozca.)

Wait. You mistranslated. While discussing rule uraNra, you said that this rule must be translated as "R RR L to ar al".

Do'h. Yer rite. I stand corrected. Yes, uraNra worked. Above, I should have written this --

kR + liT maskR + ma liTidhA kR + kR + ma → * kar + kR + ma halAdizzeSaH kakRma kuhozcuH cakRma "we did"

331 letters. -- 74C.bse 494 -- popularity 9

749 /san (doesn't get /iT after) !grah, !guh, (!zri and [/uk]-enders).

858 (Optionally @nexttolast) !R !RR to !R (before /Nic plus /caG).

889 But the @stop after /zar (stays).

893 (@Lengthen) initial "!a" (of @stammer of /liT).

1294 @talkaround rules

1518 examples of reduplication before /liT




(dIrgha::iNa) (!dIrghai)

dIrgha:: iNaH kiti ONPANINI 74069
Lengthen (the stammer) of iN' before kit liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 892

Examples before atus us, that are kit by asaMyogAlliTkit --

iN' + atus iNoyaN y + atus liTidhA i + y + atus → * Iyatus "both went"

iN' + us → .. → Iyus "they went" (same steps)

Counterexamples before Nal thal, that are akit --

iN' + Nal acoJNiti ai + a liTidhA ai + ai + a hrasvaH i + ai + a ecoya i + Ay + a abhyAsasyA iyAya "he went"

iN' + thali + ithal hardsoft e + itha liTidhA e + e + itha hrasvaH i + e + itha ecoya i + ay + itha abhyAsasyA iyayitha "thou wentest"

KAZIKA iNo 'Ggasya yo 'bhyAsaH tasya dIrgho bhavati kiti liTi parataH. IyatuH, IyuH. iNo yaNN iti yaNAdeze kRte sthAnivadbhAvAd dvirvacanam. kiti iti kim? iyAya. iyayitha.

In the Iyatus example above, how did liTidhA reduplicate y into i + y?

Rule acaHparasmin makes that y be i-like enough to make the stammer that i would have made.

Why didn't iNoyaN work before Nal and ithal? They too start with vowels.

Because acoJNiti and hardsoft are stronger than iNoyaN.

465 letters. -- 74C.bse 511 -- popularity none
















73101 some sup-changing rules ←

chunk 44: 74001 more replacements before soft

→ 74070 changes in stammers, word repetition